S²l±divasen±ti s²lasam±dhipańń±v²riyavasena. Sabbad±ti sam±d±nato pabhuti sabbak±la½. S²lasampannoti catup±risuddhis²lasampad±ya sampanno samann±gato. Pańńav±ti lokiyalokuttar±ya pańń±ya samann±gato. Susam±hitoti ta½sampayuttena sam±dhin± suµµhu sam±hito. ¾raddhav²riyoti akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ pah±n±ya, kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ upasampad±ya paggahitav²riyo. Pahitattoti nibb±na½ patipesitattat±ya k±ye ca j²vite ca nirapekkhacitto. Oghanti k±mogh±dicatubbidhampi ogha½, sa½s±ramahoghameva v±.
Ek±yanoti ekamaggo. Maggapariy±yo hi idha ayana-saddo, tasm± ekapathabh³to aya½, bhikkhave, maggo, na dvedh±pathabh³toti attho. Eka½ v± nibb±na½ ayati gacchat²ti ek±yano, ekena v± gaŗasaŖgaŗika½ pah±ya vivekaµµhena ayitabbo paµipajjitabboti ek±yano, ayanti ten±ti v± ayano, ekassa seµµhassa bhagavato ayanoti ek±yano, tena upp±ditatt±, ekasmi½ v± imasmi½yeva dhammavinaye ayanoti ek±yano. Satt±na½ visuddhiy±ti r±g±dimalehi, abhijjh±visamalobh±di-upakkilesehi ca satt±na½ visuddhatth±ya visujjhanatth±ya. Yadidanti nip±to, ye imeti attho. Pubbe saraŗalakkhaŗena maggaµµhena ca maggoti vuttasseva k±y±divisayabhedena catubbidhatt± “catt±ro satipaµµh±n±”ti vutta½. Sammappadh±n±d²s³ti ettha ±di-saddena appam±d±bhirati-±d²na½ saŖgaho veditabbo Appam±d±bhirati-±divasen±pi hi katthaci visuddhimaggo desito. Yath±ha–
“Appam±darato bhikkhu, pam±de bhayadassi v±;
abhabbo parih±n±ya, nibb±nasseva santike”ti. (Dha. pa. 32).
4. Tatr±ti tassa½ g±th±ya½. Upari vuccam±n± g±th±ya vitth±rasa½vaŗŗan± niddesapaµiniddesaµµh±niy±, tato sa½khittatar± atthavaŗŗan± uddesaµµh±niy±ti ±ha “aya½ saŖkhepavaŗŗan±”ti. Yath±-uddiµµhassa hi atthassa niddesapaµiniddes± sukar±, subodh± ca hont²ti. S²le patiµµh±y±ti ettha s²leti kusalas²le. Yadipi “katame ca, thapati, akusal± s²l±”ti-±d²su akusal± dhamm±pi s²lanti ±gat±. Vuccam±n±ya pana cittapańń±bh±van±ya adhiµµh±n±yogyat±ya kiriyas²l±nampi asambhavo, kuto itaresanti kusalas²lamevettha adhippeta½. S²la½ parip³rayam±noti-±d²su parip³rayam±noti parip±lento, pariva¹¹hento v±, sabbabh±gehi sa½varanto av²tikkamanto c±ti attho. Tath±bh³to hi ta½ avijahanto tattha patiµµhito n±ma hoti. “S²le”ti hi ida½ ±dh±re bhumma½. Patiµµh±y±ti duvidh± patiµµh± nissay³panissayabhedato. Tattha upanissayapatiµµh± lokiy±, itar± lokuttar± abhinditv± gahaŗe. Bhinditv± pana gahaŗe yath± lokiyacittupp±desu sahaj±t±na½, purimapacchim±nańca vasena nissay³panissayapatiµµh± sambhavati, eva½ lokuttaresu heµµhimamaggaphalas²lavasena upanissayapatiµµh±pi sambhavati. “Patiµµh±y±”ti ca padassa yad± upanissayapatiµµh± adhippet±, tad± “saddha½ upaniss±y±”ti-±d²su (paµµh±. 1.1.423) viya purimak±lakiriy±vasena attho veditabbo. Ten±ha “pubbeva kho panassa k±yakamma½ vac²kamma½ ±j²vo suparisuddho hot²”ti (ma. ni. 3.431). Yad± pana nissayapatiµµh± adhippet±, tad± “cakkhuńca paµicc±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.204; 3.421; sa½. ni. 4.60) viya sam±nak±lakiriy±vasena attho veditabbo. Samm±v±c±dayo hi attan± sampayutt±na½ samm±diµµhi-±d²na½ sahaj±tavaseneva nissayapaccay± hont²ti.
