20. Magg±maggañ±ºadassanavisuddhiniddesavaººan±

Sammasanañ±ºakath±vaººan±

692. Eva½ maggañca amaggañca ñatv± µhita½ ñ±ºanti aya½ upakkilesavinimutt± v²thipaµipann± vipassan±paññ± ariyamaggassa pubbabh±gamaggo, aya½ obh±s±dibhedo dasavidho upakkileso na maggoti eva½ maggañca amaggañca y±th±vato vavatthapetv± µhita½ ñ±ºa½.
At²t±divasena anekabhedabhinne dhamme kal±pato saªkhipitv± sammasana½ kal±pasammasana½, aya½ kira jambud²pav±s²na½ abhil±po. “Ya½ kiñci r³pan”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.361; 2.113; 3.86; a. ni. 4.181) nayena hi dhamm±na½ vipassan± nayavipassan±, aya½ kira tambapaººid²pav±s²na½ abhil±po. Tenev±ha “kal±pasammasanasaªkh±t±ya nayavipassan±y±”ti. T±va-saddo kamattho, tena sammasanappak±r±na½ bahubhedata½ d²peti. Bahubh±vato hi tesa½ paµhama½ nayavipassan±ya yog±rambha½ anus±sati “nayavipassan±ya t±va yogo karaº²yo”ti. Kasm±ti codakavacana½. Tass±ya½ adhipp±yo– yadi magg±maggañ±ºadassanavisuddhi samp±detabb±, atha kasm± “nayavipassan±ya ±dito yogo k±tabbo”ti vuttanti. Itaro tass±ya½ adhigam³p±yoti dassento “±raddhavipassakass±”ti-±dim±ha. Teneta½ dasseti “vipassan±ya sati udayabbayañ±ºupp±do, udayabbayañ±ºe sati obh±s±di-upakkilesasambhavo, tato magg±maggavavatth±na½, tasm± tassa ±ditova ±rambhassa sambhavo natth²ti vipassan± paµhama½ ±raddhabb±”ti. Evampi paµhama½ nayavipassan±va kasm± ±raddhabb±ti ±ha “vipassan±ya ca kal±pasammasana½ ±d²”ti. Tañhi at²t±dibhedabhinn±na½ dhamm±na½ saªkhipitv± vavatth±navasena pavattanato ±dikammikassa sukara½ sammasananti ±dibh³ta½.
Tasm±ti ±dibh³tatt±. Atha v± tasm±ti yasm± ±raddhavipassakassa…pe… kal±pasammasana½ ±di, tasm±. Etanti kal±pasammasana½. Apic±ti-±di kal±pasammasanasseva vipassan±ya ±dibh±ve upacayahetudassana½. Udayabbayañ±ºapariyos±n± t²raºapariññ±, asampatte eva ca udayabbayañ±ºe magg±maggavavatth±na½ hot²ti ±ha “t²raºapariññ±ya vattam±n±y±”ti. Kal±pasammasane t±va yogo k±tabboti etth±pi tasseva paµham±rambhe k±raºa½ vuttanayeneva veditabba½. Yasm± kal±pasammasana½ n±ma ekavisuddhiyampi na antogadha½, ekacce ca ta½ an±masitv±va vipassan±c±ra½ vaººenti. Eva½ santepi ta½ suttantesu ekadesena, anavasesato ca dassita½. Paµisambhid±ya½ ±dikammik±na½ manasik±rasukarat±ya vipassan±ya ±dibh±vena µhapita½. Vipassantassa ca obh±s±d²su uppannesu magg±maggañ±ºasambhavo, tasm± “ta½ samp±detuk±men±”ti-±din± aya½ vic±ro katoti daµµhabba½.
