11. Vise

Kinta½ visesana micch±ha-‘yami’cc±di, ya½ avatth±payati ta½ vuccat²ti sambandho, kinta½ visessamicc±ha-‘yadaneke’cc±di, ya½ avatth± p²yate tamabhidh²yateti sambandho, nanvekatthenetyuccam±ne visesseneti kathamavagamyate, yato eva½ vivaritav± ty±saªkiy±ha- ‘yadipi’cc±di.
Sambandhisaddatt±ti eva½ maññate “sambandhisadd± sakatthamiva niyatampaµi-yoginam±kkhipanti… tena vin± tesa½ sakatthass±sambhav±ti, vivaritav±ti vivarittha, ekatthenet²massa sam±n±dhikaraºena saha sam±so hot²ti eva½ s±jjh±h±ro attho veditabbo, atthasaddass±nekatthatt± viseseti ‘attho abhidheyyo’ti. Katha½ tenattho vuccat²ty±ha- ‘adhikar²yati’cc±di.
Visessassa sam±n±dhikaraºattañca visesan±pekkhanti sambandho. Visessasaddassa visesanena saha sam±n±dhikaraºatta½ visesana sadd±pekkhanti evamettha attho daµµhabbo, tattha k±raºam±ha- ‘sambandh±’ti, adhikaraºassa sam±natta½ n±ma bhinn±na½ sambandh²na½ bhavati, sambandhino ca sambandhamantarena na hont² [hoti (potthake)] ti visesanavisess±na½ sambandho viññ±yate, eva½ viññ±t± tasm± sambandh±ti attho.
Saddabyatirekena hettha atth±na½ visesanavisessabh±vo na sambhavati, tath± hi ‘n²lamuppalan’ti pañca vatth³ni sannihit±ni n²lanti n²latta½ guºas±mañña½, n²lo guºo, tad±dh±ro dabbanti t²ºi, uppalanti uppalatta½ uppalaj±ti, dabbañca tannissayoti dve.
Tattha uppalaj±ti guºaj±t²na½ [n²laj±ti-uppalaj±bhadhana½ (k±tantaµ²k±)] t±va na sambhavati visesanavisessabh±vo j±tiy± nigguºatt±, n²lattassa ca n²laguºe samav±yino, uppalattassa ca uppaladabbe samav±yino sam±n±dhikaraºattampi natthi, uppalaj±tiy± n²lassa ca guºassa atthi sam±n±dhikaraºatta½… n²la muppalanti pavattinimitt±na½ uppalaj±tin²laguº±namekamadhi karaºa½nissayoti, visesana visessabh±vo tu natthi j±tiy± an²latt±, guºadabb±nantu sambhavativisesanavisessatta½ dabbass±nekaguºatt±, sam±nantu tesamparamadhikaraºa½ tatiya½ natthi, yena sam±n±dhikaraºatta½ siy±, eva½ n²ladabba uppaladabb±nampi aññamaññaparih±rena vattumicchit±na½ na visesana visessabh±vo, n±pi sam±n±dhikaraºatta½, kasm± aññamaññ±sambandhato apekkh±bh±vato, vuttapaµipakkhato pana vakkham±nanayena sadd±nameva s±m±n±dhikaraºya½ visesanavisessattañca veditabba½, tenev±ha-‘atoyeve’cc±di.
Atoyev±ti yato visessassa sam±n±dhikaraºatta½ visesan±pekkha½, atoyeva hetutoti attho, bhinnanimittappa yutt±namev±ti s±maññena n²laguº±dh±re dabbe guºeyeva v± n²lasaddassa, uppalasaddassa ca s±maññena guºavati dabbe vattam±natt± aññamaññesu bhinnesu saddappavattiy± k±raºesu payutt±na½ sadd±nameva [niµµh±nameva (potthake)].
Sam±n±dhikaraºattanti n²luppalasadd±na½ visu½visu½ yoge visiµµhadabba v±cittass±sambhav±, n²lañca ta½ uppala½ ceti s±m±n±dhikaraºye sannipatite sati sambhav± eva½ tattha visiµµhe vatthumhi pavatt±na½ tesa½ sam±natthat±, evak±rena byavacchinnamattha½ dassetum±ha-‘natvabhinne’cc±di.
