5. Tatr±ti tassa½ g±th±ya½. Ayanti “naro”ti ca “bhikkh³”ti ca vutto yog±vacaro. Puna tatr±ti tassa½ paññ±ya½. Ass±ti bhikkhuno. Kattari ceta½ s±mivacana½, anen±ti attho. Karaº²ya½ natthi vises±dh±nassa tihetukapaµisandhipaññ±ya abh±vato. Ten±ha “purimakamm±nubh±veneva hissa s± siddh±”ti. Ten±ti yogin±. Bh±van±ya½ satatapavattitav²riyat±ya s±taccak±rin±. Paññ±vasen±ti yath±vuttanepakkasaªkh±tapaññ±vasena. Ya½ kiñci kattabba½, tassa sabbassa sampaj±navaseneva karaºas²lo, tattha v± sampaj±nak±ro etassa atthi, sampaj±nassa v± asammohassa k±rako upp±dakoti sampaj±nak±r², tena sampaj±nak±rin±. Atr±ti assa½ g±th±ya½. S²l±disamp±dane v²riyassa tesa½ aªgabh±vato ta½ visu½ aggahetv± “s²lasam±dhipaññ±mukhen±”ti vutta½.
“Visuddhimagga½ dasset²”ti avibh±gato desan±ya piº¹attha½ vatv± puna ta½ vibh±gato dassetu½ “ett±vat±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ett±vat±ti ettak±ya desan±ya. Sikkh±ti sikkhitabbaµµhena sikkh±. Sikkhana½ cettha ±sevana½ daµµhabba½. S²l±didhammehi sa½varaº±divasena ±sevanto te sikkhat²ti vuccati. S±sananti paµipattis±sana½. Upanissayo balavak±raºa½. Vajjana½ anupagamana½. Sevan± bh±van±. Paµipakkhoti pah±yakapaµipakkho. Yadipi g±th±ya½ “s²le”ti s±maññato vutta½, na “adhis²le”ti. Ta½ pana taºh±jaµ±vijaµanassa patiµµh±bh³ta½ adhippetanti ±ha “s²lena adhis²lasikkh± pak±sit±”ti. Bhavag±mi hi s²la½ s²lameva, vibhavag±mi s²la½ adhis²lasikkh±. S±maññajotan± hi visese avatiµµhat²ti. Esa nayo sesasikkh±supi.
S²len±ti adhis²lasikkh±bh³tena s²lena. Ta½ hi anaññas±dh±raºat±ya s±sanassa ±dikaly±ºata½ pak±seti, na yamaniyam±dimatta½. Tena vutta½ “s²lañca suvisuddha½, sabbap±passa akaraºan”ti ca. Kusal±nanti maggakusal±na½. Kusal±nanti v± anavajj±na½. Tena ariyaphaladhamm±nampi saªgaho siddho hoti. Sabbap±passa akaraºanti sabbass±pi s±vajjassa akiriy± anajjh±pajjana½. Etena c±rittav±rittabhedassa sabbassa s²lassa gahaºa½ kata½ hoti. Kattabb±karaºampi hi s±vajjamev±ti. ¾divacanatoti g±th±ya½ vuttasam±dhipaññ±na½ ±dimhi vacanato. ¾dibh±vo cassa tamm³lakatt± uttarimanussadhamm±na½. ¾d²na½ v± vacana½ ±divacana½. ¾disaddena cettha “s²la½ sam±dhi paññ± ca, vimutti ca anuttar±”ti (d². ni. 2.186) evam±d²na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo. S²lassa visuddhatt± vippaµis±r±dihet³na½ d³r²karaºato avippaµis±r±diguº±vaha½. “Avippaµis±r±diguº±vahatt±”ti etena na kevala½ s²lassa kaly±ºat±va vibh±vit±, atha kho ±dibh±vop²ti daµµhabba½. Tath± hissa sutte (pari. 366) avippaµis±r±d²na½ vimuttiñ±ºapariyos±n±na½ paramparapaccayat± vutt±. Sam±dhin±ti adhicittasikkh±bh³tena sam±dhin±. Sakala½ s±sana½ saªgahetv± pavatt±ya g±th±ya ±dipadena ±dimhi paµipajjitabbassa