Saro, sar±. Sara½, saro, sare. Saras±, sarena, sarehi, sarebhi. Saraso, sarassa, sar±na½. Sar±, sarasm±, saramh±, sarehi, sarebhi. Saraso, sarassa, sar±na½. Sarasi, sare, sarasmi½, saramhi, saresu. Bho sara, bhavanto sar±, bho sar± iti v±.
Vayo, vay±. Vaya½, vaye. Vayena, vayehi, vayebh²ti purisanayena ñe yyo. Aya½ purisanaye sabbath± paviµµhassa parih±niv±cakassa vayasaddassa n±mikapadam±l±.
Aya½ pana purisanaye ekadesena paviµµhassa manogaºapakkhikassa ±yukoµµh±sav±cakassa vayasaddassa n±mikapadam±l±– vayo, vay±. Vaya½, vayo, vaye. Vayas±, vayena, vayehi, vayebh²ti mananayena ñeyyo. Tassa ceto paµissosi, araññe luddagocaro. Cet± hani½su vedabba½.
Ceto, cet±. Ceta½, cete. Cetena, cetehi, cetebh²ti purisanayena ñeyyo. Aya½ purisanaye sabbath± paviµµhassa paººattiv±cakassa cetasaddassa n±mikapadam±l±.
Aya½ pana purisanaye ekadesena paviµµhassa cittav±cakassa cetasaddassa n±mikapadam±l±– ceto, cet±. Ceta½, ceto, cete. Cetas±, cetena, cetehi, cetebh²ti mananayena ñeyyo. Yaso kulaputto, yasa½ kulaputta½, yasena kulaputten±ti ekavacanavasena purisanayena yojetabb±, ekavacanaputhuvacanavasena v±. Eva½ k±nici ok±rantapad±ni purisanaye sabbath± paviµµh±ni ca honti, ekadesena paviµµh±ni c±ti imin± nayena sabbapad±ni paññ±cakkhun± upaparikkhitv± viseso veditabbo. Avisesaññuno hi evam±divibh±ga½ aj±nant± ya½ v± ta½ v± byañjana½ ropent± yath±dhippeta½ attha½ vir±dhenti, tasm± yo ettha amhehi pak±sito vibh±go, so saddh±sampannehi kulaputtehi sakkaccamuggahetabbo. Katam±ni k±nici ok±rantapad±ni purisanaye ekadesena paviµµh±ni ca ekadesena na paviµµh±ni ca? Mano vaco tejosadd±dayo ceva ayyasaddo ca, tatra manasadd±d²na½ n±mikapadam±l± heµµh± vibh±vit±.
Ayyasaddassa pana n±mikapadam±l±ya½ “ayyo, ayy±. Ayya½, ayye”ti purisanayena vatv± ±lapanaµµh±ne “bho ayya, bho ayyo”ti dve ekavacan±ni, “bhavanto ayy±, bhavanto ayyo”ti dve bahuvacan±ni ca vattabb±ni. Ettha ayyo iti saddo paccattavacanabh±ve ekavacana½, ±lapanavacanabh±ve ekavacanañceva bahuvacanañca. Tatrime payog± “ayyo kira s±gato ambatitthikena n±gena saªg±mesi, pivatu bhante ayyo s±gato k±potika½ pasannan”ti evam±d²ni ayyosaddassa paccattekavacanappayog±ni, “atha kho s± itth² ta½ purisa½ etadavoca ‘n±yyo so bhikkhu ma½ nipp±µesi, apica ahameva tena bhikkhun± gacch±mi, ak±rako so bhikkhu, gaccha kham±peh²’ti” evam±d²ni ayyosaddassa ±lapanekavacanappayog±ni, “etha’yyo r±javasati½, nis²ditv± suº±tha me. Etha maya½ ayyo samaºesu sakyaputtiyesu pabbajiss±m±”ti evam±d²ni ayyosaddassa ±lapanabahuvacanappayog±ni. Bhavati catra–
Ayyo iti aya½ saddo, paccattekavaco bhave;
±lapane bahuvaco, bhave ekavacopi ca–

Eva½ k±nici ok±rantapad±ni purisanaye ekadesena paviµµh±ni ca honti ekadesena na paviµµh±ni ca.

Katam±ni k±nici ok±rantapad±ni purisanaye sabbath± appaviµµh±ni? Gosaddoyeva. Gosaddassa hi aya½ n±mikapadam±l±–
Go, g±vo, gavo. G±vu½, g±va½, gava½, g±vo, gavo. G±vena, gavena, gohi, gobhi. G±vassa, gavassa, gava½, gunna½, gona½. G±v±, g±vasm±, g±vamh±, gav±, gavasm±, gavamh±, gohi, gobhi. G±vassa, gavassa, gava½, gunna½, gona½. G±ve, g±vasmi½, g±vamhi, gave, gavasmi½ gavamhi, g±vesu, gavesu, gosu. Bho go, bhavanto g±vo, gavo. Aya½ purisanaye sabbath± appaviµµhassa gosaddassa n±mikapadam±l±.
