454. “Viññ±ºan”ti pada½ apekkhitv± “aby±kata½ vip±kan”ti ±diko napu½sakaniddeso, tato eva adhikat±by±kat±pekkh±ya duvidhanti vutta½. Aññath± r³panibb±n±nampi aby±katabh±vato ta½ catubbidhanti vattabba½ siy±. Vip±kassa k±m±vacar±dibh±vo kusale vuttanayeneva veditabbo. Ahetukat± sahetukat± viya sampayuttahetuvasena, na nibbattakahetuvasena. Vip±kassa hi sahetukat± sahetukakammavasena sijjham±n±pi sampayuttahetuvaseneva vuccati, aññath± ahetuk±nampi sahetukat± ±pajjeyy±ti. Kasm± pana sahetukassa ahetuko vip±ko hot²ti? Tattha k±raºa½ vuttameva. Kiñca ±rammaº±bhinip±tamattesu pañcasu viññ±ºesu yath± alobh±disampayogo na sambhavati, eva½ mandataramandakiccesu sampaµicchanasant²raºes³ti het³na½ uppattiy± asambhavatopi nesa½ ahetukat± daµµhabb±.
Manoviññ±ºato uppajjanavisiµµhamananakicc±na½ abh±vato manomatt± dh±tu manodh±tu.
Cakkhusannissita½ hutv± r³passa vij±nana½ lakkhaºa½ etass±ti cakkhusannissitar³pavij±nanalakkhaºa½. Tattha cakkhusannissitavacanena r³p±rammaºa½ añña½ viññ±ºa½ nivatteti. Vij±nanaggahaºena cakkhusannissite phass±dike nivatteti. Cakkhur³paggahaºena nissayato, ±rammaºato ca viññ±ºa½ vibh±veti ubhay±dh²navuttikatt±. Yadi hi cakkhu n±ma na siy±, andh±pi r³pa½ passeyyu½, na ca passanti. Yadi ca n²l±dir³pa½ n±ma na siy±, des±diniyamena na bhavitabba½, attheva ca niyamo, ekantas±rammaºat± ca cittassa vutt±ti “±rammaºena vin± n²l±di-±bh±sa½ citta½ pavattat²”ti eva½ pavatto v±do micch±v±doti veditabba½. Ten±ha bhagav± “cakkhuñca paµicca r³pe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññ±ºan”ti-±di (ma. ni. 1.204, 400; 3.421, 425; sa½. ni. 2.44; 4.60; kath±. 465).
Kasm± panettha vacanabhedo katoti? Ekampi cakkhu viññ±ºassa paccayo hoti, r³pa½ pana anekameva sa½hatanti imassa visesassa dassanattha½. Ki½ pana k±raºa½ ekampi cakkhu viññ±ºassa paccayo hoti, r³pa½ pana anekamev±ti? Paccayabh±vavisesato. Cakkhu hi cakkhuviññ±ºassa nissayapurej±ta-indriyavippayuttapaccayehi paccayo honta½ atthibh±veneva hoti, tasmi½ sati tassa bh±vato, asati abh±vato. Yato ta½ atthi-avigatapaccayehissa paccayo hot²ti vuccati, ta½nissayat± cassa na ekadesena all²yanavasena icchitabb± ar³pabh±vato, atha kho garur±j±d²su sissar±japuris±d²na½ viya tappaµibaddhavuttit±ya. Itare pana paccay± tena tena visesena veditabb±. Sv±ya½ paccayabh±vo na ekasmi½ na sambhavat²ti ekampi cakkhu viññ±ºassa paccayo hot²ti “cakkhuñca paµicc±”ti ekavacanena niddeso kato.