s²lassa, tatiyapadena pariyos±ne paµipajjitabb±ya paññ±ya gahitatt± majjhe paµipajjitabbo sam±dhi p±risesato dutiyapadena gayhat²ti “kusalassa upasampad±ti-±divacanato hi sam±dhi s±sanassa majjhe”ti vutta½, na kusalasaddassa sam±dhipariy±yatt±. Pubb³panissayavato hi sam±hitat±di-aµµhaªgasamann±gamena abhin²h±rakkhamat± sam±dhissa iddhividh±diguº±vahatta½, aggamaggapaññ±ya adhigat±ya yadattha½ pabbajati, ta½ pariyositanti paññ± s±sanassa pariyos±na½. Ten±ha bhagav± “sikkh±nisa½samida½, bhikkhave, brahmacariya½ vussati saddh±dhipateyya½ paññuttara½ vimuttis±ran”ti (a. ni. 4.245). Saka½ citta½ sacitta½, sacittassa sabbaso kiles±na½ samucchindanena visodhana½ sacittapariyod±pana½. Eva½ pana paññ±kicce matthakappatte uttari karaº²y±bh±vato s±sanassa paññuttarat± veditabb±. T±dibh±v±vahanatoti y±diso iµµhesu, l±bh±d²su ca anunay±bh±vato, t±diso aniµµhesu, al±bh±d²su ca paµigh±bh±vato. Tato eva v± y±diso an±p±thagatesu iµµh±niµµhesu, t±diso ±p±thagatesup²ti t±d². Tassa bh±vo t±dibh±vo, tassa ±vahanato. V±ten±ti v±tahetu. Na sam²rat²ti na calati. Na samiñjant²ti na phandanti, kuto calananti adhipp±yo.
Tath±ti yath± s²l±dayo adhis²lasikkh±d²na½ pak±sak±, tath± tevijjat±d²na½ upanissayass±ti tesa½ pak±san±k±r³pasa½h±rattho tath±-saddo. Yasm± s²la½ visujjham±na½ satisampajaññabalena, kammassakatañ±ºabalena ca sa½kilesamalato visujjhati p±rip³riñca gacchati, tasm± s²lasampad± sijjham±n± upanissayasampattibh±vena satibala½, ñ±ºabalañca paccupaµµhapet²ti tass± vijjattay³panissayat± veditabb± sabh±gahetusamp±danato. Satinepakkena hi pubbeniv±savijj±siddhi, sampajaññena sabbakiccesu sudiµµhak±rit±paricayena cut³pap±tañ±º±nubandh±ya dutiyavijj±siddhi, v²tikkam±bh±vena sa½kilesappah±nasabbh±vato vivaµµ³panissayat±vasena ajjh±sayasuddhiy± tatiyavijj±siddhi. Puretara½ siddh±na½ sam±dhipaññ±na½ p±rip³ri½ vin± s²lassa ±savakkhayañ±º³panissayat± sukkhavipassakakh²º±savehi d²petabb±. Sam±dhipaññ± viya abhiññ±paµisambhid±na½ s²la½ na sabh±gahet³ti katv± vutta½ “na tato paran”ti. “Sam±hito yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.5; 4.99; netti. 40; mi. pa. 2.1.14) vacanato sam±dhisampad± cha¼abhiññat±ya upanissayo. Paññ± viya paµisambhid±na½ sam±dhi na sabh±gahet³ti vutta½ “na tato paran”ti. “Yog± ve j±yate bh³r²”ti (dha. pa. 282) vacanato pubbayogena, garuv±sadesabh±s±ka-osalla-uggahaparipucch±d²hi ca paribh±vit± paññ±sampatti paµisambhid±pabhedassa upanissayo paccekabodhisamm±sambodhiyopi paññ±sampattisannissay±ti paññ±ya anadhigantabbassa visesassa abh±vato, tass± ca paµisambhid±pabhedassa ekantikak±raºato heµµh± viya “na tato paran”ti avatv± “na aññena k±raºen±”ti vutta½.