693. Tatr±ti tasmi½ t²raºapariññ±ya ñ±tapariññ±nantarabh±ve, t±su v± pariññ±su. Vinicchayoti sar³pato, kiccato, bh³mito ca sanniµµh±na½. Lokuttar±pi purimasmi½ saccadvaye maggasampayutt± tividh±pi pariññ± kiccavasena labbhat²ti “lokiyapariññ±”ti visesetv± vutta½. Sabh±vadhamm±na½ lakkhaºasallakkhaºato ñeyya-abhimukh± paññ± abhiññ±paññ±. ѱtaµµheti ñ±tabh±vanimitta½. Abhiññeyyassa j±nanahetu “ñ±ºan”ti vuccati. Pariññ±paññ±ti anicc±dilakkhaº±ni paricchijja j±nanapaññ±. T²raºaµµheti sammasanabh±vahetu. Pah±napaññ±ti pah±tabbassa pajahanapaññ±. Vedayit±dilakkhaºavidhurat±ya ruppanalakkhaºa½ paccattalakkhaºa½ vutta½. Tesa½yeva paccattalakkhaºasallakkhaºavasena gahitadhamm±na½yeva. Yath± pathav²phass±d²na½ kakkha¼aphusan±dilakkhaº±ni t²supi khaºesu sallakkhitabb±ni paµiniyatar³pat±ya sabh±vasiddh±neva hutv± gayhanti, na evamaniccat±dilakkhaº±ni. T±ni pana bhaªgudayabbayap²¼±vasavattan±k±ramukhena gahetabbato sam±ropitar³p±ni viya gayhant²ti vutta½ “s±maññalakkhaºa½ ±ropetv±”ti. Lokiyapariññ±na½yeva adhippetatt± lakkhaº±rammaºikavipassan±va “pah±napariññ±”ti vutt±.
Saªkh±rapaµicchedatoti n±mar³pavavatth±nato, y± “diµµhivisuddh²”ti vutt±. Keci pana “khandh±d²na½ vipassan±ya bh³mibh±vato sabbopi khandh±divic±ro saªkh±raparicchedo”ti vadanti. “Paccattalakkhaºapaµivedhasseva ±dhipaccan”ti imin± n±mar³papaccayapariggahapaññ±na½ t²raºapah±n±samatthata½ dasseti T±sampi pana “namanalakkhaºa½ n±ma½, ruppanalakkhaºa½ r³pan”ti ar³par³p±na½ s±dh±raº±k±rasallakkhaºavasena pavattiy± eken±k±rena t²raºapariy±yo, diµµhikaªkh±vikkhambhanena pah±napariy±yo labbhat²ti siy± t²raºapah±nesupi ±dhipaccanti vadanti. Ukkaµµhaniddesena pana yath± diµµhivisuddhiy±va saªkh±raparicchedat±, eva½ lakkhaº±rammaºikavipassan±ya eva t²raºapah±nakiccat± veditabb±. Eva½ hi tissopi pariññ± vavatthit± honti, aññath± saªk±ro siy±. T²raºapariññ±ya bh³mi tattha paññ±ya aniccat±dilakkhaºasant²raºato. Ten±ha “etasmi½…pe… ±dhipaccan”ti. K±ma½ udayabbayañ±ºampi kañci micch±bhinivesa½ pajahati, tassa pana ath±magatatt± na s±tisaya½ pah±nanti vutta½ “bhaªg±nupassana½ ±di½ katv± upari pah±napariññ±ya bh³m²”ti. Aniccato anupassantoti anicc±k±rato saªkh±re anupassanto sammasanto. Niccasaññanti “te nicc± sassat±”ti pavatta½ micch±sañña½. Saññ±s²sena diµµhicitt±nampi gahaºa½ daµµhabba½. Eseva nayo ito paresupi. Nibbindantoti anicc±nupassan±disambh³t±ya nibbid±nupassan±ya saªkh±re nibbijjanavasena passanto. Nandinti sapp²tikataºha½. Virajjantoti vir±g±nupassan±ya virajjanavasena yath± saªkh±resu r±go nuppajjati, eva½ anupassanto. Tath±bh³to hi r±ga½ pajahat²ti vuccati. Nirodhentoti nirodh±nupassan±ya yath± saªkh±r± nirujjhantiyeva, na ±yati½ punabbhavavasena uppajjanti, eva½ anupassanto. Tath±bh³to hi saªkh±r±na½ samudaya½ pajahati n±ma anuppattidhammat±p±danato. Paµinissajjantoti paµinissagg±nupassan±ya yath± saªkh±r± na puna ±diyanti, eva½ vossajjanto. Ten±ha “±d±na½ pajahat²”ti, nicc±divasena v± gahaºa½ vissajjet²ti attho. S±dhitatt±ti samp±ditatt±. Itar±ti t²raºapah±napariññ±. Eva½ pariññ± niddisitv± pariññ±kkamavasenapi kaªkh±vitaraº±nantara½ “kal±pasammasane yogo k±tabbo”ti yv±yamattho vutto, ta½ nigamavasena pacc±haranto “tena vuttan”ti-±dim±ha, ta½ vuttatthameva.
