1. S²laniddesavaººan±

S²lasar³p±dikath±vaººan±

6. Evanti vuttappak±rena. Anekaguºasaªg±haken±ti adhis²lasikkh±d²na½, aññesañca anekesa½ guº±na½ saªg±hakena. S²lasam±dhipaññ±mukhen±ti “sabbe saªkh±r± anicc±”ti-±d²su (dha. pa. 277; therag±. 676; netti. 5) viya vipassan±matt±dimukhena saªkhepato adesetv± s²lasam±dhipaññ±mukhena desitopi, sattati½s±yapi v± bodhipakkhiyadhamm±na½ visuddhimaggantogadhatt± tattha s²lasam±dhipaññ± mukha½ pamukha½ katv± desitopi. Etena s²lasam±dhipaññ±su avasesabodhipakkhiyadhamm±na½ sabh±vato, upak±rato ca antogadhabh±vo d²pitoti veditabba½. Atisaªkhepadesitoyeva hoti sabh±vavibh±g±dito avibh±vitatt±. N±lanti na pariyatta½ na samattha½. Sabbesanti n±tisaªkhepan±tivitth±raruc²nampi, vipañcitaññuneyy±nampi v±. Saªkhepadesan± hi sa½khittaruc²na½, ugghaµitaññ³na½yeva ca upak±r±ya hoti, na panitaresa½. Assa visuddhimaggassa. Pucchanaµµhena pañh±, kiriy± karaºa½ kamma½, pañh±va kamma½ pañh±kamma½, pucchanapayogo.
Ki½ s²lanti sar³papucch±. Kenaµµhena s²lanti kena atthena s²lanti vuccati, “s²lan”ti pada½ ka½ abhidheyya½ niss±ya pavattanti attho. Tayida½ s²la½ sabh±vato, kiccato, upaµµh±n±k±rato, ±sannak±raºato ca katha½ j±nitabbanti ±ha “k±nassa lakkhaºarasapaccupaµµh±napadaµµh±n±n²”ti. Paµipatti n±ma diµµh±nisa½se eva hot²ti ±ha “kim±nisa½san”ti. Katividhanti pabhedapucch±. Vibh±gavant±na½ hi sabh±vavibh±vana½ vibh±gadassanamukheneva hot²ti. Vod±na½ visuddhi. S± ca sa½kilesamalavimutti. Ta½ icchantena yasm± up±yakosallatthin± anup±yakosalla½ viya sa½kileso j±nitabboti ±ha “ko cassa sa½kileso”ti.
Tatr±ti tasmi½, tassa v± pañh±kammassa. Vissajjananti vivaraºa½. Pucchito hi attho avibh±vitatt± nig³¼ho muµµhiya½ kato viya tiµµhati. Tassa vivaraºa½ vissajjana½ vibh³tabh±vak±raºato. P±º±tip±t±d²h²ti ettha p±ºoti voh±rato satto, paramatthato j²vitindriya½. Tassa saraseneva patanasabh±vassa antare eva ativa p±tana½ atip±to, saºika½ patitu½ adatv± s²gha½ p±tananti attho, atikkamma v± satth±d²hi abhibhavitv± p±tana½ atip±to, p±ºagh±to. ¾disaddena adinn±d±n±di½ saªgaºh±ti. Tehi p±º±tip±t±d²hi duss²lyakammehi. Viramantass±ti sam±d±navirativasena, sampattavirativasena ca oramantassa. Vattapaµipattinti upajjh±yavatt±divattakaraºa½. Cetan±dayo dhamm±ti saªkhepato vuttamattha½ p±¼ivasena vibhajitv± dassetu½ “vuttañhetan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha cetayat²ti cetan±, attan± sampayuttadhammehi saddhi½ ±rammaºe abhisandahat²ti attho. Cetan±ya anuk³lavaseneva hi ta½sampayutt± dhamm± ±rammaºe pavattanti. Cetan± k±ma½ kusalattikas±dh±raº±, idha pana s²lacetan± adhippet±ti katv± “kusal±”ti veditabb±. Cetasi niyutta½ cetasika½, cittasampayuttanti attho. Cetan±ya satipi cetasikatte “cetan± s²lan”ti visu½ gahitatt± tadaññameva virati-anabhijjh±dika½ cetasika½ s²la½ daµµhabba½ gobal²baddañ±yena. Sa½varaºa½ sa½varo. Yath± akusal± dhamm± citte na otaranti, tath± pidahana½. Av²tikkamo v²tikkamassa paµipakkhabh³t± av²tikkamavasena pavattacittacetasik±. Tattha cetan± s²la½ n±m±ti-±di yath±vuttassa suttapadassa vivaraºa½. Viramantassa cetan±ti viratisampayutta½ padh±nabh³ta½ cetanam±ha. P³rentassa cetan±ti vattapaµipatti-±y³hin². Viramantassa virat²ti viratiy± padh±nabh±va½ gahetv± vutta½.