R³pa½ pana yadipi cakkhu viya purej±ta-atthi-avigatapaccayehi paccayo hoti puretara½ hutv± vijjam±nakkhaºeyeva upak±rakatt±, tath±pi anekameva sa½hata½ hutv± paccayo hoti ±rammaºabh±vato. Yañhi paccayadhamma½ sabh±vabh³ta½, parikappit±k±ramatta½ v± viññ±ºa½ vibh±venta½ pavattati, tadaññesañca satipi paccayabh±ve so tassa s±rammaºasabh±vat±ya ya½ kiñci an±lambitv± pavattitu½ asamatthassa olubbha pavattik±raºat±ya ±lamban²yato ±rammaºa½ n±ma. Tassa yasm± yath± tath± sabh±v³paladdhivasena ±rammaºapaccayal±bho, tasm± cakkhuviññ±ºa½ r³pa½ ±rabbha pavattam±na½ tassa sabh±va½ vibh±ventameva pavattati. S± cassa indriy±dh²navuttikassa ±rammaºasabh±v³paladdhi, na ekadvikal±pagatavaººavasena hoti, n±pi katipayakal±pagatavaººavasena, atha kho ±bhog±nur³pa½ ±p±thagatavaººavasen±ti anekameva r³pa½ sa½haccak±rit±ya viññ±ºassa paccayo hot²ti dassento bhagav± “r³pe c±”ti bahuvacanena niddisi.
Ya½ pana “r³p±yatana½ cakkhuviññ±ºadh±tuy± ta½sampayuttak±nañca dhamm±na½ ±rammaºapaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.2) vutta½, ta½ kathanti? Tampi y±disa½ r³p±yatana½ cakkhuviññ±ºassa ±rammaºapaccayena paccayo hoti, t±disameva sandh±ya vutta½. K²disa½ pana tanti? Samuditanti p±kaµoyamattho. Evañca katv± yadeke vadanti “±yatanasallakkhaºavasena cakkhuviññ±º±dayo sallakkhaº±rammaº±, na dabbasallakkhaºavasen±”ti, tampi yuttameva hoti. Na cettha samud±y±rammaºat± ±saªkitabb± samud±y±bhogassev±bh±vato. Samudit± pana vaººadhamm± ±rammaºapaccay± honti. Katha½ pana pacceka½ asamatth± samudit± ±rammaº± paccay± honti, na hi pacceka½ daµµhu½ asakkont± andh± samudit± passant²ti? Nayidamekantika½ visu½ visu½ asamatth±na½ sivik±vahan±d²su samatthat±ya dassanato. Kes±d²nañca yasmi½ µh±ne µhit±na½ pacceka½ vaººa½ gahetu½ na sakk±, tasmi½yeva µh±ne samudit±na½ vaººa½ gahetu½ sakk±ti bhiyyopi tesa½ sa½haccak±rit± paribyatt±. Etena cakkhuviññ±ºassa param±ºur³pa½ ±rammaºa½, ud±hu ta½samud±yoti-±dik± codan± paµikkhitt±ti veditabb±. “Sotañca paµicca sadde c±”ti-±d²supi (ma. ni. 1.204, 400; 3.421, 425, 426) eseva nayo. Eva½ ubhay±dh²navuttikat±ya cakkhuviññ±ºassa nissayato, ±rammaºato ca vibh±vana½ kata½, eva½ sotaviññ±º±d²supi yath±raha½ vattabba½.
R³pamatt±rammaºarasanti r³p±yatanamattasseva ±rammaºakaraºarasa½. Mattasaddena yath± ±rammaºantara½ nivatteti, eva½ r³p±yatanepi labbham±ne ekacce visese nivatteti. Na hi cakkhuviññ±ºa½ vaººamattato añña½ kiñci visesa½ tattha gahetu½ sakkoti. Ten±ha bhagav± “pañcahi viññ±ºehi na kiñci dhamma½ paµivij±n±ti aññatra abhinip±tamatt±”ti. Cakkhuviññ±ºa½ uppajjam±na½ r³p±rammaºe eva uppajjanato tadabhimukhabh±vena gayhat²ti vutta½ “r³p±bhimukhabh±vapaccupaµµh±nan”ti. Attano anantara½ uppajjam±n±na½ ar³padhamm±na½ samanantaravigat± ar³padhamm± pavatti-ok±sad±nena anantarasamanantaranatthivigatapaccayehi upak±rak± nissay±rammaºadhamm± viya ±sannak±raºanti dassento ±ha “r³p±rammaº±ya kiriyamanodh±tuy± apagamapadaµµh±nan”ti. Sotaviññ±º±d²supi vuttanayeneva attho veditabbo.