Nanucety±di codya½, s²samp±t²ti s²sap± rukkhaviseso, nayida mevamicc±di parih±ro.
Atha tuccate-icc±din± parassa vacan±vak±sam±saªkate, visesavutt²ti phalassa rukkhassa ca s±maññasaddatt± bh±vena visese vutti, imesanti s²sap±d²na½ na samodh±rit±ti na nicchit±, s±maññavuttiyeva samodh±rit±ti adhipp±yo, avasit± nicchit± vutti yesa½ s²sap±d²na½ te avasitavuttayo, payatana½ vin± tad± pappoti c±ti sambandho, payatananti ‘s±matthiyaladdhepivisesse’tivacana½. Tañcanatthicc±di parih±ro, sar³pamattakathan±y±ti vuttatth±nampi sar³pamattakathan±ya ‘p³pe bah³ ±naye’ti yath±, eva½ j±t²yakanti sar³pakathanappak±rayutta½. Upasa½haram±ha-‘tadeva’micc±di, nip±tasamud±yov±ya½ vuttena pak±renetyassa atthe vattate.
Aññatarasambhavepi tannivattiy± vacanasabbh±va½ dassetum±ha- ‘athapi’cc±di, aññatarasambhavep²ti visesanassa visessassa v± sambhavepi, yatrapyubhinnamatthi visesanavisessabh±vasambhavo tatthapit±va bahula½vacanatova nivatti hoti, kimpan±-ññatarasambhaveti dassetum±ha-‘yath± puººo’icc±di, ettha pana aññepi puººan±mak± sant²ti byabhic±rasambhav± ubhinnampi visesanavisessabh±vasambhave bahula½vacanameva sam±sa½ nivatteti, eva½ vidhep²ti aññatarasambhavepi, na kevala½ visesanavisessabh±vasambhave, atha kho eva½ vidhepyañña tarasambhavepityavisaddassa attho.
Yajjevamicc±di pacceka½ visesanavisessabh±ve sati aniµµh± p±danacodan±, pacceka½ visesana½ siy± ubhinnampi visesanatt±, tattha dosam±ha-‘visessassaca pubbanip±to’ti, co-vadh±raºe, vattabbantarasamuccaye v±, kutocc±ha- ‘n±ggahite’cc±di, iti k±raºe, ato kimaniµµham±y±ta micc±ha- ‘uppalan²lantipi siy±’ti, itthañcarahi kinty±ha- ‘n²luppalanti ce’cc±di. Parih±ram±ha-‘nesadoso’cc±di, upapattyantaram±ha- ‘atha ce’cc±di.
Aññamaññ±nupak±ritt±ti aññamaññassa visesanavisessatte n±nupak±ritt± sappadh±natt±ti attho, atha dvinnampi appadh±natta½ kasm± na siy± ty±ha- ‘appadh±nattepi’cc±di, sakasakappadh±n±pekkh±vant±nanti sakesake padh±ne attani apekkh±vant±na½. Atha kuto dabbasseva padh±nattamasita½, na tu guºassety±saªkiya ñ±yamupanissayati ‘atha ce’ty±din±. Ch±gotyajo vuccate, ta½ setavaººam±labhetha m±reyya, phusana½ v± kareyy±ti attho, ±pubbo labhi hi m±raºe phusane ca vattate, desan±yanti [codan±yanti codan±v±kya (potthake)] vedav±kyeti attho, kuto ch±gato-ñño n±labbhatecc±ha- ‘na hi’cc±di.
Ch±g±bh±veti setaguºayuttassa ch±gass±bh±ve, piµµhapiº¹im±labbh±ti setaguºayogena viµµhapiº¹i½ ±lambha, na ca n±lambhate tasm± guºo appadh±nanti ajjh±haritabba½.