Ettha hi yad± “tividh±, bhikkhave, k±yasañcetan± kusala½ k±yakamman”ti-±di (kath±. 539) vacanato p±º±tip±t±d²na½ paµipakkhabh³t± tabbirativisiµµh± cetan± tath±pavatt± padh±nabh±vena p±º±tip±t±dipaµiviratis±dhik± hoti, tad± ta½sampayutt± virati-anabhijjh±dayo ca cetan±pakkhik± v±, abboh±rik± v±ti imamattha½ sandh±ya cetan±s²la½ vutta½. Yad± pana p±º±tip±t±d²hi saªkoca½ ±pajjantassa tato viramaº±k±rena pavattam±n± cetan±visiµµh± virati, anabhijjh±dayo ca tattha tattha padh±nabh±vena kiccas±dhik± honti, tad± ta½sampayutt± cetan± virati-±dipakkhik± v± hoti, abboh±rik± v±ti imamattha½ sandh±ya cetasikas²la½ vutta½.
Id±ni sutte ±gatanayena kusalakammapathavasena cetan±cetasikas²l±ni vibhajitv± dassetu½ “apic±”ti-±di vutta½. Pajahantass±ti sam±d±navasena “ito paµµh±ya na kariss±m²”ti sampattavatthuk±nipi anajjh±caraºena pajahantassa. Satta kammapathacetan±ti p±º±tip±t±dipah±nas±dhik± paµip±µiy± satta kusalakammapathacetan±. Abhijjh±divasena ya½ parad±ragaman±di kar²yati, tassa pah±yak± anabhijjh±dayo s²lanti ±ha “cetasika½ s²la½ n±ma anabhijjh±…pe… samm±diµµhidhamm±”ti. Yath± hi abhijjh±by±p±davasena micch±c±rap±º±tip±t±dayo kar²yanti, eva½ micch±diµµhivasen±pi te puttamukhadassan±di-attha½ kar²yanti. Tesañca pajahanak± anabhijjh±dayoti. P±timokkhasa½varo c±rittav±rittavibh±ga½ vinayapariy±panna½ sikkh±padas²la½. Satisa½varo manacchaµµh±na½ indriy±na½ ±rakkh±, s± ca tath±pavatt± satiyeva. ѱºasa½varo paññ±. Khantisa½varo adhiv±san±, s± ca tath±pavatt± adosapadh±n± khandh±, adoso eva v±. V²riyasa½varo k±mavitakk±d²na½ vinodanavasena pavatta½ v²riya½. P±timokkhasa½varasatisa½var±d²su ya½ vattabba½, ta½ parato ±vi bhavissati.
Sot±n²ti taºh±diµµhi-avijj±duccarita-avasiµµhakilesasot±ni. “Sot±na½ sa½vara½ br³m²”ti vatv± “paññ±yete pidhiyyare”ti vacanena sot±na½ sa½varo pidahana½ samucchedana½ ñ±ºanti viññ±yati.
