Vimuttimaggapakaraŗa½

Ko so vimuttimaggo n±ma? Visuddhimaggo viya s²lasam±dhipańń±na½ visu½ visu½ vibhajitv± d²pako eko paµipattigantho. Tattha hi–
“S²la½ sam±dhi pańń± ca, vimutti ca anuttar±;
anubuddh± ime dhamm±, gotamena yasassin±”ti [d². ni. 2.186; a. ni. 4.1]–
Ima½ g±tha½ paµhama½ dassetv± tadatthavaŗŗan±vasena s²lasam±dhipańń±vimuttiyo visu½ visu½ vibhajitv± d²pit±. So pana gantho id±ni cinaraµµheyeva diµµho, cinabh±s±ya ca parivattito (1048-bu-va) saŖghap±lena n±ma bhikkhun±. Kena pana so kuto ca tattha ±n²toti na p±kaµameta½. Tassa pana saŖghap±lassa ±cariyo guŗabhadro n±ma mah±y±niko bhikkhu majjhima-indiyadesiko, so indiyaraµµhato cinaraµµha½ gacchanto paµhama½ s²ha¼ad²pa½ gantv± tato (978-bu-va) cinaraµµha½ gato. Tad± so tena ±n²to bhaveyya [vimuttimagga, visuddhimagga].
Tasmińhi vimuttimagge pubb±ciŗŗanid±nadassana½ dh±tunid±nadassanańca yatheva visuddhimagge ekaccev±do, tathev±gata½. Dosanid±nadassane pana “semh±dhiko r±gacarito, pitt±dhiko dosacarito, v±t±dhiko mohacarito. Semh±dhiko v± mohacarito, v±t±dhiko r±gacarito”ti tiŗŗampi r±gadosamoh±na½ dosaniyamo vutto. ¾cariyabuddhaghosena diµµhavimuttimaggapotthake pana “pitt±dhiko dosacarito”ti p±µho ³no bhaveyya.
Ańń±nipi bah³ni visuddhimagge paµikkhitt±ni tattha vimuttimagge gahetabbabh±vena dissanti. Katha½?
S²laniddese (1, 8-piµµhe) “ańńe pana siraµµho s²lattho, s²talattho s²latthoti evam±din±pi nayenettha attha½ vaŗŗayant²”ti paµikkhitto atthopi tattha gahetabbabh±vena dissati.
Tath± dhutaŖganiddese (1, 78-piµµhe) “yesampi kusalattikavinimutta½ dhutaŖga½, tesa½ atthato dhutaŖgameva natthi, asanta½ kassa dhunanato dhutaŖga½ n±ma bhavissati, dhutaguŗe sam±d±ya vattat²ti vacanavirodhopi ca nesa½ ±pajjati, tasm± ta½ na gahetabban”ti paµikkhitta½ pańńattidhutaŖgampi tattha dissati. Mah±µ²k±ya½ (1-104) pana “yesanti abhayagiriv±sike sandh±y±ha, te hi dhutaŖga½ n±ma pańńatt²ti vadant²”ti vaŗŗita½.
Tath± pathav²kasiŗaniddese (1, 144) “paµipad±visuddhi n±ma sasambh±riko upac±ro, upekkh±nubr³han± n±ma appan±, sampaha½san± n±ma paccavekkhaŗ±ti evameke vaŗŗayant²”ti-±din± paµikkhitta-ekev±dopi tattha dissati. Mah±µ²k±ya½ (1, 172) pana “eketi abhayagiriv±sino”ti vaŗŗita½.
Tath± khandhaniddese (2, 80-piµµhe) “balar³pa½ sambhavar³pa½ j±tir³pa½ rogar³pa½ ekacc±na½ matena middhar³pan”ti eva½ ańń±nipi r³p±ni ±haritv± por±ŗaµµhakath±ya½ tesa½ paµikkhittabh±vo pak±sito. Mah±µ²k±ya½ “ekacc±nanti abhayagiriv±s²nan”ti vaŗŗita½. Tesu j±tir³pa½ middhar³pańca vimuttimagge dassita½. Na kevala½ dassanamattameva, atha kho middhar³passa atthibh±vopi “middha½ n±ma tividha½ ±h±raja½ utuja½ cittajańc±ti. Tesu cittajameva n²varaŗa½ hoti, ses± pana dve arahatopi bhaveyyun”ti-±din± s±dhito.
Ett±vat± ca vimuttimagge visuddhimaggena asam±natth±na½ vuttabh±vo ca abhayagiriv±s²hi tassa ganthassa paµiggahitabh±vo ca sakk± ń±tu½. Ańń±nipi pana ²dis±ni asam±navacan±ni bah³ni tattha sa½vijjantiyeva, t±ni pana sabb±ni na sakk± idha dassetu½.
Yebhuyyena panassa karaŗappak±ro visuddhimaggassa viya hoti. Y± y± hi p±¼i abhidhammavibhaŖgato v± paµisambhid±maggato v± ańńasuttantehi v± ±netv± s±dhakabh±vena visuddhimagge dassiyati, tatthapi s± s± p±¼i yebhuyyena dissateva. T±su kańcimatta½ uddharitv± anuminanatth±ya dassayiss±ma.
Y± visuddhimagge (1, 47-piµµhe) “pańca s²l±ni p±ŗ±tip±tassa pah±na½ s²lan”ti-±dik± paµisambhid±maggap±¼i dassit±, s± vimuttimaggepi dissateva.