Cakkhuviññ±º±digahita½ r³p±di-±rammaºa½ tadanantarameva aparipatanta½ katv± sampaµicchant² gaºhant² viya hot²ti vutta½ “r³p±disampaµicchanaras±”ti. Tath±bh±vena sampaµicchanabh±vena paccupatiµµhat²ti tath±bh±vapaccupaµµh±n±.
Chasu ±rammaºesu kad±ci pañcanna½, tato v± katipay±na½ vij±nanasabh±v±pi cha¼±rammaºavij±nanalakkhaº± vutt± ta½sabh±v±nativattanato, chasveva v± itaresa½ ±rammaº±na½ antogadhatt±. Sant²raº±dikicc±ti sant²raºatad±rammaºakicc± v±, sant²raºatad±rammaºapaµisandhibhavaªgacutikicc± v±ti adhipp±yo. “Hadayavatthupadaµµh±n±”ti ida½ im±sa½ dvinna½ manoviññ±ºadh±t³na½ ekanteneva hadayavatthusannissayat±ya vutta½. Heµµh± vuttanayena pana ta½ta½anantar±t²taviññ±º±pagamapadaµµh±n±tipi vattu½ vaµµatiyeva. Tass± bhedoti tass± vip±kamanoviññ±ºadh±tuy± “duvidh±”ti vutt±ya duvidhat±saªkh±to bhedo. Ekantamiµµh±rammaºeti ekanteneva iµµhe ±rammaºe, ativiya iµµh±rammaºeti attho. Pañcadv±re ceva javan±vas±ne c±ti ettha pañcadv±re sampaµicchanavoµµhabban±na½ antar±¼a½ µh±na½, itaratra javanabhavaªg±nanti eva½ dviµh±n± hoti. Itar±yapi sant²raºatad±rammaºak±le yath±vuttameva µh±na½, paµisandhi-±dik±le pana cutibhavaªg±na½ antar±¼a½ paµisandhiy±, paµisandhi-±vajjan±na½ tad±rammaº±vajjan±na½ javan±vajjan±na½ voµµhabban±vajjan±nañca antar±¼a½ bhavaªgassa, tad±rammaºapaµisandh²na½ javanapaµisandh²na½ v± antar±¼a½ cutiy± µh±nanti veditabba½.
Chas³ti ettha pubbe vuttanayeneva vibh±go veditabbo. K±yassa nissayabh³t±na½ n±ti-iµµhaphoµµhabbabh³t±na½ paµighaµµan±nigha½sassa balavabh±vato k±yaviññ±ºa½ sukhasampayutta½. Up±d±r³p±na½yeva ghaµµan± dubbal±ti cakkhuviññ±º±d²ni upekkh±sahagat±ni. Ten±ha “sesa½ upekkh±yuttan”ti. Sesa½ chabbidhampi.
Alobh±dos±moh± ceva alobh±dos± ca alobh±dayo, tehi alobh±d²hi vip±kahet³hi sampayutta½ alobh±divip±kahetusampayutta½. K±m±vacarakusala½ viya somanass±dibhedatoti yath± k±m±vacara½ kusala½ somanassupekkh±ñ±ºasaªkh±rabhedato aµµhavidha½, evamidamp²ti aµµhavidhat±ya sadisata½ dasseti. K±m±vacarabh±vato h²n±dito, yon²su uppattito ca sadisameva, sampayuttadhammato pana ±rammaºato, pavatti-±k±rato ca visadisa½. Tath± hi kusala½ kammadv±ravasena pavattati, na ida½, vip±k±na½ aviññattijanakatt±. Uppattidv±ravasena pana imass±pi attheva pavattibhedo pañcadv±ramanodv±resu mah±vip±k±na½ tad±rammaºavasena pavattisambhavato. Yath± pana kusala½ gativasena pañcavidha½, viññ±ºaµµhitivasena sattavidhañca, na evamida½ tadekadese eva uppajjanato. Tattha ±rammaºato, ekaccapavatti-±k±rato ca visadisata½ dassetu½ “yath± pan±”ti-±di vutta½. Chasu ±rammaºes³ti paritt±di-at²t±di-ajjhatt±dippabhedesu chasu ±rammaºesu.
