Nid±nakath±

Tattha d²gh±gamo n±ma s²lakkhandhavaggo, mah±vaggo, p±thikavaggoti vaggato tivaggo hoti; suttato catutti½sasuttasaªgaho. Tassa vaggesu s²lakkhandhavaggo ±di, suttesu brahmaj±la½. Brahmaj±lass±pi “eva½ me sutan”ti-±dika½ ±yasmat± ±nandena paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le vutta½ nid±nam±di.

Paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±

Paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma ces± kiñc±pi vinayapiµake tantim±r³¼h±, nid±nakosallattha½ pana idh±pi eva½ veditabb±. Dhammacakkappavattanañhi ±di½ katv± y±va subhaddaparibb±jakavinayan± katabuddhakicce, kusin±r±ya½ upavattane mall±na½ s±lavane yamakas±l±namantare vis±khapuººamadivase pacc³sasamaye anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibbute bhagavati lokan±the, bhagavato dh±tubh±janadivase sannipatit±na½ sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±na½ saªghatthero ±yasm± mah±kassapo satt±haparinibbute bhagavati subhaddena vu¹¹hapabbajitena– “ala½, ±vuso, m± socittha, m± paridevittha, sumutt± maya½ tena mah±samaºena, upaddut± ca homa– ‘ida½ vo kappati, ida½ vo na kappat²’ti, id±ni pana maya½ ya½ icchiss±ma, ta½ kariss±ma, ya½ na icchiss±ma na ta½ kariss±m±”ti (c³¼ava. 437) vuttavacanamanussaranto, ²disassa ca saªghasannip±tassa puna dullabhabh±va½ maññam±no, “µh±na½ kho paneta½ vijjati, ya½ p±pabhikkh³ ‘at²tasatthuka½ p±vacanan’ti maññam±n± pakkha½ labhitv± nacirasseva saddhamma½ antaradh±peyyu½, y±va ca dhammavinayo tiµµhati, t±va anat²tasatthukameva p±vacana½ hoti. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
‘Yo vo, ±nanda, may± dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mamaccayena satth±’ti (d². ni. 2.216).
‘Ya½n³n±ha½ dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyya½, yathayida½ s±sana½ addhaniya½ assa ciraµµhitika½’.
Yañc±ha½ bhagavat±–
‘Dh±ressasi pana me tva½, kassapa, s±º±ni pa½suk³l±ni nibbasan±n²’ti (sa½. ni. 2.154) vatv± c²vare s±dh±raºaparibhogena.
‘Aha½, bhikkhave, y±vadeva ±kaªkh±mi vivicceva k±mehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakka½ savic±ra½ vivekaja½ p²tisukha½ paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja vihar±mi; kassapopi, bhikkhave, y±vadeva, ±kaªkhati vivicceva k±mehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakka½ savic±ra½ vivekaja½ p²tisukha½ paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharat²’ti (sa½. ni. 2.152).
Evam±din± nayena nav±nupubbavih±racha¼abhiññ±ppabhede uttarimanussadhamme attan± samasamaµµhapanena ca anuggahito, tath± ±k±se p±ºi½ c±letv± alaggacittat±ya ceva candopamapaµipad±ya ca pasa½sito, tassa kimañña½ ±ºaºya½ bhavissati. Nanu ma½ bhagav± r±j± viya sakakavaca-issariy±nuppad±nena attano kulava½sappatiµµh±paka½ putta½ ‘saddhammava½sappatiµµh±pako me aya½ bhavissat²’ti, mantv± imin± as±dh±raºena anuggahena anuggahesi, im±ya ca u¼±r±ya pasa½s±ya pasa½s²ti cintayanto dhammavinayasaªg±yanattha½ bhikkh³na½ uss±ha½ janesi. Yath±ha–
“Atha kho ±yasm± mah±kassapo bhikkh³ ±mantesi– ‘ekamid±ha½, ±vuso, samaya½ p±v±ya kusin±ra½ addh±namaggappaµipanno mahat± bhikkhusaªghena saddhi½ pañcamattehi bhikkhusateh²”ti (c³¼ava. 437) sabba½ subhaddakaº¹a½ vitth±rato veditabba½. Attha½ panassa mah±parinibb±n±vas±ne ±gataµµh±neyeva kathayiss±ma.

