2. Kamme

Vuttiya½ kattukiriy±y±ti kattus±dyat±ya ta½ sambandhiniy± kattukammaµµh±yapi duvidh±ya kiriy±ya, anekatthatt± dh±t³na½ karoti ettha sambandhanatthoti ±ha-‘kar²yati abhisambandh²yat²’ti, ya½kiñci padatthar³pa½ sambajjhat²ti attho, imin± c±nvatthavasenev±ya½ kammavoh±ro siddhoti dasseti, sabbak±rak±nampi pana kiriy±sambandha sabbh±vepi kiriy±bhisambandh²yam±natteneva ya½ vattumicchita½ tadeva kamma½ viññeyya½, katt±di kattu kiriy±y±bhisambandh²yam±nattepi katt±dittavacanicch±yeva kamma½ na hoti… yasm± vacanicch±yeva k±rak±ni bhavanti, eva½ sabbak±rak±nampi k±rakantarappattiya½ tadabh±vo yath±yoga½ vattabbo, v±kyekadesenetyanena “dvedvek±”dino v±kyassa “kamme dutiy±”icc±dino ca ekav±kyatta½ s³ceti, pakaraºassa mah±v±kyar³patt± vippakaµµh±nipi v±ky±ni ±kaªkh±disabh±ve aññamaññasambandh±nubhavanenekav±kyabh±vampaµ²pajjante, vutt² hi–
“¾kaªkh±yoggat± satt±, b²ja½ sannidhino yato;
vippakaµµh±ni v±ky±ni, mah±v±kya½ karontyatoti.
S±maññen±ti kamm±dyavisesena, pubb±cariyasamaññ±vasen±ha ‘dutiy±dik±’ti, tena yadyapi ty±dinopi dvinna½ p³raºiy± dutiy±ti sakk± voharitu½, tath±pi sy±d²na½ dukeyeva dutiy±tatiy± ru¼h²ti naty±d²na½ duk±ni dutiy±disaddena gayhanti, visiµµhes³ti kamm±din± visesitesu, tividha½ kammanti sakasamayappasiddhiy± kammassa tividhattam±ha, aññe tu sattavidhamicchanti, katha½–
Nibbattivikatippatti, bhedena tividha½ mata½,
tatthecchitatama½ kamma½, kamma½tvañña½ catubbidha½;
icchitañc±nicchitañca, nevicchitamanicchita½,
tath±ññapubba½ n±ññapubbanti, evamañña½ catubbidhanti.
Tattha icchit±d²ni upariyev±pi bhavissanti, tatrecc±din± tividha½ kamma½ sar³pato dasseti, tattha nibbattikammameke-nekadh± parikappenti, tadiha pak±sayiss±ma–
Sat²-sat² v± pakati, na yattha pariº±min²,
niss²yate ta½ nibbatti, kammamaññesamaññath±;
asanta½ j±yate ya½ v±, ya½ santamappak±sati,
uppaty±-bhibyattiy± v±, tannibbatt²ti vuccat²ti.
Ayamettha attho “kaµavik±rassa k±sasaªkh±t± vijjam±n± pakati pariº±min² kaµavik±rampati pariºamant² yatthappayoge na niss²yate… kaµa½ karot²tettha kevalamatth±vagamamattassa vattumicchitatt± k±seti asuyyam±natt± ca, pakatiy± tu suyya m±natte vik±riya½ siy±, teneva k±se kaµa½ karoti, taº¹ule odana½ pacat²ti dvayattho karoti pacati ca, tasm± k±se karoti taº¹ule pacat²ti vik±r²yati, kaµa½ karoti odanampacat²ti nibbatt² yat²ti attho, asat² v± pakati avijjam±natt±yeva yattha na niss²yate… [(yath±) (potthake)] ( ) sa½yoga½ janayati vibh±gamupp±dayat²ti sa½yogavibh±g±na½ kass±pi pakatiy± avik±ratt± sa½yogavibh±gavante hyavikateheva tesa½ jananato, tamevambh³tamanissitapakatika½ avijjam±na (pakati) ka½ v± k±riya½ nibbattikamma½ n±m±ti eko, aññesamaññath±ti vatv± tandasseti ‘asanta’micc±din±, ya½ asantamavijjam±na½ j±yate, tannibbattikamma½, yath± sukha½ janayati buddhimupp±dayat²ti, santa½ vijjam±nameva v± kevalamappak±sitapubba½ ya½ uppattiy± abhibyattiy± v± pak±sati, tampi nibbattikamma½, yath± putta½ vij±yatis±maññamabhibyañjayat²”ti, tadeva½ kesañci matena anissitapakatika½ avijjam±napakatikanti duvidha½ nibbattikammampi aññesammatena asanta½ j±yam±na½ santamappak±sam±nanti duvidha½ nibbattikammamp²tisabbampi aµµhitapubbameva j±yat²tyasato j±nan± na byatiriccaticc±ha-‘asato janana½ kar²yat²’ti, avatthantaranti odan±dino kledan±dilakkhaºamaññamavattha½.