Ettha ca “s²lasampattiñhi niss±y±”ti vuttatt± yassa sam±dhivijambhanabh³t± anavases± cha abhiññ± na ijjhanti, tassa ukkaµµhaparicchedavasena na sam±dhisampad± atth²ti. Satipi vijj±na½ abhiññekadesabh±ve s²lasampattisamud±gat± eva tisso vijj± gahit±. Yath± hi paññ±sampattisamud±gat± catasso paµisambhid± upanissayasampannassa maggeneva ijjhanti, maggakkhaºe eva t±sa½ paµilabhitabbato, eva½ s²lasampattisamud±gat± tisso vijj± sam±dhisampattisamud±gat± ca cha abhiññ± upanissayasampannassa maggeneva ijjhant²ti magg±dhigameneva t±sa½ adhigamo veditabbo. Paccekabuddh±na½, samm±sambuddh±nañca paccekabodhisamm±sambodhisamadhigamasadis± hi imesa½ ariy±na½ ime vises±dhigam±ti. Vinayasutt±bhidhammesu samm±paµipattiy± tevijjat±d²na½ upanissayat±pi yath±vuttavidhin± veditabb±.
Sampannas²lassa k±masevan±bh±vato s²lena paµhamantavivajjana½ vutta½. Yebhuyyena hi satt± k±mahetu p±º±tip±t±divasen±pi asuddhapayog± honti. Jh±nasukhal±bhino k±yakilamathassa sambhavo eva natth²ti sam±dhin± dutiyantavivajjana½ vutta½ jh±nasamuµµh±napaº²tar³paphuµak±yatt±. Paññ±y±ti maggapaññ±ya. Ukkaµµhaniddesena hi eka½sato ariyamaggova majjhim± paµipatti n±ma. Eva½ santepi lokiyapaññ±vasenapi antadvayavivajjana½ vibh±vetabba½.
S²la½ ta½samaªgino k±masugat²suyeva nibbatt±panato cat³hi ap±yehi vimuttiy± k±raºanti ±ha “s²lena ap±yasamatikkamanup±yo pak±sito hot²”ti. Na hi p±º±tip±t±dipaµivirati duggatiparikilesa½ ±vahati. Sam±dhi ta½samaªgino mahaggatabh³miya½yeva nibbatt±panena sakalak±mabhavato vimocet²ti vutta½ “sam±dhin± k±madh±tusamatikkamanup±yo pak±sito hot²”ti. Na hi k±m±vacarakammassa anubalappad±y²na½ k±macchand±d²na½ vikkhambhaka½ jh±na½ k±madh±tuparikiles±vaha½ hoti. Na cettha upac±rajjh±na½ nidassetabba½, appan±sam±dhissa adhippetatt±. N±pi “s²leneva atikkamitabbassa ap±yabhavassa sam±dhin± atikkamitabbat±”ti vacanok±so. Sugatibhavampi atikkamantassa duggatisamatikkamane k± kath±ti. Sabbabhavasamatikkamanup±yoti k±mabhav±d²na½ navannampi bhav±na½ samatikkamanup±yo s²lasam±dh²hi atikkant±pi bhav± anatikkant± eva, k±raºassa apah²natt±. Paññ±ya panassa suppah²natt± te samatikkant± eva.