Tato para½ ±ha–

“Handa maya½, ±vuso, dhammañca vinayañca saªg±y±ma, pure adhammo dippati, dhammo paµib±hiyyati; pure avinayo dippati, vinayo paµib±hiyyati; pure adhammav±dino balavanto honti, dhammav±dino dubbal± honti, pure avinayav±dino balavanto honti, vinayav±dino dubbal± hont²”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Bhikkh³ ±ha½su– “tena hi, bhante, thero bhikkh³ uccinat³”ti. Thero pana sakalanavaªgasatthus±sanapariyattidhare puthujjanasot±pannasakad±g±mi-an±g±mi sukkhavipassaka kh²º±savabhikkh³ anekasate, anekasahasse ca vajjetv± tipiµakasabbapariyattippabhedadhare paµisambhid±ppatte mah±nubh±ve yebhuyyena bhagavato etadagga½ ±ropite tevijj±dibhede kh²º±savabhikkh³yeva ek³napañcasate pariggahesi. Ye sandh±ya ida½ vutta½– “atha kho ±yasm± mah±kassapo eken³n±ni pañca arahantasat±ni uccin²”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Kissa pana thero eken³namak±s²ti? ¾yasmato ±nandattherassa ok±sakaraºattha½. Tenah±yasmat± sah±pi, vin±pi, na sakk± dhammasaªg²ti½ k±tu½. So h±yasm± sekkho sakaraº²yo, tasm± sah±pi na sakk±. Yasm± panassa kiñci dasabaladesita½ suttageyy±dika½ appaccakkha½ n±ma natthi. Yath±ha–
“Dv±s²ti buddhato gaºhi½, dve sahass±ni bhikkhuto;
catur±s²ti sahass±ni, ye me dhamm± pavattino”ti. (Therag±. 1027).
Tasm± vin±pi na sakk±.
Yadi eva½ sekkhopi sam±no dhammasaªg²tiy± bahuk±ratt± therena uccinitabbo assa, atha kasm± na uccinitoti? Par³pav±davivajjanato. Thero hi ±yasmante ±nande ativiya vissattho ahosi, tath± hi na½ sirasmi½ palitesu j±tesupi ‘na v±ya½ kum±rako mattamaññ±s²’ti, (sa½. ni. 2.154) kum±rakav±dena ovadati. Sakyakulappasuto c±yasm± tath±gatassa bh±t± c³¼apituputto. Tattha keci bhikkh³ chand±gamana½ viya maññam±n±– “bah³ asekkhapaµisambhid±ppatte bhikkh³ µhapetv± ±nanda½ sekkhapaµisambhid±ppatta½ thero uccin²”ti upavadeyyu½. Ta½ par³pav±da½ parivajjento, ‘±nanda½ vin± dhammasaªg²ti½ na sakk± k±tu½, bhikkh³na½yeva na½ anumatiy± gahess±m²’ti na uccini.
Atha sayameva bhikkh³ ±nandassatth±ya thera½ y±ci½su. Yath±ha–
“Bhikkh³ ±yasmanta½ mah±kassapa½ etadavocu½– ‘aya½, bhante, ±yasm± ±nando kiñc±pi sekkho abhabbo chand± dos± moh± bhay± agati½ gantu½, bahu c±nena bhagavato santike dhammo ca vinayo ca pariyatto, tena hi, bhante, thero ±yasmantampi ±nanda½ uccinat³’ti. Atha kho ±yasm± mah±kassapo ±yasmantampi ±nanda½ uccin²”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Eva½ bhikkh³na½ anumatiy± uccinitena ten±yasmat± saddhi½ pañcatherasat±ni ahesu½.
Atha kho ther±na½ bhikkh³na½ etadahosi– “kattha nu kho maya½ dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyy±m±”ti? Atha kho ther±na½ bhikkh³na½ etadahosi– “r±jagaha½ kho mah±gocara½ pah³tasen±sana½, ya½n³na maya½ r±jagahe vassa½ vasant± dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyy±ma, na aññe bhikkh³ r±jagahe vassa½ upagaccheyyun”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Kasm± pana nesa½ etadahosi? “Ida½ pana amh±ka½ th±varakamma½, koci visabh±gapuggalo saªghamajjha½ pavisitv± ukkoµeyy±”ti. Ath±yasm± mah±kassapo ñattidutiyena kammena s±vesi–
“Suº±tu me, ±vuso saªgho, yadi saªghassa pattakalla½ saªgho im±ni pañca bhikkhusat±ni sammanneyya r±jagahe vassa½ vasant±ni dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yitu½, na aññehi bhikkh³hi r±jagahe vassa½ vasitabban”ti. Es± ñatti.