Pakatyucchedasambh³ta½, vik±riya½ kiñci kiñci tu;
guºantarasamuppaty±, eva½ s± vikati dvidh±.
Kiñci vik±riya½ kamma½ pakatiy± k±raºassa ucchedena sambh³ta½, yath± kaµµha½ bhasma½ karot²ti kaµµhass±ccantapar±vatti [par±vattiy± (potthake)], kiñci pana guºantar±namuppattiy±, yath± suvaººa½ kaµaka½ keyura½ v± karot²ti eva½ dv²dh± s± vikati hot²ti attho, na vibh±v²yanteti na gamyante, s± patti‘p±p²yati visay²kar²yat²’ti katv±.
Yatra kriy±kato koci, viseso n±vagamyate;
dassan± v±num±n± v±, s± patt²ti pakittit±.
Yattha kiriy±kato kiriy±samp±dito viseso atisayo koci n±vagamyate nappat²yate dassan± v± paccakkhappam±ºena anum±nappam±ºena v± yath± nibbattivikat²namatisayo paccakkh±num±n± vagaman²yo, tatra hi nibbattiya½ visesasiddhiratipasiddh±… atthal±bh±khyassa visesass±vijjam±nassa kiriy±katt±, vik±riye ( ) [(eva) (potthake)] tu kvaci paccakkhavisayo… kaµµha½ ¹ahat²ti kaºhatt±dibh±vassa paccakkhenevopalabbhanato, kvacidanum±nagammo… devadatta½ roseti pas±dayati veti visiµµhamukhavaºº±dik±riy±numeyyatt± ros±dino, eva½ yattha na visesasiddhi api tu pattimatta½, s± patt²ti pakittit± kathit±, ±diccampassati dhammamajjhet²ti ayamettha attho, kathañcarahi asantassa [santassa (potthake)] pattikammassa kiñci (akaronta)ssa k±rakatta½, na hi kiñci akaronta½ k±rakambhavitumarahat²ti uccate-
Dassanakkhamat±bh±so, pagamabyatti-±dayo;
vises± pattikammassa, kriy±siddhiyamicchit±.
Atra daµµhu½ sakk± iti dassane khamat± ±bh±sopagamo visayattopagamo visayattopagamana½ byatti ceti evam±dayo vises± yath±yoga½ pattikammassa kiriy±nipphattiya½ icchit±, tato tassa k±rakattanti attho, ±dicca½ passat²ti ettha hi ±dicco daµµhu½ sakk±, tatova so dissati abhibyattiñcopay±t²ti dassanakiriy±nipph±dakatthen±ssa k±rakattamupapajjate, tath± ññatr±py±disaddagahitavisesavasena kiriy±siddhito k±rakatta½ veditabba½ nanu vik±riyampi nibbattikammameva… tena r³pen±satoyeva jananato, pattikammampi kiriy±sambandhar³pen±santameva pacch± tath± bhavat²ti nibbattiyev±ti sacca½-
Atthes± vatthuµµhiti, sukhumabuddhigocarapat²tyanurodhena,
tatra yampeta½ ghaµate, yath± pat²ti saddatth±vatt±nato.