Tadaªgappah±navasen±ti d²p±lokeneva tamassa puññakiriyavatthugatena tena tena kusalaªgena tassa tassa akusalaªgassa pah±navasena. Sam±dhin± vikkhambhanappah±navasen±ti upac±rappan±bhedena sam±dhin± pavattiniv±raºena ghaµappah±reneva jalatale sev±lassa tesa½ tesa½ n²varaº±didhamm±na½ pah±navasena. Paññ±y±ti ariyamaggapaññ±ya. Samucchedappah±navasen±ti catunna½ ariyamagg±na½ bh±vitatt± ta½ta½maggavato attano sant±ne “diµµhigat±na½ pah±n±y±”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 277) vuttassa samudayapakkhiyassa kilesagaºassa accanta½ appavattisaªkh±tasamucchindanappah±navasena.
Kiles±na½ v²tikkamapaµipakkhoti sa½kilesadhamm±na½, kammakiles±na½ v± yo k±yavac²dv±resu v²tikkamo ajjh±c±ro, tassa paµipakkho s²lena pak±sito hoti, av²tikkamasabh±vatt± s²lassa. Ok±s±d±navasena kiles±na½ citte kusalappavatti½ pariy±diyitv± uµµh±na½ pariyuµµh±na½. Ta½ sam±dhi vikkhambhet²ti ±ha “sam±dhin± pariyuµµh±napaµipakkho pak±sito hot²”ti, sam±dhissa pariyuµµh±nappah±yakatt±. Appah²nabh±vena sant±ne anu anu sayanato k±raºal±bhe uppattirah± anusay±, te pana anur³pa½ k±raºa½ laddh± uppajjan±rah± th±magat± k±mar±g±dayo satta kiles± veditabb±. Te ariyamaggapaññ±ya sabbaso pah²yant²ti ±ha “paññ±ya anusayapaµipakkho pak±sito hot²”ti.
K±yaduccarit±di duµµhu carita½, kilesehi v± d³sita½ caritanti duccarita½, tameva yattha uppanna½, ta½ sant±na½ sa½kileseti vib±dhati, upat±peti c±ti sa½kileso, tassa visodhana½ s²lena tadaªgavasena pah±na½ v²tikkamapaµipakkhatt± s²lassa. Taºh±sa½kilesassa visodhana½ vikkhambhanavasena pah±na½ pariyuµµh±napaµipakkhatt± sam±dhissa, taºh±ya cassa ujuvipaccanikabh±vato. Diµµhisa½kilesassa visodhana½ samucchedavasena pah±na½ anusayapaµipakkhatt± paññ±ya, diµµhigat±nañca ay±th±vag±h²na½ y±th±vag±hiniy± paññ±ya ujuvipaccanikabh±vato.
K±raºanti upanissayapaccayo. S²lesu parip³rak±r²ti maggabrahmacariyassa ±dibh³tatt± ±dibrahmacariyak±na½ p±r±jikasaªgh±disesasaªkh±t±na½ mah±s²lasikkh±pad±na½ av²tikkamanato khudd±nukhuddak±na½ ±pajjane sahas±va tehi vuµµh±nena s²lesu ya½ kattabba½, ta½ parip³ra½ samattha½ karot²ti s²lesu parip³rak±r². Tath± sakad±g±m²ti “s²lesu parip³rak±r²”ti eta½ upasa½harati tath±-saddena. Ete hi dve ariy± sam±dhip±ripanthik±na½ k±mar±gaby±p±d±na½ paññ±p±ripanthikassa saccapaµicch±dakamohassa sabbaso asam³hatatt± sam±dhi½, paññañca bh±vent±pi sam±dhipaññ±su ya½ kattabba½, ta½ mattaso pam±ºena padesamattameva karont²ti sam±dhismi½, paññ±ya ca mattaso k±rino “s²lesu parip³rak±rino”icceva vuccanti. An±g±m² pana k±mar±gaby±p±d±na½ samucchinnatt± sam±dhismi½ parip³rak±r². Arah± sabbaso sammohassa susam³hatatt± paññ±ya parip³rak±r².