Puna codento ±ha- ‘nanu ce’cc±di, athetyadhipp±yam±saªkate, aniµµham±p±dayati n²lasaddepi pasaªgo’ti, kutocc±ha- ‘sopihi’cc±di, ida½ vutta½ hoti- “uppalasaddo j±tiv±c², na tu dabbav±c², j±ti visiµµhadabbav±citt± yadi dabbav±c²ti vuccate, tad± n²lasaddopi guºavisiµµha dabbav±citt± dabbavacanam±pajjat²ti imesa½ na koci viseso”ti, pariharanto ±ha ‘nedamatthi’cc±di, ap±yino apagant±ro dabb±ti gamyate, kutocc±ha- ‘sat²pi’cc±di, iti k±raºe.
Visesanamekattheneti siddhepi papañcattha½ paripphuµatthañca ud±haraºabahutta½ dassetu½ p±ºiniyehi bahu½ suttita½, sabbassetassa paccakkh±tabh±va½ dassetu½ vuttiyamud±haraºamatta½ dassita½, tadid±ni by±khy±tuk±mo ±ha- ‘pubbak±le’cc±di, chinnoca visesanant² sambandho “pubbak±leka sabbadhurapur±ºanavakeval±ni sam±n±dhikaraºene”ti (2-1-49) te samettha sutta½, tatthek±d²na½ vuttiyamud±haraº±ni na dassit±nyupalakkhaºatova viññ±yant²ti dassetum±ha- ‘eke’cc±di, eko ca so purisoc±ty±din± viggaho upalakkhaºatt±yeva ca ‘satta ca te isayo ca sattisayo’cc±dikañca daµµhabba½.
Upam²yate paricchijjate-nenetyupam±na½, upam²yat²tyupameyya½, tesa½ upam±nopameyy±na½ s±dh±raºo yo dhammo s±mat±tena visiµµha½ yadupameyya½, ta½ vacanenetyattho upam±nopameyyacc±di kassa, sam±so bhavat²ti seso, k±raºam±ha- ‘visese’cc±di, vises±pariggah±ti visesanantyeva s±maññena pariggah±, evambh³ tass±p²ti upam±nar³pass±pi. Nanu satth²saddassasatthiya½ vutti s±m±saddassa tu devadatt±ya, ato byadhikaraºatt± kathamettha sam±socc±saªk²y±ha- ‘yade’cc±di, sam±no dhammo s±matt±di yassa so sadhammo, tassa bh±vo s±dhammiya½ s±matta½, tasm± devadatt±tthe vattate upac±ravasena, s±m±saddopi guºavacanopi s±matta½ vatv± saddh±dittavasen±bhedopac±rena v± devadatt±ya½ vattate, nanu ca s±m±saddassa devadatt±bhidh±ne caritatthat±ya satth² guºena niddiµµh±tyaniyataguºappat²tippasaªgo nekaguº±dh±ratt± satthiy±ty±saªkiy±ha- ‘yadipi’cc±di.
Ih±ti niddh±raºe, etesa½ guº±na½ majjheti attho, iha v± satthiya½, s±maguºavantat±ya s±m±y±ti gamyate, pasiddhivasen±ti satthis±m±tyatropam±na½ satth², upameyy± devadatt±, pasiddhantupam±na½ bhavati n±ppasiddha½… pasiddhas±dhammiy± s±dhyu s±dhanamupam±nanti katv± satthiyeva s±maªguºena pasiddh± na devadatt±, tasm± s±maguºappasiddhiy±ti attho. S±dhyute upam²yateneneti s±dhanamupam±na½, s±dhyate upadh²yateti s±dhyamupameyya½, pasiddhassa s±dhammiya½ tena, s±dhyass±ppasiddhassa kassaci s±dhana½ s±dhyas±dhana½. Yatratvicc±din± bahula½vacanas±matthiy± s±maññavacaneneva sam±sasabbh±va½ vatv± aññen±sabbh±vamud±haraºena phuµayitu½ ‘ph±l± iva taº¹ul±’ty±di ±raddha½.