Vises±nup±d±natoti “kamme dutiy±”ti s±maññena vuttatt± vutta½. Kar²yati kaµo, kato kaµo ccevam±d²su ty±dippabhut²hi atihitakamm±dinissayesupi ekatt±d²su dutiy±dayo papponti niyam±bh±v±, tath±hi pañcake n±matthe kaµ±divacan²yassa sambandh² kamm±dyattho, ty±dippabhut²ti anabhi hitassa saªkhy±khyass±parassa vibhatyatthass±bhidh±n±ya abhihitesupi kaµ±d²su kamm±d²su dutiy±dayo siyunti p±ºiniy± “kamme dutiy±”cc±d²su (2-3-2) “anabhihite”ti (2-3-1) vacanamadhikaronti, veyyattiy±yeva dutiy±d²nappasaªgepi tannissayabh³te-katt±dyatthe jotan±y±bhihitesu dutiy±dayo siyu½, tike pana saªkhy±kamm±dayo vibhatti vacan²y±, tattha yajjapi kamm±dino paccayen±bhidh±na½, tath±pyekatt±dayo n±bhihit±ti tassa saªkhy±khyass±parassa vibhatyatthass±ti dh±n±ya abhihitesupi kamm±d²su dutiy±dayo siyunti p±ºiniy± “kamme dutiy±”ti “anabhihite”ti vacanamadhikaronti, tamupadassento ±ha-‘tatrida½ siy±’ti-±di, tatra tasmi½ dutiy±di vibhattividh±ne ida½ codya½ siy±, kinti ±ha-‘pañcake’icc±di, anabhihitakamm±dinissayesuti anabhihit± kamm±dayo nissay± yesamekatt±d²na½, tes³tyattho, dutiy±dayo vibhattiyo yath± siyunti jotan±y±bhidh±n±ya c±ti yujjam±navasena attho veditabbo, abhihitakamm±dinissayesup²ti apisaddena anabhihitakamm±dinissayamekatt±di½ samuccinoti, ±saªkiy±ti pubbakiriy±ya vuttanti aparakiriy± veditabb±, pañcake tike c± bhihitakamm±dinissaye sekatt±d²su dutiy±dippattim±saªk±vasena dassetv± catukkav±d²nampi pakkhamubbh±viya pariharitu½ ‘yadicc±’dim±ha, ayantesamadhipp±yo “yades± saªkhy± p±µipadikattho tappaµipajjane kamm±dayo vibhattivacan²y±, tad± ‘anabhihite kamme’ti-±din± anabhihitaggahaºa½ kamm±divises±namanubhavantamanatthaka½… abhihite vibhattiv±cc±bh±vato, yad± pan±ya½ pakkho ‘saªkhy± vibhattivacan²y±’ti tad± “kamme dutiy±” tyevam±dayo niddes± visayasandassanamatt±yeva veditabb±”ti, sabbath±ti pañcakatikav±d²na½ catukkav±d²nañca matavasena sabbappak±rena, saddatth±byatirittatthamattoyev±ti byatireko byatiritta½, napu½sake bh±ve kto, na vijjate byatiritta½ byatireko bhedo yassa ta½ abyatiritta½, abyatibhinnanti attho, saddatthato sakatthato abyatiritta½ atthamatta½ atthas±mañña½ yassa odan±disaddassa so tath± vutto.