Narati net²ti naro, puriso. Yath± hi paµhamapakatibh³to satto, itar±ya pakatiy± seµµhaµµhena puri ucce µh±ne seti pavattat²ti “puriso”ti vuccati, eva½ nayanaµµhena “naro”ti vuccati. Puttabh±tubh³topi hi puggalo m±tujeµµhabhagin²na½ netuµµh±ne tiµµhati, pageva itaro itar±sa½. Narena yogato, narassa ayanti v± n±r², itth². S±pi cettha k±ma½ taŗh±jaµ±vijaµanasamatthat± atthi, padh±nameva pana satta½ dassento “naro”ti ±ha yath± “satth± devamanuss±nan”ti (d². ni. 1.157, 255). Aµµhakath±ya½ pana avibh±gena puggalapariy±yo ayanti dassetu½ “naroti satto”ti vutta½. Sapańńoti vip±kabh³t±ya saha pańń±ya pavattat²ti sapańńo. T±ya hi ±dito paµµh±ya sant±navasena bahula½ pavattam±n±ya aya½ satto savisesa½ “sapańńo”ti vattabbata½ arahati. Vip±kapańń±pi hi sant±navisesanena bh±van±pańńuppattiy± upanissayo hoti ahetukadvihetuk±na½ tadabh±vato. SampajańńasaŖkh±t±ya ca ta½ta½kiccak±rik±ya pańń±ya vasena “sapańńo”ti vattu½ vaµµati. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana nipaka-saddena p±rih±rikapańń± gayhat²ti vip±kapańń±vasenevettha attho vutto. Kammajatihetukapaµisandhipańń±y±ti kammaj±ya tihetukapaµisandhiya½ pańń±y±ti eva½ tihetuka-saddo paµisandhi-saddena sambandhitabbo, na pańń±-saddena. Na hi pańń± tihetuk± atthi. Paµisandhito pabhuti pavattam±n± pańń± “paµisandhiya½ pańń±”ti vutt± ta½m³lakatt±, na paµisandhikkhaŗe pavatt± eva.
Cinteti ±rammaŗa½ upanijjh±yat²ti citta½, sam±dhi. So hi s±tisaya½ upanijjh±nakicco. Na hi vitakk±dayo vin± sam±dhin± tamattha½ s±dhenti, sam±dhi pana tehi vin±pi s±dhet²ti. Paguŗabalavabh±v±p±danena paccayehi cita½, tath± sant±na½ cinot²tipi citta½, sam±dhi. Paµhamajjh±n±divasena cittavicittat±ya, iddhividh±dicittakaraŗena ca sam±dhi cittanti vin±pi paropadesenassa cittapariy±yo labbhateva. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana citta-saddo vińń±ŗe niru¼hoti katv± vutta½ “cittas²sena hettha sam±dhi niddiµµho”ti. Yath±sabh±va½ pak±rehi j±n±t²ti pańń±. S± yadipi kusal±dibhedato bahuvidh±. “Bh±vayan”ti pana vacanato bh±vetabb± idh±dhippet±ti ta½ dassetu½ “vipassanan”ti vutta½. “Bh±vayan”ti ca ida½ pacceka½ yojetabba½ “cittańca bh±vaya½, pańńańca bh±vayan”ti. Tayida½ dvaya½ ki½ lokiya½, ud±hu lokuttaranti? Lokuttaranti daµµhabba½ ukkaµµhaniddesato. Ta½ hi bh±vayam±no ariyamaggakkhaŗe taŗh±jaµa½ samucchedavasena vijaµet²ti vuccati, na lokiya½. N±nantariyabh±vena panettha lokiy±pi gahit±va honti lokiyasamathavipassan±ya vin± tadabh±vato. Samathay±nikassa hi upac±rappan±ppabheda½ sam±dhi½ itarassa khaŗikasam±dhi½, ubhayesampi vimokkhamukhattaya½ vin± na kad±cipi lokuttar±dhigamo sambhavati. Ten±ha “sam±dhińceva vipassanańca bh±vayam±no”ti. Tattha yad± lokiy± samathavipassan± adhippet±, tad± “bh±vayan”ti ida½ bh±van±kiriy±ya hetubh±vakathana½, bh±van±het³ti attho. Ta½bh±van±hetuk± hi vijaµanakiriy±ti. Yad± pana lokuttar± adhippet±, tad± kevala½ vattam±nabh±vaniddeso. Tadubhayabh±van±samak±lameva hi taŗh±jaµ±vijaµana½.