Nanu ca bho gosaddo attan± sambh³tagoºasaddam±l±vasena purisanaye ekadesena paviµµho ceva ekadesena na paviµµho c±ti? Sacca½. Goºasaddo gosaddavasena sambh³topi “vatticch±nupubbik± saddapaµipatt²”ti vacanato gosaddato visu½ amhehi gahetv± purisanaye pakkhitto. Tassa hi visu½ gahaºe yutti dissati sy±d²su ek±k±reneva tiµµhanato, tasm± gosaddato sambh³tampi goºasadda½ anapekkhitv± suddha½ gosaddameva gahetv± purisanaye sabbath± gosaddassa appaviµµhat± vutt±.
Nanu ca bho paccattavacanabh³to goiti saddo purisoti saddena sadisatt± purisanaye ekadesena paviµµhoti? Tanna, gosaddo hi niccamok±ranto, na purisasadd±dayo viya paµhama½ ak±rantabh±ve µhatv± pacch± paµiladdhok±rantaµµho. Teneva hi paccattavacanaµµh±nepi ±lapanavacanaµµh±nepi goicceva tiµµhati. Yadi paccattavacanatta½ paµicca gosaddassa purisanaye ekadesena paviµµhat± icchitabb±, “k±nici ok±rantapad±n²”ti eva½ vutt± ok±rantakath± kamattha½ d²peyya, nipphal±va s± kath± siy±, tasm± amhehi yath±vutto nayoyeva ±yasmantehi manasi k±tabbo. Eva½ gosaddassa purisanaye sabbath± appaviµµhat± daµµhabb±.
Kecettha eva½ puccheyyu½ “gosaddassa t±va ‘go, g±vo, gavo. G±vu½, g±va½, gava½’ icc±din± nayena purisanaye sabbath± appaviµµhat± amhehi ñ±t±, jaraggava puªgav±disadd± pana kutra naye paviµµh±”ti? Tesa½ eva½ by±k±tabba½ “jaraggava puªgav±disadd± sabbath±pi purisanaye paviµµh±”ti. Tath± hi tesa½ gosaddato aya½ viseso, jaranto ca so go c±ti jaraggavo. Ettha nak±ralopo tak±rassa ca gak±ratta½ bhavati sam±sapadatt±, sam±se ca simhi pare gosaddassok±rassa av±deso labbhati, tasm± p±¼iya½ “vis±ºena jaraggavo”ti ekavacanar³pa½ dissati. Tath± hi aññattha anupapadatt± gavoiti bahuvacanapada½yeva dissati. Idha pana sopapadatt± sam±sapadabh±vam±gamma “jaraggavo”ti ekavacanapada½yeva dissati. Tath± hi jaraggavoti ettha jarant± ca te gavo c±ti eva½ bahuvacanavasena nibbacan²yat± na labbhati lokasaªketavasena ekasmi½ atthe nir³¼hatt±ti. “Jaraggavo, jaraggav±. Jaraggava½, jaraggave. Jaraggaven±”ti purisanayena n±mikapadam±l± yojetabb±. Esa nayo puªgavo sakyapuªgavoti-±d²supi.
Tatra puªgavoti gunna½ y³thapati nisabhasaªkh±to usabho. Yo p±¼iya½ “muhuttaj±tova yath± gava½pati, samehi p±dehi phus² vasundharan”ti ca “gavañce taram±n±na½, uju½ gacchati puªgavo”ti ca ±gato. ¿disesu pana µh±nesu keci “pum± ca so go c±ti puªgavo”ti vacanattha½ bhaºanti. Maya½ pana padh±ne nir³¼ho aya½ saddoti vacanattha½ na bhaº±ma. Na hi puªkokiloti-±disadd±na½ kokil±d²na½ pumbh±vappak±sanamatte samatthat± viya imassa pumbh±vappak±sanamatte samatthat± sambhavati, atha kho padh±nabh±vappak±sane ca samatthat± sambhavati. Tena “sakyapuªgavo”ti-±d²su nisabhasaªkh±to puªgavo viy±ti puªgavo, saky±na½, sakyesu v± puªgavo sakyapuªgavoti-±din± sam±sapadattho gahetabbo. Atha v± uttarapadatte µhit±na½ s²habyagghan±g±disadd±na½ seµµhav±cakatt± “sakyapuªgavo”ti-±d²na½ “sakyaseµµho”ti-±din± attho gahetabbo. Iti sabbath±pi purisanaye pavattanato jaraggava puªgav±disadd±na½ gosaddassa padam±lato visadisapadam±lat± vavatthapetabb±. Gosaddassa pana purisanaye sabbath± appaviµµhat± ca vavatthapetabb±.