Kiñc±pi vuttiya½ tabb±diº±disam±sehi abhihitamavutta½, tath±pi tehi abhihitepyevameva daµµhabbanti nidassento ±ha-‘eva’micc±di, kara-karaºe kar²yitth±ti kato‘kto bh±vakammesu’ti (5-56) kamme kto, satikoti ettha k²toti kammatthe “dissantaññepi paccay±”ti (4-120) iko, kammat±gamyate kitappaccay±d²na½ kamme vihitatt±, evañca dhuhi kimekamud±haraºa½ dattam±cariyene tyato ±ha- ‘ud±haraºa’icc±di, anabhihiteti vacana½ vin±p²ti vacana½ vin± ev±ti avadh±raºe-apisaddo, sambh±vanev±, yadyabhihitehi vacana½ vin±pi dutiy±d²namappavatti bhaveyya, vacanasabbh±ve tu kath±yeva natth²ti attho, evañca panettha dutiy±d²namabhihite pasaªg±bh±vo j±nitabbo “paccate odano, kato kaµocc±dopi yadi dutiy±dayo siyu½ paµham±vidh±nass±vak±so na bhaveyya tato s±matthiy±nabhihiteyeva kamm±do dutiy±dayo sakiriy± (ya½ tada)bhibyattiy± bhavissanti, paµhamevatvabhihite”ti, na nuca paµham±y±k±rakamavak±so rukkho pilakkhoti [rukkho pilakkhoti kriy±pada½ na s³yateti vibhatyantarassappatti maññatebhass±pad²pa] kimidamuccate ak±rakanti yadya k±raka½ nedampayogamarahati tato yattha visesakiriy±na massavana½ tattha padatthasahacarit±ya satt±ya pat²tiy± ‘rukkho atthi pilakkho atth²’ti apekkh²yat²ti k±rakatta½ rukkh±d²na mattheveti [attheveti ññata½ vatthu½ para½ patip±dayitu½ saddo payujjate ññaºañca sato-iti yatra kriy±padantarassa appayogo tatra ussaggato satt± pat²titutth²ti kriy±pad±nusaªgara kattari tatiyappasaªgaranavak±s± paµham± tyattho-bhassapad²pa], na ca ucca½ n²ca½tyadhikaraºav±citte [v±cik±] nip±tassa atth²tyanena natthi sambandhoti uccamatth²ty±dheyyasseva kattutta½ n±dh±rass±tya k±rakattam±dh±rass±tyavak±so-tthi paµham±y±ti “paµham±vidh± nass±vak±so na bhaveyy±”ti yath±vutto-ya½ hetu asiddhoti ca sakk± vattu½, asaªkhyato paµham±tyavatv± “paµham±ttha matte”ti (2.39) s±maññavidh±nato siddhoyeva, ya½ hetutt±nabhihitavacanamanatthakamicceva µhita½.
Yañc±ti casaddo vattabbantarasamuccaye aparampi kiñci vattabbamatth²ti attho, yañca phala½ maññateti sambandho, yadetth±na bhihit±dhik±ro natthi tad± yath± ‘kato kaµo’ccatrattena kammass±bhihitatt± dutiy± na hoti tath± ‘kaµa½ karoti vipula½ dassan²yan’ti kaµasaddato uppann±ya dutiy±ya (vipul±digatassa) kammass± bhihitatt± vipul±d²hi visesanehi dutiy± na siy±, tato ty±di tabb±diº±disam±sehi kammass±na bhihitattamattev±ti vipul±d²hipi dutiy±vidh±nasaªkh±ta½ anabhihite”ti (2-3-1) anabhihita vacanassa adhik±re yañca phala½ cintayat²ti attho, yuttass±timassa attho sambandhass±ti, pacceka½ karotyabhisambandhat±y±ti ‘kaµa½ karoti vipula½ karoti dassan²ya½ karoti’cceva½ pacceka½ pacceka½ karotiss±bhisambandhat±y±ti attho, kammat± atth²ti seso, eva½ maññate-“kaµa½ karom²ti pavatto vipula½ karom² dassaniya½ karom²ti ca pavattov±ti vipul±d²nampi pacceka½ kammat± attheva, tatthekass±bhidh±ne parekassa sukhamavalokayant²ti tadabhidh±n±yapi dutiy± bhavissat²”ti, pak±rantar±vat±ro n±cariye noparodhitoti tampi panettha dassayiss±ma-“kaµasadd± uppajjam±n± dutiy± kaµaj±ti kammamabhihitavat², na vipul±diguºakamma½, tato tadabhidh±n±ya ca dutiy±yeva bhavati, athav± kaµova kamma½, ta½ s±m±n±dhikaraºyena vipul±d²hipi