Apica “puthuvacanan”ti niruttivoh±ropi “buddhavacane dvivacana½ natth²”ti etamattha½ d²peti. Tañhi sakkaµabh±s±ya½ vutt± dvivacanato bahuvacanato ca visu½bh³ta½ vacana½, tattha v± vuttehi atthehi visu½bh³tassa atthassa vacana½ “puthuvacanan”ti vuccati. Kathamida½ sakkaµabh±s±ya½ vutt± dvivacanato bahuvacanato ca visu½bh³ta½ vacananti ce? Yasm± sakkaµabh±s±ya½ “puthuvacanan”ti voh±ro natthi, tasm± ida½ tehi sakkaµabh±s±ya½ vuttehi dvivacanabahuvacanehi visu½bh³ta-atthassa vacananti vuccati. Kathañca pana sakkaµabh±s±ya½ vuttehi visu½bh³tassa atthassa vacananti puthuvacananti ce? Yasm± sakkaµabh±s±ya½ dve up±d±ya dvivacana½ vutta½, na ticatupañc±dike bahavo up±d±ya, bahavo pana up±d±ya bahuvacana½ vutta½, na dve up±d±ya, aya½ sakkaµabh±s±ya viseso. M±gadhabh±s±ya½ pana dviticatupañc±dike bahavo up±d±ya puthuvacana½ vutta½, tasm± sakkaµabh±s±ya½ vuttehi atthehi visu½bh³tassa atthassa vacananti puthuvacananti vuccati. Aya½ m±gadhabh±s±ya viseso. Tasm±tra puthubh³tassa, puthuno v± atthassa vacana½ “puthuvacanan”ti attho samadhigantabbo.
Id±ni “puriso, puris±, purisan”ti niruttipiµakato uddharitanaya½ niss±ya pakatir³pabh³tassa bh³tasaddassa n±mikapadam±l± vuccate–
Bh³to, bh³t±. Bh³ta½, bh³te. Bh³tena, bh³tehi, bh³tebhi. Bh³tassa, bh³t±na½. Bh³t±, bh³tasm±, bh³tamh±, bh³tehi, bh³tebhi. Bh³tassa, bh³t±na½. Bh³te, bh³tasmi½, bh³tamhi, bh³tesu. Bho bh³ta, bhavanto bh³t±.
Atha v± “bho bh³t±”iti bahuvacana½ viññeyya½. Yath± panettha bh³taiccetassa pakatir³passa n±mikapadam±l± purisanayena yojit±, eva½ bh±vak±d²nañca aññesañca ta½sadis±na½ n±mikapadam±l± purisanayena yojetabb±. Etthaññ±ni ta½sadis±ni n±ma “buddho”ti-±d²na½ pad±na½ buddhaicc±d²ni pakatir³p±ni.
Buddho dhammo saªgho maggo,
khandho k±yo k±mo kappo;
m±so pakkho yakkho bhakkho,
n±go megho bhogo y±go.
R±go doso moho m±no,
makkho thambho kodho lobho;
h±so vero d±ho tejo,
chando k±so s±so rogo.
Asso sasso isso sisso,
s²ho byaggho rukkho selo;
indo sakko devo g±mo,
cando s³ro ogho d²po.
Passo yañño c±go v±do,
hattho patto soso gedho;
somo yodho gaccho accho,
geho m±¼o aµµo s±lo.
Naro nago migo saso,
suºo bako ajo dijo;
hayo gajo kharo saro,
dumo talo paµo dhajo.
Urago paµago vihago bhujago,
kharabho sarabho pasado gavajo;
mahiso vasabho asuro garu¼o,
taruºo varuºo baliso paligho.
S±lo dhavo ca khadiro,
godhumo saµµhiko yavo;
ka¼±yo ca kulattho ca,
tilo muggo ca taº¹ulo.
Khattiyo br±hmaºo vesso,
suddo dhutto ca pukkuso;
caº¹±lo patiko paµµho,
manusso rathiko ratho.
Pabbajito gahaµµho ca,
goºo oµµho ca gadrabho;
m±tug±mo ca orodho,
icc±d²ni vibh±vaye.