694. Tatr±ti tasmi½ kal±pasammasane vibh±vetabbe, tassa v± kal±pasammasanassa ±dibh±ve. Aya½ p±¼²ti dassiyam±na½ paµisambhid±maggap±¼im±ha. Tattha saªkhipitv± vavatth±ne paññ±ti at²t±dibhedabhinne dhamme ekato saªgahetv± anicc±divasena vinicchaye s±dhetabbe ta½s±dhan²y± paññ±. Sammasane aniccat±divasena t²raºe ñ±ºanti pavuccati, s± katha½ hot²ti attho. Vavatth±ne sammasaneti ca nipph±detabbe bhummavacana½. Ya½ kiñci r³panti-±d²ni pad±ni heµµh± vuttatth±neva. Sabba½ r³pa½ aniccato vavatthapet²ti-±d²ni pana yasm± parato vaººiyissanti, tasm± tattheva nesa½ attha½ vibh±vayiss±ma.
P±¼ivavatth±na½ pana eva½ veditabba½– ettha hi ±dikammik±na½ vipassan±manasik±rasukhattha½ “ya½ kiñci r³pan”ti-±din± paµhama½ t±va pañcakkhandh± at²t±divibh±gamukhena gahit±, te pana khandh± yasm± dv±r±rammaºehi saddhi½ dv±rappavattadhammavasena vibh±ga½ labbhanti, tasm± tadanantara½ dv±rachakk±divasena dasa chakk± gahit±. Yasm± pana lakkhaºesu anattalakkhaºa½ dukkhavibh±ga½, tasm± tassa vibh±van±ya cha dh±tuyo gahit±. Tato yesu kasiºesu ito b±hirak±na½ att±bhiniveso, t±ni imesa½ jh±n±na½ ±rammaºabh±vena upaµµh±n±k±ramatt±n²ti dassanattha½ dasa kasiº±ni gahit±ni. Tato dukkh±nupassan±ya pariv±rabh±vena paµikk³l±k±ravasena dvatti½sa koµµh±s± gahit±. Pubbe khandhavasena saªkhepato gahit± dhamm± n±tisaªkhepavitth±ranayena, vitth±ranayena ca manasi k±tabb±ti dassanattha½ dv±das±yatan±ni, aµµh±rasa dh±tuyo ca gahit±. Tesu ime dhamm± satipi suññanir²ha-aby±p±rabh±ve dhammasabh±vato ±dhipaccavasena pavattant²ti anattalakkhaºavibh±vanattha½ indriy±ni gahit±ni. Eva½ anekabhedabhinn±pime dhamm± bh³mittayapariy±pannat±ya tividh±va hont²ti dassanattha½ tisso dh±tuyo gahit±.
Ett±vat± nimitta½ dassetv± pavatta½ dassetu½ k±mabhav±dayo nava bhav± gahit±. Ettake abhiññeyyavisese pavattamanasik±rakosallena saºhasukhumesu nibbattitamahaggatadhammesu manasik±ro pavattetabboti dassanattha½ jh±nappamaññ±rupp±ni gahit±ni. Tattha jh±n±ni n±ma vutt±vases±rammaº±ni r³p±vacarajjh±n±ni. Paccayapaccayuppannavibh±gato ime dhamm± bhinditv± manasi k±tabb±ti dassanattha½ paµiccasamupp±daªg±ni gahit±ni. Paccay±k±ramanasik±ro hi lakkhaºattaya½ sukhena, suµµhutarañca vibh±veti, tasm± pacchato gahito. Evamete sammasan²yabh±vena gahit± khandh±divasena koµµh±sato pañcav²satividh±. Pabhedato pana at²t±dibheda½ an±masitv±va gayham±n± dv²hi ³n±ni dvesat±ni honti.
Tattha aniccato vavatthapet²ti-±diko paµhamo lakkhaºavavatth±panav±ro. Anicca½ khayaµµhen±ti-±diko dutiyo hetuv±ro lakkhaº±na½ hetukittanato. Anicca½ saªkhatanti-±diko pana hetupatiµµh±panav±ro p±kaµabh±vasallakkhaºato. Khayaµµhen±ti hi khayasabh±vato yasm± r³pa½ khayasabh±va½ uppajjitv± khaya½ vaya½ bheda½ gacchati, tasm± aniccanti attho. Bhayaµµhen±ti bh±yitabbabh±vato yasm± r³pa½ pabhaªgurat±ya bhay±naka½, tasm± dukkhanti. Ten±ha bhagav± “yadanicca½, ta½ dukkhan”ti (sa½. ni. 30.15, 45, 46, 76, 85; 2.4.14; paµi. ma. 2.10). As±rakaµµhen±ti as±rakabh±vato, attas±ravirahatoti attho. Tatiyav±re pana “r³pa½ aniccan”ti vatv± tassa hetu½ patiµµh±petu½ “saªkhatan”ti-±di vutta½. Yasm± samecca sambh³ya paccayehi kata½, anur³pe ca paccaye paµicca, na vin± tehi sama½, samm± ca uppanna½, tasm± khayavayavir±ganirodhadhammanti. Na hi paccayanibbatta½ anirujjhanaka½ n±ma atthi. Ten±ha bhagav± “ya½ ta½ r³pa½ j±ta½ bh³ta½ saªkhata½ palokadhamma½, ta½ vata m± palujj²ti neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.379). Etena anicc± pathav²dh±tu paccayanibbattatt± tadañña½ paccayanibbatta½ viy±ti dasseti. Esa nayo sesadhammesupi.