Taº¹ulasaddoti upameyyabh³tataº¹ulasaddo, taº¹ulattampi vatv± dabbe pavatto s±maññavacano natu bhavat²ti sambandho, dabbeti taº¹uladabbe ph±ladabbe ca.
Upam±nopameyyas±dh±raºas³ratt±didhammavacan±ppayogeti upam±nopameyy±na½ s±dh±raºo yo vis±radatt±didhammo tabbacanassa ‘muni aya½ s²ho viya vis±rado’ty±do vis±rad±disaddass±ppayogeti attho, kesañciti kesañci sadd±na½ majjhe, visessattameva phuµayati. ‘Tath± ce’ty±din±, visesanavisess±na½ yathiµµhatt± nicca½ s²h±d²na½ visessat±yeva vacanicch±ti pubbanip±tatt±ppasaªgoti bh±vo, upapatyantaram±ha-‘visesanasseve’cc±di, yadipi s²ho visesanameva na visessa½, tath±pi bahul±dhik±r± visesanass±pi paranip±toti bh±vo.
Ath±tr±pi visesananteva sam±sappaµip±dane’muni aya½ s²hova vis±rado’cc±do s±matthiyatova sam±s±ppasaªgepi upam±no pameyy±na½ s±dh±raºavis±radatt±didhammavacan±ppayoge sati tappasaªg±bh±vattha½ vacanam±rabbhan²yanti codeti ‘nanuce’ty±din±, s±matthiyatoti s±maññavacanappayoge s±pekkhatt± sam±s±ppasaªgoti s±matthiya½ tasm±ti attho. S±maññappayogatthanti sam±sav±kye s±maññavacanassa s³ratt±di(no), appayogattha½, tath± hicc±din± s±maññasaddappayoge s±matthiyato sam±s±sabbh±v± suttantarass±n±rabbhan²yabh±va½ s±dheti.
Vises±nantabbh±v±ti s±maññassa sam±se antobh±vepi tikh²ºatt±dito visiµµhassa s³rass±divacan²yassa visesassa sam±se anantogadhatt± appasaªgo s±pekkhamasamatthanti. Atheti ‘saccametan’ti-±di½ paravacanam±saªkiya vadati, evam±disijjhanattha½ sam±soti (ñ±panattha½) ±rabbhan²yambhavat²ti sambandho.
Padh±nass±ti ‘raññopuriso-bhir³po’tettha abhir³pas±pekkhassa purisassa visesanattenev± [visesana½ tenev± (potthake)] ppadh±na½, sam±s±vayavabh³ta½ r±j±na½ pati visessabh±ven±viphalitasakatthat±ya padh±nabh³tassa purisassa. ¾disaddena ‘r±japurisassa dassan²yassa gehan’ti saªgaºh±ti.
Ettha hi gehampati visesanabh±ven±ppadh±nattepi r±j±nampati padh±nabh³tassa purisassa s±pekkhass±pi sam±so hoteva. Idañcañ±panattha½ vacan±rambhappayojanañca, k±raºam±ha- ‘gamakatt±’icc±di.
Gamakatt±ti viggahav±kyatthassa vuttiyampat²yam±natt± gamakatta½ tasm±, naceha gamakattamatth²ti ‘muni s²hova s³ro’tyatra tu v±kyato yottho pat²yate, n±ya½ ‘muni s²ho s³ro’tyato gamyateti gamakatta½ natth²-ti attho, tath±hi munis²hasaddenevo pam±nopameyyabh±vanimittassa vis±radattassa sabh±venevop±d±nato vis±radasaddassa tena sambandh±bh±vo.
Apavaggo nibb±na½, v±kyameveti evak±rena byavacchinnamatthampadassayam±ha- ‘vuttinivattet²’ti bahul±dhik±rato viññ±yati, nanu c±tra visessabh±v±sambhav±ppasaªgoyeva vuttiy±ti codeti. ‘Nanuce’ty±din±.