Vutta½ heta½ bhagavat± (a. ni. 3.87)–
“Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu s²lesu parip³rak±r² hoti, sam±dhismi½ mattaso k±r², paññ±ya mattaso k±r². So y±ni t±ni khudd±nukhuddak±ni sikkh±pad±ni, t±ni ±pajjatipi vuµµh±tipi. Ta½ kissa hetu? Na hi mettha, bhikkhave, abhabbat± vutt±. Y±ni ca kho t±ni sikkh±pad±ni ±dibrahmacariyak±ni brahmacariyas±rupp±ni, tattha dhuvas²lo ca hoti µhitas²lo ca, sam±d±ya sikkhati sikkh±padesu. So tiººa½ sa½yojan±na½ parikkhay± sot±panno hoti avinip±tadhammo niyato sambodhipar±yaºo. Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu s²lesu…pe… so tiººa½ sa½yojan±na½ parikkhay± r±gadosamoh±na½ tanutt± sakad±g±m² hoti. Sakideva ima½ loka½ ±gantv± dukkhassanta½ karoti. Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu s²lesu parip³rak±r² hoti, sam±dhismi½ parip³rak±r², paññ±ya mattaso k±r². So y±ni t±ni…pe… sikkhati sikkh±padesu. So pañcanna½ orambh±giy±na½…pe… an±vattidhammo tasm± lok±. Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu s²lesu parip³rak±r² hoti, sam±dhismi½ parip³rak±r², paññ±ya parip³rak±r². So y±ni t±ni khudd±nukhuddak±ni…pe… sikkhati sikkh±padesu. So ±sav±na½ khay±…pe… upasampajja viharat²”ti.
“Kathan”ti pucchitv± sikkh±dike vibhajitv± vuttamevattha½ nigametu½ “evan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha aññe c±ti tayo vivek±, t²ºi kusalam³l±ni, t²ºi vimokkhamukh±ni, t²ºi indriy±n²ti evam±dayo, sikkhattik±d²hi aññe ca guºattik±. Evar³p±ti y±disak± sikkhattik±dayo idha s²l±d²hi pak±sit± honti, edis±.
Ettha hi vivaµµasannissitassa s²lassa idh±dhippetatt± s²lena k±yaviveko pak±sito hoti, sam±dhin± cittaviveko, paññ±ya upadhiviveko. Tath± s²lena adoso kusalam³la½ pak±sita½ hoti, titikkhappadh±nat±ya, apar³pagh±tasabh±vat±ya ca s²lassa. Sam±dhin± alobho kusalam³la½, lobhapaµipakkhato, alobhapadh±nat±ya ca sam±dhissa. Paññ±ya pana amohoyeva. S²lena ca animittavimokkhamukha½ pak±sita½ hoti. Adosappadh±na½ hi s²lasampada½ niss±ya dose ±d²navadassino anicc±nupassan± sukheneva ijjhati, anicc±nupassan± ca animittavimokkhamukha½. Sam±dhin± appaºihitavimokkhamukha½. Paññ±ya suññatavimokkhamukha½. Alobhappadh±na½ hi k±manissaraºa½ sam±dhisampada½ niss±ya k±mesu ±d²navadassino dukkh±nupassan± sukheneva ijjhati, dukkh±nupassan± ca appaºihitavimokkhamukha½. Paññ±sampada½ niss±ya anatt±nupassan± sukheneva ijjhati, anatt±nupassan± ca suññatavimokkhamukha½. Tath± s²lena anaññ±taññass±m²tindriya½ pak±sita½ hoti. Ta½ hi s²lesu parip³rak±rino aµµhamakassa indriya½. Sam±dhin± aññindriya½. Ta½ hi ukka½sagata½ sam±dhismi½ parip³rak±rino an±g±mino, aggamaggaµµhassa ca indriya½. Paññ±ya aññ±t±vindriya½ pak±sita½ hoti. Taduppattiy± hi arah± paññ±ya parip³rak±r²ti. Imin± nayena aññe ca evar³p± guºattik± s²l±d²hi pak±setabb±.