Idamatthikata½ manasi katv± yena ñ±ºena yoniso paccavekkhitv± paccay± paµisev²yanti. Ta½ paccayapaµisevanampi ñ±ºasabh±vatt± ettheva ñ±ºasa½vare eva samodh±na½ saªgaha½ gacchati. Khamati adhiv±set²ti khamo. Uppannanti tasmi½ tasmi½ ±rammaºe j±ta½ nibbatta½. K±mavitakkanti k±m³pasa½hita½ vitakka½. N±dhiv±set²ti citta½ ±ropetv± abbhantare na v±seti. ¾j²vap±risuddhip²ti buddhapaµikuµµha½ micch±j²va½ pah±ya anavajjena paccayapariyesanena sijjhanaka½ ±j²vap±risuddhis²lampi ettheva v²riyasa½vare eva samodh±na½ gacchati v²riyas±dhanatt±. Ettha ca yath± ñ±ºa½ taºh±disot±na½ pavattiniv±raºato pidahanaµµhena sa½varaºato sa½varo ca, parato pavattanakaguº±na½ ±dh±r±dibh±vato s²lanaµµhena s²la½ eva½ khanti anadhiv±sanena uppajjanakakiles±na½ adhiv±sanena sa½varaºato sa½varo ca, khamanahetu uppajjanakaguº±na½ ±dh±r±dibh±vato s²lanaµµhena s²la½, v²riya½ vinodetabb±na½ p±padhamm±na½ vinodanena sa½varaºato sa½varo ca, vinodanahetu uppajjanakaguº±na½ ±dh±r±dibh±vato s²lanaµµhena s²lanti veditabba½. Yath± pana p±timokkhas²l±di tassa tassa p±padhammassa pavattitu½ appad±navasena sa½varaºa½ pidahana½, ta½ up±d±ya sa½varo, eva½ asam±dinnas²lassa ±gatavatthuto viramaºamp²ti ±ha “y± ca p±pabh²ruk±na½…pe… sa½varas²lanti veditabban”ti. Na v²tikkamati eten±ti av²tikkamo. Tath±pavatto kusalacittupp±do.
7. Avasesesu pana pañhesu. Sam±dh±na½ saºµhapana½. Duss²lyavasena hi pavatt± k±yakamm±dayo sampati, ±yatiñca ahitadukkh±vah±, na samm± µhapit±ti asaºµhapit± vippakiºº± visaµ± ca n±ma honti, sus²lyavasena pana pavatt± tabbipariy±yato saºµhapit± avippakiºº± avisaµ± ca n±ma honti yath± ta½ okkhittacakkhut± ab±huppac±lan±di. Ten±ha “k±yakamm±d²na½ sus²lyavasena avippakiººat±ti attho”ti. Etena sam±dhikiccato s²lana½ viseseti. Tassa hi sam±dh±na½ sampayuttadhamm±na½ avikkhepahetut±. Ida½ k±yakamm±d²na½ saºµhapana½ sa½yamana½. Upadh±raºa½ adhiµµh±na½ m³labh±vo. Tath± hissa ±dicaraº±dibh±vo vutto. Tena pathav²dh±tukiccato s²lana½ visesita½ hoti. S± hi sahaj±tar³padhamm±na½ sandh±raºavasena pavattati. Ida½ pana anavajjadhamm±na½ m³l±dhiµµh±nabh±vena. Ten±ha “kusal±na½ dhamm±nan”ti-±di. Tattha kusaladhamm± n±ma sapubbabh±g± mahaggat±nuttar± dhamm±. Aññe pana ±cariy±. Siraµµhoti yath± sirasi chinne sabbo attabh±vo vinassati, eva½ s²le bhinne sabba½ guºasar²ra½ vinassati. Tasm± tassa uttamaªgaµµho s²laµµho. “Siro s²san”ti v± vattabbe niruttinayena “s²lan”ti vuttanti adhipp±yo. S²talaµµho pari¼±hav³pasamanaµµho. Tena ta-k±rassa lopa½ katv± niruttinayeneva “s²lan”ti vuttanti dasseti. Tath± hida½ payogasamp±dita½ sabbakilesapari¼±hav³pasamakara½ hoti. Evam±din±ti ±di-saddena sayanti akusal± etasmi½ sati apaviµµh± hont²ti s²la½, supanti v± tena vihatuss±h±ni sabbaduccarit±n²ti s²la½, sabbesa½ v± kusaladhamm±na½ paves±rahas±l±ti s²lanti evam±d²na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo.