Puººat±byabhic±r±ti puººat±saªkh±tassa b±l±di-avatth±visesassa avin±ppavattito byabhic±r² hi visessambhavati yath± n²lat±yuppala½, pariharati ‘nedamatti’cc±din±, mant±ºiputt±na½ anekatt±ti kevala½ mant±ºiy± putto puººoyev±ti abh±v± tesa½ bahubh±vato, attano attano gahassa patayoti gahapat²na½ bahutta½ p±kaµameva.
Vuttiyeveti evak±rena byavacchinnamattham±ha-‘v±kya½ nivattet²’ti. Visiµµhaj±tivacan±ti vutta½ kaºhasappaj±tiy± lohitas±lij±tiy± ca visiµµhatt±.
Tacchako sappoti by±khyeyamupanikkhippacodayam±ha- ‘nanu ce’cc±di. Tacchakabh±v±napetoti b±layuvatt±disaªkh±tatacchakabh±vato aby±vutto, atthin±madheyyoti tacchako n±ma koci tann±mo atthi, kiriy±saddoti tacchat²ti tacchakoti eva½ kiriy±ya pavattinimittattenop±dinno va¹¹hak²v±c² tacchakasaddo, eva½ maññate “yath±vuttanayena visesanavisessasabbh±v± sam±sena bhavitabba½, tath± sati kimida½ paccud±haraºa½ katan”ti. Atra kenaci na n±madheyyassety±di nopaj±yatev±tyetadavas±na½ vuccam±namanudyata½ nir±kattuk±mo ±ha-‘yop± he’cc±di.
Imass±yamadhipp±yo “vuttanayena tacchakasaddassa kiriy± saddass±tthavisay±pekkh±y±bh±vato visessatt±bh±v± paccud±haraºamida½ katan”ti.
Kasm± ayuttamicc±ha-‘yato’cc±di, n±madheyyassa kiriy±v±cino ca atth±bhidh±nas±matthiya½ tulya½ v± na v±, avayavappasiddhiy± samud±yappasiddhi balavati v± navetyeta½ vic±retu½ yato n±dhikatantyattho, kiñcarahi adhikatanty±ha- ‘apitvi’cc±di, tacchakasaddonekatthavutti n±nekatthoti vic±retumadhikatanti yojan±.
Eva½ maññate- “visesanavisessabh±vacint±ya½ sadd±namatth±bhidh±nas±matthiyacint± na yujjate ‘sati sambhave byabhic±re ca visesana½ s±tthaka½ hot²’ti visesana½ magg²yate, n±sambhave n±byabhic±re yath± s²ta½ (hima½) uºhogg²ti, tasm± sambhavabyabhic±racint± visesanavisessabh±vacint±yamupayujjat²ti tacchakasaddo-nekatthavuttiv± na vetyetadeva vic±retumadhikatanti katthacipi visesanavisessa sabbh±ve sam±so hotev±”ti, yadipi n±madheyyakiriy±v±c²namatulyamatth±bhidh±na½ samud±yappasiddhiy± ca balavatitta½, tath±pi vakkham±nanayena sam±sasabbh±v± na k±ci h±n²ti dassetum±ha- ‘ettha c±’ti-±di.
Etthac±ti keci pakkhe ca, kañci p²¼am±vahat²ti sambandho, kutocc±ha ‘tath±hi’cc±di. Eva½ maññate- “yad²pi samud±yappasiddhiy± sati kiriy±saddatthavisay±pekkh± nopaj±yate, tath±pi n±madheyyasseva tacchakasaddass±pyanekatthavuttittamattheva… sappavisese manusse ca tann±make n±madheyyassa tacchakasaddassa pavattisabbh±v±(ti) visesanavisessasabbh±vato sam±sappasaªgo tadavattho yev±”ti, na kevala½ sappavisesasseva tacchakasaddo n±madheyyamapitu manuss±namp²ti pisaddattho. Tacchakasaddass±nekatthavuttittepi na samud±yappasiddhiy± avayavappasiddh²b±dh±ti dassetum±ha- ‘nac±’ti-±di. Co-vadh±raºe, kutocc±ha ‘kiriye’cc±di. Kamenatthappasiddh²ti ya½, etampana sakk± viññ±tunti yojan±.