Kecettha vadeyyu½ “nanu bho ‘orodh± ca kum±r± c±’ti p±µhassa dassanato orodhasaddo itthiliªgo”ti? Tanna, tattha hi “orodh±”ti ida½ ok±rantapulliªgameva, n±’k±rantitthiliªga½, tumhe pana “±k±rantitthiliªgan”ti maññam±n± eva½ vadatha, na panida½ ±k±rantitthiliªga½, atha kho “m±tug±m±”tipada½ viya bahuvacanavasena vuttam±k±rantapadanti. Nanu ca bho sammohavinodaniy±d²su orodhasaddassa itthiliªgat± p±kaµ±, kathanti ce? “Rukkhe adhivatth± devat± therassa kuddh± paµhamameva mana½ palobhetv± ‘ito te sattadivasamatthake upaµµh±ko r±j± marissat²’ti supine ±rocesi. Thero ta½ katha½ sutv± r±jorodh±na½ ±cikkhi. T± ekappah±reneva mah±virava½ viravi½s³”ti. Ettha hi “r±jorodh±nan”ti vatv± “t±”ti vuttatt±va orodhasaddassa itthiliªgat± p±kaµ±ti? Tanna, atthassa duggahaºato. Duggahito hi ettha tumhehi attho, ettha pana orodhasaddena itthipadatthassa kathanato itthipadattha½ sandh±ya “t±”ti vuttatt± “t± itthiyo”ti ayamevattho. Tumhe pana am±t±pitarasa½vaddhatt± ±cariyakule ca anivuµµhatt± eta½ sukhumatthamaj±nant± ya½ v± ta½ v± mukh±r³¼ha½ vadatha.
Bhuñjanattha½ kathanattha½, mukha½ hot²ti no vade;
ya½ v± ta½ v± mukh±r³¼ha½, vacana½ paº¹ito naroti.
Na maya½bho ya½ v± ta½ v± mukh±r³¼ha½ vad±ma, aµµhakath±cariy±naññeva vacana½ gahetv± vad±ma, aµµhakath±yeva amh±ka½ paµisaraºa½ na maya½ tumh±ka½ saddah±m±ti. Amh±ka½ saddahatha v± m± v±, m± tumhe “aµµhakath±cariy±naññeva vacana½ gahetv± vad±m±”ti aµµhakath±cariye abbh±cikkhatha. Na hi aµµhakath±cariyehi “orodhasaddo itthiliªgo”ti vuttaµµh±namatthi, tasm±pi aµµhakath±cariye abbh±cikkhatha, na yutta½ buddh±d²na½ gar³namabbh±cikkhana½ mahato anatthassa l±bh±ya sa½vattanato. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat± “attan± duggahitena amhe ceva abbh±cikkhati, bahuñca apuñña½ pasavati, tato att±nañca khaºat²”ti.
Eva½ abbh±cikkhanassa ayuttata½ s±vajjatañca dassetv± punapi te ida½ vattabb±– j±takaµµhakath±yampi tumhehi ±haµa-ud±haraºasadisa½ ud±haraºamatthi, ta½ suº±tha. Kosiyaj±takaµµhakath±yañhi “satth± jetavane viharanto eka½ s±vatthiya½ m±tug±ma½ ±rabbha kathesi. S± kirekassa saddhassa pasannassa up±sakabr±hmaºassa br±hmaº² duss²l± p±padhamm±”ti p±µho dissati. Ettha hi “m±tug±ma½ ±rabbha kathes²”ti vatv± “s±”ti vuttatt± tumh±ka½ matena m±tug±masaddo itthiliªgoyeva siy±, na pulliªgo, kimida½ aµµhakath±vacanampi na passatha, tadeva pana aµµhakath±vacana½ passatha, ki½ s± eva aµµhakath± tumh±ka½ paµisaraºa½, na tadaññ±ti.
Yadi sadda½ apekkhitv± orodhasaddassa itthiliªgattamicchatha, etth±pi saddamapekkhitv± m±tug±masaddassa itthiliªgattamicchath±ti. Eva½ vutt± te niruttar± appaµibh±n± maªkubh³t± pattakkhandh± adhomukh± pajjh±yeyyu½. Etth±pi m±tug±masaddena itthipadatthassa kathanato itthipadattha½ sandh±ya “s±”ti vuttatt± “s± itth²”ti ayamevattho. Katthaci hi padh±nav±cakena pulliªgena napu½sakaliªgena v± sam±n±dhikaraºassa guºasaddassa abhidheyyaliªg±nuvattitt±pulliªgavasena v± napu½sakaliªgavasena v± niddisitabbattepi liªgamanapekkhitv± itthipadatthamev±pekkhitv± itthiliªganiddeso dissati. Ta½ yath±? “Idha vis±khe m±tug±mo susa½vihitakammant± hoti saªgahitaparijan± bhattuman±pa½ carati, sambhata½ anurakkhat²”ti ca, “ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo, yena midhekacco m±tug±mo dubbaºº± ca hoti dur³p± sup±pik± dassan±ya, dalidd± ca hoti appassak± appabhog± appesakkh± ca. Idha mallike ekacco m±tug±mo kodhan± hoti up±y±sabahul±, appampi vutt± sam±n± abhisajjati kuppati by±pajjati patitthiyati kopañca dosañca appaccayañca p±tukarot²”ti ca, “ta½ kho pana bhikkhave itthiratana½ rañño cakkavattissa pubbuµµh±yin² pacch±nip±tin² ki½k±rapaµiss±vin²”ti ca ime payog±.