“Suº±tu me, ±vuso saªgho, saªgho im±ni pañcabhikkhusat±ni sammanna”ti ‘r±jagahe vassa½ vasant±ni dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yitu½, na aññehi bhikkh³hi r±jagahe vassa½ vasitabbanti. Yass±yasmato khamati imesa½ pañcanna½ bhikkhusat±na½ sammuti’ r±jagahe vassa½ vasant±na½ dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yitu½, na aññehi bhikkh³hi r±jagahe vassa½ vasitabbanti, so tuºhassa; yassa nakkhamati, so bh±seyya.
“Sammat±ni saªghena im±ni pañcabhikkhusat±ni r±jagahe vassa½ vasant±ni dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yitu½, na aññehi bhikkh³hi r±jagahe vassa½ vasitabbanti, khamati saªghassa, tasm± tuºh², evameta½ dh±ray±m²”ti (c³¼ava. 438).
Aya½ pana kammav±c± tath±gatassa parinibb±nato ekav²satime divase kat±. Bhagav± hi vis±khapuººam±ya½ pacc³sasamaye parinibbuto, athassa satt±ha½ suvaººavaººa½ sar²ra½ gandham±l±d²hi p³jayi½su. Eva½ satt±ha½ s±dhuk²¼anadivas± n±ma ahesu½. Tato satt±ha½ citak±ya aggin± jh±yi, satt±ha½ sattipañjara½ katv± sandh±g±ras±l±ya½ dh±tup³ja½ kari½s³ti, ekav²sati divas± gat±. Jeµµham³lasukkapakkhapañcamiya½yeva dh±tuyo bh±jayi½su. Etasmi½ dh±tubh±janadivase sannipatitassa mah±bhikkhusaªghassa subhaddena vu¹¹hapabbajitena kata½ an±c±ra½ ±rocetv± vuttanayeneva ca bhikkh³ uccinitv± aya½ kammav±c± kat±.
Imañca pana kammav±ca½ katv± thero bhikkh³ ±mantesi– “±vuso, id±ni tumh±ka½ catt±l²sa divas± ok±so kato, tato para½ ‘aya½ n±ma no palibodho atth²’ti, vattu½ na labbh±, tasm± etthantare yassa rogapalibodho v± ±cariyupajjh±yapalibodho v± m±t±pitupalibodho v± atthi, patta½ v± pana pacitabba½, c²vara½ v± k±tabba½, so ta½ palibodha½ chinditv± ta½ karaº²ya½ karot³”ti.
Evañca pana vatv± thero attano pañcasat±ya paris±ya parivuto r±jagaha½ gato. Aññepi mah±ther± attano attano pariv±re gahetv± sokasallasamappita½ mah±jana½ ass±setuk±m± ta½ ta½ disa½ pakkant±. Puººatthero pana sattasatabhikkhupariv±ro ‘tath±gatassa parinibb±naµµh±na½ ±gat±gata½ mah±jana½ ass±sess±m²’ti kusin±r±ya½yeva aµµh±si.
¾yasm± ±nando yath± pubbe aparinibbutassa, eva½ parinibbutass±pi bhagavato sayameva pattac²varam±d±ya pañcahi bhikkhusatehi saddhi½ yena s±vatthi tena c±rika½ pakk±mi. Gacchato gacchato panassa pariv±r± bhikkh³ gaºanapatha½ v²tivatt±. Ten±yasmat± gatagataµµh±ne mah±paridevo ahosi Anupubbena pana s±vatthimanuppatte there s±vatthiv±sino manuss± “thero kira ±gato”ti sutv± gandham±l±dihatth± paccuggantv±– “bhante, ±nanda, pubbe bhagavat± saddhi½ ±gacchatha, ajja kuhi½ bhagavanta½ µhapetv± ±gatatth±”ti-±d²ni vadam±n± parodi½su. Buddhassa bhagavato parinibb±nadivase viya mah±paridevo ahosi.
Tatra suda½ ±yasm± ±nando aniccat±dipaµisa½yutt±ya dhammiy±kath±ya ta½ mah±jana½ saññ±petv± jetavana½ pavisitv± dasabalena vasitagandhakuµi½ vanditv± dv±ra½ vivaritv± mañcap²µha½ n²haritv± papphoµetv± gandhakuµi½ sammajjitv± mil±tam±l±kacavara½ cha¹¹etv± mañcap²µha½ atiharitv± puna yath±µh±ne µhapetv± bhagavato µhitak±le karaº²ya½ vatta½ sabbamak±si. Kurum±no ca nh±nakoµµhakasammajjana-udakupaµµh±pan±dik±lesu gandhakuµi½ vanditv±– “nanu bhagav±, aya½ tumh±ka½ nh±nak±lo, aya½ dhammadesan±k±lo, aya½ bhikkh³na½ ov±dad±nak±lo, aya½ s²haseyyakappanak±lo, aya½ mukhadhovanak±lo”ti-±din± nayena paridevam±nova ak±si, yath± ta½ bhagavato guºagaº±matarasaññut±ya patiµµhitapemo ceva akh²º±savo ca anekesu ca j±tisatasahassesu aññamaññass³pak±rasañjanitacittamaddavo. Tamena½ aññatar± devat±– “bhante, ±nanda, tumhe eva½ paridevam±n± katha½ aññe ass±sessath±”ti sa½vejesi. So tass± vacanena sa½viggahadayo santhambhitv± tath±gatassa parinibb±nato pabhuti µh±nanisajjabahulatt± ussannadh±tuka½ k±ya½ samass±setu½ dutiyadivase kh²ravirecana½ pivitv± vih±reyeva nis²di. Ya½ sandh±ya subhena m±ºavena pahita½ m±ºavaka½ etadavoca–