¾gaman±divasen±ti ±gamanapaccayavasena. Tattha ekacc±na½ ±cariy±na½ matena mukhe calite ±d±satale mukhanimitta½ calana½ viya asaªkh±rassa kusalassa vip±ko asaªkh±ro, sasaªkh±rassa kusalassa vip±ko sasaªkh±roti eva½ ±gamanavasena. Ekacc±na½ pana ±cariy±na½ matena balavantehi vibh³tehi paccayehi kamm±d²hi uppanno asaªkh±ro, dubbalehi sasaªkh±roti eva½ paccayavasena. Sampayuttadhamm±nanti p±¼iya½ sar³pato ±gatasampayuttadhamm±na½. Tesa½ hi vasena kusalato vip±kassa vises±bh±vo. Niruss±hanti ettha uss±ho n±ma anupacchinn±vijj±taºh±m±nasant±ne vip±kupp±danasamatthat±saªkh±to by±p±ro, so vip±kesu natth²ti ta½ niruss±ha½. Kusalesu pana abhiññ±vasapavattesupi atthev±ti ta½ sa-uss±ha½.
Lobh±d²na½ ekantas±vajjat±ya ayonisomanasik±rahetuk±na½ natthi vip±kabh±vo, alobh±d²nampi ekanta-anavajjasabh±v±na½ k±raºassa tabbidhurat±ya nattheva akusalavip±kabh±voti ±ha “akusalavip±ka½ ahetukamev±”ti. Yath± ati-iµµhe, iµµhamajjhatte ca ±rammaºe vedan±bhedasabbh±vato kusalavip±kamanoviññ±ºadh±tu duvidh± hoti somanassasahagat±, upekkh±sahagat±ti, na eva½ ati-aniµµhe, aniµµhamajjhatte ca ±rammaºe vedan±bhedo atth²ti akusalavip±kamanoviññ±ºadh±tu ekamev±ti “sattavidhan”ti vutta½. Sati hi tattha vedan±bhede ati-aniµµhe domanassena bhavitabba½, na ca paµighena vin± domanassa½ uppajjat²ti.
K±yaviññ±ºassa dukkhasahagatat± kusalavip±ke vuttavipariy±yena veditabb±. Upekkh± h²n±ti ekantanih²nassa akusalassa vip±kabh±vato upekkh±pi sam±n± h²n± eva dukkhasabh±vatt±. Ten±ha “dukkha½ viya n±titikhiº±”ti. Yath± dukkha½ ativiya tikhiºa½ kaµuka½, na evamaya½, tath±pi dukkhasabh±veneva pavattati. Na hi akusalassa vip±ko adukkho hoti. Upekkh±bh±vo cassa balavat± b±dhiyam±nassa paµippaharitu½ asakkontassa dubbalassa purisassa tena kariyam±nab±dh±ya upekkhan± viy±ti daµµhabbo. Itares³ti kusalavip±kesu.
R³p±vacaranti r³p±vacaravip±kaviññ±ºa½. Vip±kakath± hes±ti. Kusala½ viy±ti r³p±vacarakusala½ viya. Na hi r³p±vacaravip±ko tadaññakusalasadiso. Apica sambandhisadd± ete, yadida½ “kusala½, vip±ko”ti ca. Tasm± yath± “m±tara½ payirup±sat²”ti vutte attano m±taranti avuttampi siddhameveta½, eva½ idh±p²ti attano kusala½ viy±ti attho. Kusalasadisat± cettha dhammato, ±rammaºato ca veditabb±. Tath± hi ye phass±dayo kusale labbhanti, te vip±kepi labbhanti. Yasmi½ ca ±rammaºe kusala½ pavattati, tattheva aya½ vip±kopi pavattati. Ya½ panettha pañcamajjh±nacitta½ abhiññ±ppatta½, tassa vip±ko eva natthi. Kasm± natthi? Asambhavato, ±nisa½sabh³tatt± ca. Tañhi vip±ka½ denta½ r³p±vacarameva dadeyya. Na hi aññabh³mika½ kamma½ aññabh³mika½ vip±ka½ deti. Kammanimitt±rammaºat± ca r³p±vacaravip±kassa vutt±ti na ta½ añña½ ±rabbha pavattati. Paritt±rammaº±di-±rammaºañca ta½ na hot²ti ayamasambhavo. Jh±nassa ±nisa½sabh³tañca d±n±d²na½ tasmi½ attabh±ve paccayal±bho viy±ti.