Id±ni anvayato, byatirekato ca saªkhatadhamm±na½ aniccata½ patiµµh±petu½ “j±tipaccay±”ti-±di vutta½. Aniccalakkhaºasseva cettha patiµµh±pana½ tasmi½ patiµµh±pite sesalakkhaºadvayassapi patiµµh±panasiddhito.
Imin± peyy±lena ime dhammar±sayo sa½khitt±ti sambandho. “Dv±r±rammaºehi saddhi½ dv±rappavatt± dhamm±, pañcakkhandh±”ti ida½ abhiññeyyaniddese “cakkhu½, bhikkhave, abhiññeyyan”ti-±din± (paµi. ma. 1.3; sa½. ni. 4.46) dv±r±rammaºehi saddhi½ dv±rappavatte dhamme dassetv± tesa½ pañcahi khandhehi saªgahitata½ dassetu½ “r³pa½ abhiññeyya½…pe… viññ±ºa½ abhiññeyyan”ti ±gatatt± vutta½. Paµisambhid±ya½ (paµi. ma. 1.48) pana “ya½ kiñci r³pan”ti-±din± paµhama½ pañcakkhandhe dassetv± “cakkhun”ti-±din± dv±r±rammaºehi saddhi½ dv±rappavatt± dhamm± dassit±. Tath±dassane k±raºa½ heµµh± vuttameva.
Kasm± panettha ime dhammar±sayo sa½khitt±ti p±¼iya½ vitth±rato ±gatatt±ti dassento “vutta½ hetan”ti-±dim±ha. Tenev±ha “ta½ tattha…pe… sa½khittan”ti. Tattha tanti abhiññeyya½. Etth±ti abhiññeyyaniddese. “Viññ±ºa½ mano dhamm±”ti-±din± tattha tattha koµµh±se ye lokuttaradhamm± ±gat±. Keci pana “etth±ti paµisambhid±yan”ti vadanti, ta½ na sundara½. Sammasanupag± eva hi dhamm± paµisambhid±ya½ gahit± sammasanav±rassa adhippetatt±, na abhiññeyyaniddese (paµi. ma. 1.3; sa½. ni. 4.46) viya sabbeva abhiññeyy± dhamm±. Ye r³p±r³padhamm±. Yass±ti yogino. Tesu tena sammasana½ ±rabhitabba½ yath±p±kaµa½ vipassan±bhinivesoti katv±. Pacch± pana anupaµµhahantepi up±yena upaµµhah±petv± anavasesatova sammasitabb±.
695. “At²ta½ r³pa½ aniccan”ti-±din± aniccato sammasanassa at²t±divibh±g± pavattiµµh±nabh³t±ti ±ha “ek±dasahi ok±seh²”ti. Vavatth±pana½ n±ma sanniµµh±na½. Aniccato sanniµµh±nañcettha “aniccan”ti vipassan±v±ti ±ha “aniccanti sammasat²”ti.
Kathanti sammasan±k±ro pucchitoti ta½ parato idheva p±¼iya½ dutiyav±re vuttanayenev±ti saªkhepeneva vissajjeti. Id±ni tamattha½ p±kaµatara½ k±tu½ “vuttañhetan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha -ti hetu-atthe nip±to. Yasm± “r³pa½ at²t±n±gatapaccuppanna½ anicca½ khayaµµhen±”ti eva½ vutta½, tasm± imin± vuttanayena aniccanti sammasat²ti yojan±.