Katthaci pana padh±nav±cakena napu½sakaliªgena sam±n±dhikaraºassa guºasaddassa abhidheyyaliªg±nuvattitt± napu½sakaliªgavasena niddisitabbattepi liªgamanapekkhitv± purisapadatthamev±pekkhitv± pulliªganiddeso dissati. Ta½ yath±? “Pañca paccekabuddhasat±ni imasmi½ isigilismi½ pabbate ciraniv±sino ahesu½. Ta½ kho pana rañño cakkavattissa pariº±yakaratana½ ñ±t±na½ paveset± aññ±t±na½ niv±ret±”ti. Katthaci padh±nav±cakena liªgattayena sam±n±dhikaraºassa guºasaddassa abhidheyyaliªg±nur³pa½ niddeso dissati. Ta½ yath±? S± itth² “s²lavat² kaly±ºadhamm±. Aµµhahi kho nakulam±te dhammehi samann±gato m±tug±mo k±yassa bhed± parammaraº± man±pak±yik±na½ dev±na½ sahabyata½ upapajjati. Saddho purisapuggalo, saddha½ kula½, citta½ danta½ sukh±vahan”ti.
Seyyaiti saddo pana yebhuyyena ok±rantabh±ve µhatv± liªgattay±nuk³lo bhavati ek±k±reneva tiµµhanato. Katha½? Seyyo amitto matiy± upeto. Es±va p³jan± seyyo, ek±ha½ j²vita½ seyyo.
“Dhammena ca al±bho yo,
yo ca l±bho adhammiko;
al±bho dhammiko seyyo,
yañce l±bho adhammiko.
Yaso ca appabuddh²na½, viññ³na½ ayaso ca yo;
ayasova seyyo viññ³na½, na yaso appabuddhina½.
Dummedhehi pasa½s± ca, viññ³hi garah± ca y±;
garah±va seyyo viññ³hi, yañce b±lappasa½san±.
Sukhañca k±mamayika½, dukkhañca pavivekika½;
paviveka½ dukkha½ seyyo, yañce k±mamaya½ sukha½.
J²vitañca adhammena, dhammena maraºañca ya½;
maraºa½ dhammika½ seyyo, yañce j²ve adhammikan”ti.

Evamaya½ seyya iti saddo ok±rantabh±ve µhatv± liªgattay±nuk³lo bhavati. Katthaci pana ±k±rantabh±ve µhatv± itthiliªg±nuk³lo dissati “itth²pi hi ekacciy±, seyy± posa jan±dhip±”ti. Niggah²tanto pana hutv± napu½sakaliªg±nuk³lo apasiddho. Eva½pak±re payoge ki½ tumhe na passath±ti. Eva½ vutt± ca te niruttar±va bhavissanti.

Sacepi te ettha eva½ vadeyyu½ “tattha tattha suttappadese aµµhakath±d²su ca ‘m±tug±mo’ti v± ‘m±tug±men±’ti v± ok±rantapulliªgabh±vena m±tug±masaddassa dassanato pulliªgabh³ta½ m±tug±masadda½ anapekkhitv± itthipadatthameva apekkhitv± “s± itth²”ti itth²saddena saddassa sambandhaggahaºa½ maya½ sampaµicch±ma, ‘orodho’ti v± ‘orodhen±’ti v± ok±rantapulliªgabh±vena µhitassa orodhasaddassa adassanato pana tumhehi vutta½ purimattha½ na sampaµicch±m±”ti. Tad± tesa½ im±ni vinayap±¼iya½ ±gatapad±ni dassetabb±ni “tena kho pana samayena r±j± udeno uyy±ne paric±resi saddhi½ orodhena, atha kho rañño udenassa orodho r±j±na½ udena½ etadavoc±”ti. Eva½ im±ni suttapad±ni dassetv± suttanip±taµµhakath±ya½ “r±mo n±ma r±j± kuµµharog² orodhehi ca n±µakehi ca jiguccham±no”ti vacanañca dassetv± “gacchatha tumhe garukulamupagantv± bhagavato saddhammassa ciraµµhitattha½ s±dhuka½ padabyañjan±ni uggaºhath±”ti uyyojetabb±.
Id±ni m±tug±masadd±d²su kiñci vinicchaya½ vad±ma– m±tug±masaddo ca orodhasaddo ca d±rasaddo c±ti ime itthipadatthav±cak±pi sam±n± ekantena pulliªg± bhavanti. Tesu d±rasaddassa ekasmi½ atthe vattam±nass±pi bahuvacanakattameva saddasatthavid³ icchanti, na ekavacanakatta½. Maya½ pana d±rasaddassa ekasmi½ atthe ekavacanakatta½, yebhuyyena pana bahuvacanakatta½ anuj±n±ma, bavhatthe vattabbameva natthi. P±¼iyañhi d±rasaddo yebhuyyena bahuvacanako bhavati, ekavacanako appo. Tatrime payog±–
“D±s± ca d±syo anuj²vino ca,
putt± ca d±r± ca mayañca sabbe;