8. “S²lanaµµhena s²lan”ti pubbe saddatthuddh±rena pak±sitopi bh±vattho ev±ti ±ha “s²lana½ lakkhaºa½ tass±”ti. Na hi tassa cetan±dibhedabhinnassa anavasesato saªg±hako tato añño attho atthi, yo lakkhaºabh±vena vucceyya. Nanu ca anekabhedasaªg±haka½ s±maññalakkhaºa½ n±ma siy±, na visesalakkhaºanti anuyoga½ manasi katv± ±ha “sanidassanatta½ r³passa, yath± bhinnassanekadh±”ti.
Yath± hi n²l±divasena anekabhedabhinnass±pi r³p±yatanassa sanidassanatta½ visesalakkhaºa½ tadaññadhamm±s±dh±raºato. Na aniccat±di viya, ruppana½ viya v± s±maññalakkhaºa½, evamidh±pi daµµhabba½. Ki½ paneta½ sanidassanatta½ n±ma? Daµµhabbat± cakkhuviññ±ºassa gocarabh±vo. Tassa pana r³p±yatanato anaññattepi aññehi dhammehi r³p±yatana½ visesetu½ añña½ viya katv± saha nidassanena sanidassananti vuccati. Dhammasabh±vas±maññena hi ek²bh³tesu dhammesu yo n±nattakaro sabh±vo, so añña½ viya katv± upacaritu½ yutto. Eva½ hi atthavises±vabodho hot²ti. Atha v± “saha nidassanen±”ti ettha tabbh±vattho saha-saddo yath± nandir±gasahagat±ti (sa½. ni. 5.1081; mah±va. 14; paµi. ma. 2.30).
Duss²lyaviddha½sanarasanti k±yika-asa½var±dibhedassa duss²lyassa vidhamanakicca½. Anavajjarasanti ag±rayhasampattika½ agarahitabbabh±vena sampajjanaka½, avajjapaµipakkhabh±vena v± sampajjanaka½. Lakkhaº±d²s³ti lakkhaºaras±d²su vuccam±nesu kiccameva, sampatti v± rasoti vuccati, na ras±yatanaras±d²ti adhipp±yo. Keci pana “kiccamev±”ti avadh±raºa½ tassa itararasato balavabh±vadassanatthanti vadanti, ta½ tesa½ matimatta½, kiccameva, sampatti eva v± rasoti imassa atthassa adhippetatt±.
Soceyyapaccupaµµh±nanti k±y±d²hi sucibh±vena paccupaµµh±ti. Gahaºabh±vanti gahetabbabh±va½. Tena upaµµh±n±k±raµµhena paccupaµµh±na½ vutta½, phalaµµhena pana avippaµis±rapaccupaµµh±na½, sam±dhipaccupaµµh±na½ v±. S²la½ hi sampatiyeva avippaµis±ra½ paccupaµµh±peti, parampar±ya sam±dhi½. Imassa pana ±nisa½saphalassa ±nisa½sakath±ya½ vakkham±natt± idha aggahaºa½ daµµhabba½. Keci pana phalassa anicchitatt± idha aggahaºanti vadanti, tadayutta½ phalassa anekavidhatt±, lokiy±dis²lass±pi vibhajiyam±natt±. Tath± hi vakkhati “nissit±nissitavasen±”ti-±di (visuddhi. 1.10). Yath± pathav²dh±tuy± kamm±di d³rak±raºa½, sesabh³tattaya½ ±sannak±raºa½, yath± ca vatthassa tantav±yaturivemasal±k±di d³rak±raºa½, tantavo ±sannak±raºa½, eva½ s²lassa saddhammassavan±di d³rak±raºa½, hiri-ottappamassa ±sannak±raºanti dassento ±ha “hirottappañca pan±”ti-±di. Hirottappe h²ti-±di tassa ±sannak±raºabh±vas±dhana½. Tattha uppajjati sam±d±navasena, tiµµhati av²tikkamavasen±ti veditabba½.