¾pasadde ±cariy±na½ liªgavacanavasena matibhedo vijjati, tasm± ta½matena tassa purisanaye sabbath± appaviµµhat± bhavati. “Aªguttar±pes³”ti p±¼iy± aµµhakath±ya½ “mahiy± pana nadiy± uttarena ±po”ti vutta½, µ²k±ya½ pana ta½ ulliªgitv± “mahiy± nadiy± ±po tassa janapadassa uttarena honti, t±sa½ avid³ratt± so janapado uttar±po”ti vutta½. Eva½ ±pasaddassa ekantena itthiliªgat± bahuvacanat± ca ±cariyehi icchit±, tesa½ mate ±poiti itthiliªge paµham±bahuvacanar³pe honte dutiy±tatiy±pañcam²sattam²na½ bahuvacanar³p±ni k²dis±ni siyu½. Tath± hi “purise, purisehi purisebhi purises³”ti r³pavato pulliªgassa viya ok±rantitthiliªgassa ek±raehi k±r±diyutt±ni r³p±ni katthacipi na dissanti. Ato tesa½ mate padam±l±nayo at²va dukkaro.
¾pasaddassa garavo, saddasatthanaya½ pati;
bahuvacanatañcitthi-liªgabh±vañca abravu½.
Icc±pasaddassa itthiliªgabahuvacanantat± veyy±karaº±na½ mata½ niss±ya anumat±ti veditabb±. Aµµhas±liniya½ pana ±po iti saddassa napu½sakaliªgekavacanavasena vutto payogo diµµho “omatta½ pana ±po adhimattapathav²gatika½ j±tan”ti. J±takap±¼iya½ tu tassekavacanantat± diµµh±. Tath± hi “suci½ sugandha½ salila½, ±po tatth±bhisandat²”ti. Imasmi½ padese ±po iti saddo ekavacanaµµh±ne µhito diµµho. Kecettha vadeyyu½ “±poti saªkha½ gata½ salila½ suci sugandha½ hutv± tattha abhisandat²ti salila½saddavasena ekavacanappayogo kato, na n±masaddavasena. ¾pasaddo hi ekantenitthiliªgo ceva bahuvacananto ca. Tath± hi ‘±po tatth±bhisandant²’ti bahuvacanavasena tappayogo vattabbopi chand±nurakkhaºattha½ vacanavipall±savasena niddiµµho”ti. Tanna, “±po tatth±bhisandare”ti vattu½ sakkuºeyyatt± “t±ni ajja padissare”ti bahuvacanappayog± viya. Yasm± eva½ na vutta½, yasm± ca pana p±¼iya½ “±po labbhati, tejo labbhati, v±yo labbhat²”ti ekavacanappayogo dissati, tasm± “±po”ti saddassa ekavacanantat± paccakkhato diµµh±ti.
Ath±pi ce vadeyyu½– nanu p±¼iya½yeva tassa bahuvacanantat± paccakkhato diµµh± “±po ca dev± pathav² ca, tejo v±yo tad±gamun”ti? Tampi na. Ettha hi “dev±”ti sadda½ apekkhitv± “±gamun”ti bahuvacanappayogo kato, na “±po”ti sadda½. Yadi “±po”ti sadda½ sandh±ya bahuvacanappayogo kato siy±, “pathav²”ti “tejo”ti “v±yo”ti ca saddampi sandh±ya bahuvacanappayogo kato siy± Eva½ sante pathav² tejo v±yosadd±pi bahuvacanakabh±vam±pajjeyyu½, na pana ±pajjanti. Na hete bahuvacanak±, atha kho ekavacanak± eva. R³¼h²vasena te pavatt± pakati-±p±d²su atthesu appavattanato. Tath± hi ±pokasiº±d²su parikamma½ katv± nibbatt± dev± ±rammaºavasena “±po”ti-±din±ma½ labhant²ti. Eva½ vutt±pi te eva½ vadeyyu½ “nanu ca bho ‘aªguttar±pes³’ti bahuvacanap±¼i dissat²”ti? Te vattabb±– asampathamavatiºº± tumhe, na hi tumhe saddappavatti½ j±n±tha, “aªguttar±pes³”ti bahuvacana½ pana “kur³su aªgesu aªg±na½ magadh±nan”ti-±d²ni bahuvacan±ni viya r³¼h²vasena ekass±pi janapadassa vutta½, na ±pasaªkh±ta½ attha½ sandh±ya. “Aªguttar±pes³”ti ettha hi ±pasaªkh±to attho upasajjan²bh³to, pulliªgabahuvacanena pana vutto janapadasaªkh±to atthoyeva padh±no “±gatasamaºo saªgh±r±mo”ti ettha samaºasaªkh±ta½ attha½ upasajjanaka½ katv± pavattassa ±gatasamaºasaddassa saªgh±r±masaªkh±to attho viya, tasm± ±pasaªkh±ta½ attha½ gahetv± yo aªguttar±po n±ma janapado, tasmi½ aªguttar±pesu janapadeti attho veditabbo. Tath± hi “aªguttar±pesu viharati ±paºa½ n±ma aªg±na½ nigamo”ti p±¼i dissati. Tattha uttarena mah±mahiy± nadiy± ±po yesa½ te uttar±p±, aªg± ca te uttar±p± c±ti aªguttar±p±, tesu aªguttar±pesu. Eva½ ekasmi½ janapadeyeva bahuvacana½ na ±pasaªkh±te atthe, tena aµµhakath±ya½ vutta½ “tasmi½ aªguttar±pesu janapade”ti. Eva½ vutt± te niruttar± bhavissanti.