Yanti ya½ pasijjhana½, kamen±ti b±dh±bh±vato anukkamena. Evañceti imin± nacety±din± vutta½ pacc±masati… kimpaµivihita½ siy± parihaµa½ siy±ti attho, iti imin± k±raºena ‘tacchako sappo’ti paccud±haraºa½ na yutta½… tacchakasappoti sam±sasabbh±vatoti adhipp±yo, nedamevamicc±din± pariharati, yad± carati yath± vuttena visesanavisessabh±vasambhavo, tad± katha½ty±ha- ‘yad± visesane’cc±di. Tad±pi katha½ v±kyena bhavitabbamicc±ha- ‘idañce’cc±di. Bahula½vacanatoyev±ti adhipp±yo.
Aññass±ti kammani sambandhavacanicch±ya½ chaµµh². Avacchedakatt±ti ettha kattun± bhavitabbanti k±¼ass±ti kattari bh±vayoge chaµµhiy± ajjh±haritabba½. Patt±pannehi dutiyantassa j²vikampatto j²vik± pannoti sam±so ‘k±raka½ bahulan”teva (ca½-2-2-19) vihito dutiyantena tu tesa½ sam±sattha½ suttantara½ kata½ parehi, atthañca tesamitthiliªg±nampi sam±seneva, k±ranivattiy±, tath± m±so j±tass±ti viggahe parim±ºiv±cin± chaµµhiyantena parim±ºavacan±na½ k±lasadd±na½, tad±ha- ‘patt±pann±na’micc±di, parim±ºa½ m±s±di paricchedo tamassatth²ti parim±º² j±t±di.
Ettha hi m±so parim±ºa½ paricchedakatt±, j±to parim±º² paricchejjatt±, patt± j²vik±nen±ti [patto j²vikanti p±µhena bhavitabba½] vacanicch±ya½ yo-ttho so- ñ±padatthasam±sepyatinno vacanicch±bhedamantaren±tidassetu½ ‘aññapadatthe bhavissat²’ti ya½ vuttiya½ vutta½, ta½ by±khy±tuk±mo ±ha- ‘v±nekaññatthe iccev±’ti-±di. Aññattha sam±se kate sabbattha “itthiya½ bh±site”cc±din± (3-67) pumbh±vo. M±so j±tass±ti vacanicch±ya½ yo-ttho, so-ññatthasam±sepyabhinno vacanicch±bheda mantaren±ti dassetum±ha- ‘yassa j±t±dino’cc±di.
J±tasaddassattham±ha sampannoti, sampuººotyattho, imin± ca m±so j±to-ss±ti viggahassa attho dassito, aññath±ti yadi m±so tassa aññapadatthassa j±t±dino sampuººo na bh±t²ti attho. Ttattavant³na½ niµµh±sañña½ vidh±ya tadantassaññatthasam±se “niµµh±”ti (2-2-36) suttena pubbanip±to vutto, tad±ha- ‘nace’cc±di, pubbanip±tappasaªgo naca siy±tisambandho, kutocc±ha- ‘j±ti’cc±di. Kesañciti v±kyak±ram±ha, naca yuttanti sambandho, k±raºam±ha- ‘visesana’mecc±di, tath±hicc±din± visesanassa s±tthakatte sam±sabbh±vamabh±ve c±bh±va½ s±dheti… chaµµh²sam±se ‘sati sambhave byabhic±re ca visesanassa s±tthakambhavat²ti visesanassa s±tthakatt±.
Avacanep²ti niyamavacane (a)sat²pi, chaµµh²sam±sappasaªgo carahi vuttanayena byavacchejja byavacchedakatt±bh±vena visesan±natthaky± na bhaveyya ce v±kyen±pi na bhavitabbanti ±ha- ‘v±kya½ tvi’cc±di. Ayampana visesanasam±so parehi kammadh±rayoti ñ±yati… yath± kamma½ kiriya½ payojanañca dh±reti evamaya½ sam±so kammamiva dvaya½ dh±rayat²ti.