dutiy± bhavissati, kaµa½ karoti vipulo dassan²yoti hi vuccam±ne vipul±dayo kattusam±n±dhikaraºat±yeva pat²yeyyu½ tasm± kaµasaddas±m±n±dhikaraºyampaµip±dayat± vassamettha dutiy± karaº²y±”ti. Nanvemicc±dicodya½, evanti eva½ guºayuttassa kammat±ya sati, pappot²ti kaµa kamme-bhidh±niye (kato) ti ktappaccayassa katatt± ud±r±dito karotyabhisambandh± dutiy± pappot²ti attho, eva½ maññatecc±di parih±ro, avayavena kamma½ na vadat²ti sambandho, avayaven±ti visu½visu½, kiñcarah²ti ±ha-‘sabh±vato sabba½ kamma½ vadat²’ti. Hotu k±ma½ ud±r±ditopi vuttena vidhin± paµham±, katasaddato k± pavattat²ti ±ha-‘katasaddato pi’cc±di, antobh³to antogadho n±massa saddassa attho yasmi½ kammalakkhaºattheso attho kammalakkhaºo abhihito kathito sampanno sampajjat²ti attho, nanu ‘kato kaµo’cc±do sabh±vato sabbakammavuttiy± antobh³tan±matthavuttiy± c±tthamatte hoti sabbattha paµham±ti ‘kaµa½ karoti u¼±ra½ sobhana½ dassan²yan’ti kaµ±ditopi uppann±ya dutiy±ya kammass±bhihitatt± u¼±r±d²hi paµham±ppasaªgo siy±ti abhihit±bhidh±nappasaªgopagata½ codana½ manasi nidh±y±ha-‘kaµ±disaddo tvi’cc±di, s±maññen±ti visu½ visu½ kaµ±dis±maññena.
“Katturicchitataman”tyanena (1-4-49) kattuno kiriy±ya sambandhi tumiµµhatama½ tasmi½ icchitatame kammasañña½ vidh±ya nibbaty±dikesut²su kammesu dutiy± vidh²yate p±ºin²yehi, icchitatamattañca tadatthatt± kiriy±ya, odana½ pacati g±vumpayo dohatity±do(hi) odan±dyatth± pacan±dikiriy±rabbhateti odanapay±d²namicchitatamatta½, tadupadassento ±ha-‘ya½ kattu’cc±di, vibhatti½ vidh±ya dutiy±bhimat±ti sambandho, puna pay±dinipphattinimitta½ ya½kiñci dohan±dikiriy± yutta½ karaº±dir³pena akathita½ gav±dikamicchita½ k±raka½, tatth±pi “akathitañc±”ti (1-4-51) kammasañña½ vidh±ya teneva dutiy± vidh²yate, tadupadassetum±ha-‘upayujjam±ne’cc±di, atra cevamakathitaniyamo kato v±ttikak±rena-
Pucchicibhikkh²na½ duhi,y±c²na½ nimittamupayoge;
pubbavidhimhi-kathita½, br³s±s²nañca guº±sattanti.
Upayujjate iµµhatthasiddhiya½ by±p±r²yat²tyupayogo-payoppabhuti, tasmi½, nimitta½ gav±di, apubbavidhimhi ap±d±n±dhikaraº±di pubbasaññ± vidh±n±bh±ve, vidh±ne hi m±ºavak± magga½ pucchati, rukkh± phal±nyavacin±ty±di yath±raha½ bhavati, guº±sattanti guºena satta½ sambandh², guºasaddenettha padh±nas±dhana½ dhamm±dika½ vattumicchita½ padh±nas±dhanañhi kiriy±yopak±rakamupak±riya½ padh±nabh³ta½ kiriyamapekkhiya guºo bhavati, co-nuttasamuccaye, padh±nantu dhamm±dino pavattiy± tadatthatt±, upayujjam±nañca ta½ payopabhuticeti visesanasam±sa½ katv± upayujjam±napayoppabhutino nimittanti chaµµh²sam±so, pabhuti saddena gav±dino gahaºa½, ±disaddena gomant±dino, dutiyen±di saddena adhikaraº±dino, catutthena vinay±dino, vidh±nanti dutiy± vidh±na½, dutiy±vidh±namabhimatanti yojan²ya½. P±ºiniyehi “tath± yuttañc±nicchita½” (1-4-50) iccanena kammasañña½ vidh±ya “kamme dutiy±” (2-3-2) tyaneneva dutiy± vidh²yate, tandassetum±ha-‘yene’cc±di, “tath± yuttañc±nicchitan”t²massa attho yenevecc±dipañcik±p±µh±nus±rena veditabbo, yujjateti kiriy±bhisambajjhate, yuttanti kiriy±bhisambandha½, atra tu–
Yadyabuddhy±hilaªgh±di, tad±hy±dimanicchita½;
yad± lajj±bhay±d²hi, tadecchi tatama½ mata½.