Yańca visuddhimagge (1, 137-piµµhe) “sam±dhi k±macchandassa paµipakkho…pe… vic±ro vicikicch±y±”ti vacana½ peµake vuttanti dassita½, tańca tatthapi tatheva dassetv± “tipeµake vuttan”ti niddiµµha½. Tipeµaketi n±mańca peµakopadesameva sandh±ya vutta½ bhaveyya. Tattha hi vivicceva k±meh²ti p±µhasa½vaŗŗan±ya½ “alobhassa p±rip³riy± k±mehi viveko sampajjati, adosassa. Amohassa p±rip³riy± akusalehi dhammehi viveko sampajjat²”ti p±µhassa tipeµake vuttabh±vo dassito. So ca p±µho peµakopadese (262-piµµhe) “tattha alobhassa p±rip³riy± vivitto hoti k±meh²”ti-±din± dissati.
Yath± ca visuddhimagge (1, 258-piµµhe) “ayampi kho bhikkhave ±n±p±nassatisam±dhi bh±vito”ti-±dik± p±¼i mah±vaggasa½yuttakato ±netv± dassit±, tatheva tatthapi.
Yath± ca visuddhimagge (1, 272-piµµhe) “ass±s±dimajjhapariyos±na½ satiy± anugacchato”ti-±di p±¼i ca (1, 273-piµµhe) kakac³pamap±¼i ca paµisambhid±maggato ±netv± dassit±, tatheva tatthapi.
Yath± ca visuddhimagge (2, 69-piµµhe) “katam± cint±may± pańń±”ti-±dik± ca p±¼i “tattha katama½ ±yakosallan”ti-±dik± ca p±¼i (2, 71-piµµhe) “dukkhe ń±ŗa½ atthapaµisambhid±”ti-±dik± ca p±¼i abhidhammavibhaŖgato ±netv± dassit±, tatheva tatthapi. Sabb±pi ca tattha vutt± ekavidhaduvidh±dipańń±pabhedakath± visuddhimagge vuttakath±ya yebhuyyena sam±n±yeva.
“Yena cakkhupas±dena, r³p±ni manupassati;
paritta½ sukhuma½ eta½, ³k±sirasam³paman”ti [visuddhi. 2.436; dha. sa. aµµha. 596]–
Ayampi g±th± vimuttimaggepi ±yasmat± s±riputtattherena bh±sitabh±veneva dassit±. Šk±sirasam³pamanti pada½ pana ³k±sam³pamanti tattha dissati, tańca paramparalekhak±na½ pam±dalekhamattameva siy±.
Cat³su saccesu visuddhimagge viya vacanatthato lakkhaŗato an³n±dhikato kamato antogadh±na½ pabhedato upam±to ca vinicchayo dassito, so ca yebhuyyena visuddhimaggena [visuddhi. 2.530] sam±noyeva.
Yath± ca visuddhimagge (2, 242-245) sammasanań±ŗakath±ya½ pańcanna½ khandh±na½ at²t±di-ek±dasavidhena ca anicc±dilakkhaŗattayena ca visu½ visu½ sammasananayo dassito, tatheva tatthapi. Cakkh±dijar±maraŗapariyos±nesu pana dhammesu dhammavic±rapariyos±n±na½ saµµhiy± eva dhamm±na½ anicc±dilakkhaŗattayena sammasananayo tattha dassito.
Visuddhimagge pana diµµhivisuddhiniddese (2, 230-232-piµµhesu) vutt± “yamaka½ n±mar³pańca…pe… ubho bhijjanti paccay±”ti g±th± ca, “na cakkhuto j±yare”ti-±dik± cha g±th±yo ca, “na sakena balena j±yare”ti-±dik± cha g±th±yo ca vimuttimagge bhaŖg±nupassan±ń±ŗakath±ya½ dassit±. T±su appamattakoyeva p±µhabhedo dissati.
Visuddhimagge (2, 261-2-piµµhesu) ar³pasattakesu ariyava½sakath±nayena vutto kal±pato ca yamakato ca sammasananayo vimuttimagge ettheva bhaŖg±nupassan±ń±ŗakath±ya½ dassito.
Vimuttimagge buddh±nussatikath±ya½ lokavid³ti padassa atthavaŗŗan±ya½ sattalokasaŖkh±ralokavasena dveyeva lok± dassit±, na pana ok±saloko yath± visuddhimagge (1, 199-200-piµµhesu).
Ett±vat± ca vimuttimaggo n±ma gantho k²disoti sakk± anuminitu½. So pana yath± na mah±vih±rav±s²na½ gantho hoti, eva½ mah±y±nik±nampi na hotiyeva therav±dapiµakameva niss±ya katabh±vato. Yasm± pana tattha na kińcipi s²ha¼ad²pika½ n±ma½ v± therav±do v± dissati, tasm± so s²ha¼ad²pe kataganthopi na hoti. Indiyaraµµhika½ pana n±mańca voh±ro ca tattha bah³su µh±nesu dissati, tasm± indiyaraµµhe kataganthova bhaveyya. Yasm± cassa peµakopadesa½ nissitabh±vo bah³su µh±nesu dissati, visesato pana middhar³passa atthibh±vo ca, arahatopi tassa atthibh±vo ca tameva niss±ya dass²yati, paµisambhid±maggagaŗµhipade ca peµaketi padassa [paµi. ma. aµµha. 1.1.36] atthavaŗŗan±ya½ “suttantapiµakatth±ya aµµhakath± peµaka½ mahis±sak±na½ gantho”ti vaŗŗito. Tasm± eso vimuttimaggo mahis±sakanik±yikena kato bhaveyy±ti amh±ka½ mati.