Evampi saªkhepoyev±ti vibhajitv± dassetu½ “es±”ti-±di vutta½. At²teti at²te bhave. ¾dikammikassa hi ida½ sammasanavidh±na½, tasm± bhavavasena addh±bhedo adhippeto. Ten±ha “nayima½ bhava½ sampattant²”ti. Ettha iti-saddo hetu-attho. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– ya½ at²tabhave pariy±panna½ r³pa½, ta½ at²teyeva bhave kh²ºa½, tato na ima½ bhava½ sampatta½, tasm± anicca½ khayaµµhena khayasabh±vatt±ti sammasat²ti. Esa nayo ya½ an±gatanti-±d²supi.
Ya½ bahiddh±, tampi bahiddh± eva kh²yati, na ajjhattabh±va½ gacchat²ti anicca½ khayaµµhen±ti, ya½ o¼±rika½, tampi tattheva kh²yat²ti anicca½ khayaµµhen±ti-±din± yojetabba½.
Ida½ sabbamp²ti ida½ at²t±dibhedassa r³passa sammasanato sabba½ ek±dasavidhampi sammasana½ eka½ sammasana½ aniccato sammasananti katv±.
Tanti ta½ ek±dasavidhampi r³pa½. Sappaµibhayat±y±ti bhay±nakat±ya. Bhay±vaha½ hot²ti appah²navipall±sassa “aha½ vinass±mi, mama santaka½ vinassat²”ti cintentassa bhayajanaka½ hoti. S²hopamasutte dev±na½ viy±ti s²hopamasutte desiyam±ne dev±na½ viya. Tattha hi–
“Yad± tath±gato loke uppajjati araha½ samm±sambuddho…pe… so dhamma½ deseti ‘iti r³pa½, iti r³passa samudayo, iti r³passa atthaªgamo. Iti vedan±… iti saññ±… iti saªkh±r±… iti viññ±ºa½, iti viññ±ºassa samudayo, iti viññ±ºassa atthaªgamo’ti. Yepi te, bhikkhave, dev± d²gh±yuk± vaººavanto sukhabahul± uccesu vim±nesu ciraµµhitik±, tepi tath±gatassa dhammadesana½ sutv± yebhuyyena bhaya½ sa½vega½ sant±sa½ ±pajjanti ‘anicc±va kira bho maya½ sam±n± niccamh±ti amaññimha, addhuv±va…pe… asassat±va kira bho maya½ sam±n± sassatamh±ti amaññimha, mayampi kira bho anicc± addhuv± asassat± sakk±yapariy±pann±”’ti (sa½. ni. 3.78; a. ni. 4.33)–

Eva½ dev±na½ bhayuppatti ±gat±.

Khandhapañcaka½, tadekadeso v± attav±d²hi “att±”ti parikapp²yati, tañca ekantato anicca½, dukkhañc±ti ±ha “yañhi anicca½, ta½ dukkhan”ti-±di. T²su dukkhat±su saªkh±radukkhat±va by±pin², “yadanicca½, ta½ dukkhan”ti ca adhippet±ti vutta½ “aniccata½ v± udayabbayapaµip²¼ana½ v±”ti. Att± abhaviss±ti “k±rako vedako saya½vas²”ti eva½bh³to att± abhaviss±ti adhipp±yo. Evañhi sati r³passa ±b±dh±ya sa½vattana½ ayujjam±naka½ siy±. Yath± r³pakkhandhe abhedato tividha½ sammasana½, bhedato tetti½savidha½, eva½ vedan±kkhandh±d²sup²ti imamattha½ “esa nayo”ti atidisati. Tena khandhavasena t±va bhedato pañcasaµµhi-adhik± sata½ sammasanav±r± dassit± honti. Imin± nayena dv±rachakk±d²supi yath±raha½ sammasanabhedo veditabbo.
696. Niyamato saªkhat±dibheda½ hot²ti eka½sena saªkhatat±divisesavanta½ hoti asaªkhat±disabh±ve aniccat±ya asambhavato. Ass±ti aniccassa. Pariy±yadassanatthanti vevacanadassanattha½, ta½ pana “khayadhamman”ti-±d²na½ vasena veditabba½, na purim±na½ tiººa½. Na hi tadeva tassa pariy±yo hoti, n±pi saªkhatapaµiccasamuppannapad±ni hutv± abh±vad²panato p±kabh±vad²panato. P±kabh±vad²panena pana aniccat±ya s±dhanapakkhe tiµµhanti. Teneva hi sabbesa½ pad±na½ pariy±yat±bh±vato “n±n±k±rehi v±”ti vikappantara½ gahita½. Manasik±rappavatt²dassanatthanti aniccat±ya upabr³hanamanasik±rapavattidassanattha½.