“Tath± yuttañc±nicchitan”ti suttenassa pariyud±savuttito icchit± aññamanicchitamanabhimatamitarañca, tatoyeva‘g±ma½ gacchanto rukkham³lamupasappat²’tyatra nevicchitan±nicchitassapi rukkham³lassa kamma saññ± siddh±ti tattha “kamme dutiy±”ti dutiy± vidh²yate, tandassetin’evicchitan±nicchitasm±’icc±di, rukkham³la½ nevicchita½ pubbamanabhimatatt±, n±pyanicchita½ appaµik³latt±, g±magamena hyassa tapparat±, rukkham³lopasappanantu pasaªg±gatanti rukkham³l±nampi kiriy±bhisambandho attheva, atr±pi-
Nevicchit±nicchitantu, mabuddhiyupasappane;
m³la½ vissamanatthantu, tamicchitatama½ siy±.
Br³s±sinañc±ti casaddopasaªgahite dassetum±ha-‘eva’micc±di, ettha g±madevadattagagg±namakathitasaññ±, aj±dayo tvicchitatam±, ±disaddena ‘pattheti g±vu½ purisa½ dvijo’ty±dayo saªgahit±, nayatin²=p±puºane, vahati vaha=p±puºane, harati hara=haraºe, jayatiji=jaye, sabbatthaleca ette ay±dese ca r³pa½, daº¹a=daº¹ane cur±ditt± ºimhi r³pa½, atha “adhis²µµh±s±na½ kamma½”ty±din± (1-4-46) tena tena kammasañña½ vidh±ya ‘paµhavi½ adhisessat²’ti ±do (tattha) tattha “kamme dutiy±”ti (2-3-2) dutiy± vidh²yate tehi tehi sattha k±rehi, sabbatthevettha lokassa kammavacanicch±ti kameneta½ññasaññ±pubbaka½ kammamupadassento ±ha-‘adhipubba’icc±di, y±ya vatticch±ya dutiy± siy± t±ya vatticch±ya kammat± katha½hin±m±ti sambandho, neva upalabbhant²ti kad±cikassaci siy±ti sambandho, payatitabbanti suttantaram±rabbhan²ya½, tattheva½ ki½ bhavato manasi dosadhijambhanen±ti attho, dhammeti etth±pi eva½ sadda½ yojetv± attho veditabbo, yath± ±dh±re kammavacanicch±, tatheh±pi ±dh±ravacanicch±ti attho, tenev±ha-‘dhammeti ±dh±ravacanicch±’ti, dhamme abhinivisateti sambandho, eva½saddasam±natthatt± tath± saddassa tadatth±nus±reneva viññ±yat²ti tath±saddassa attho visu½ na vutto, p±nañca ±c±roca p±n±c±ra½, ta½p±n±c±ramassa ±dh±rassa tasmi½ tapp±n±c±re, p±natth±c±ratthadh±tusambandh² yo nady±di ko ±dh±ro so p±n±c±rav±yev±ti ±ha- ‘p±natth±c±ratth±na½ dh±t³nam±dh±re’ti kesañc²ti aniyamena kesañci saddasatthak±r±na½, etth±ti etasmi½ ±dh±ravacanicch±pakkhe, patipar²hi bh±gecetyavasiddh±ti imin± patisaddassa dh±tun± ayuttata½ dasseti… yadi yujjeyya chaµµhiy±bh±v±, ten±ha-‘yad±tvi’cc±di, vuttiya½ ten±ti tasaddena, apisaddopasaªgahita½ tatiyampi gahetv± v±c±ti bahuvacananiddeso.