“¾t±p² nipako”ti ida½ yath±vuttabh±van±ya upak±rakadhammakittana½. Kammaµµh±na½ anuyuńjantassa hi v²riya½ sati sampajańńanti ime tayo dhamm± bah³pak±r±. V²riy³patthaddhańhi kammaµµh±na½ satisampajańń±nup±lita½ na paripatati, upari ca visesa½ ±vahati. Patiµµh±siddhiy± cettha saddh±siddhi, saddh³panissayatt± s²lassa, v²riy±disiddhiy± ca. Na hi saddheyyavatthu½ asaddahantassa yath±vuttav²riy±dayo sambhavanti, tath± sam±dhipi. Yath± hi hetubh±vato v²riy±d²hi saddh±siddhi, eva½ phalabh±vato tehi sam±dhisiddhi. V²riy±d²su hi sampajjam±nesu sam±dhi sampannova hoti asam±hitassa tadabh±vato. Katha½ panettha satisiddhi? Nipakaggahaŗato. Tikkhavisadabh±vappatt± hi sati “nepakkan”ti vuccati. Yath±ha “paramena satinepakkena samann±gato”ti. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “nepakka½ pańń±”ti ayamattho dassito. Taggahaŗeneva satipi gahit±va hoti. Na hi sativirahit± pańń± atth²ti. Apare pana “sapańńo”ti imin±va p±rih±rikapańń±pi gayhat²ti “nipako”ti padassa “sato”ti attha½ vadanti. Yadipi kiles±na½ pah±na½ ±t±pana½, ta½ samm±diµµhi-±d²nampi attheva. ¾tappasaddo viya pana ±t±pasaddo v²riyeyeva niru¼hoti ±ha “±t±p²ti v²riyav±”ti. Atha v± paµipakkhappah±ne sampayuttadhamm±na½ abbhussahanavasena pavattam±nassa v²riyassa s±tisaya½ tad±t±pananti v²riyameva tath± vuccati, na ańńe dhamm±. ¾t±p²ti c±yam²k±ro pasa½s±ya, atisayassa v± d²pako. V²riyav±ti v±-saddopi tadattho eva daµµhabbo. Tena sammappadh±nasamaŖgit± vutt± hoti. Ten±ha “kiles±na½ ±t±panaparit±panaµµhen±”ti. ¾t±panaggahaŗena cettha ±rambha dh±tum±ha ±dito v²riy±rambhoti katv±, parit±panaggahaŗena nikkamaparakkamadh±tuyo sabbaso paµipakkhato nikkhantata½, upar³pari visesappattińca up±d±ya. Nipayati visoseti paµipakkha½, tato v± att±na½ nip±ti rakkhat²ti nipako, sampaj±no. Kammaµµh±nassa pariharaŗe niyutt±ti p±rih±rik±.
Abhikkam±d²ni sabbakicc±ni s±tthakasampajańń±divasena paricchijja net²ti sabbakiccapariŗ±yik±. Kammaµµh±nassa v± uggaho paripucch± bh±van±rambho manasik±ravidhi, tattha ca sakkaccak±rit± s±taccak±rit± sapp±yak±rit± nimittakusalat± pahitattat± antar±-asaŖkoco indriyasamattapaµip±dan± v²riyasamat±p±dana½ v²riyasamat±yojananti evam±d²na½ sabbesa½ kicc±na½ pariŗ±yik± sabbakiccapariŗ±yik±. Bhaya½ ikkhat²ti bhikkh³ti s±dh±raŗato bhikkhulakkhaŗakathanena paµipattiy±va bhikkhubh±vo, na bhikkhakabhinnapaµadhar±dibh±ven±ti dasseti. Eva½ hi katakicc±na½ s±maŗer±d²na½, paµipann±nańca apabbajit±nampi saŖgaho kato hoti. Idha pana paµipajjanakavasena attho veditabbo. Bhindati p±pake akusale dhammeti v± bhikkhu. So ima½ vijaµayeti yo naro sappańńo s²le patiµµh±ya ±t±p² nipako citta½ pańńańca bh±vayanti vutto, so bhikkhu ima½ taŗh±jaµa½ vijaµayeti sambandho. Id±ni tampi vijaµana½ ve¼ugumbavijaµanena upametv± dassetu½ g±th±ya yath±vutte s²l±didhamme “imin± ca s²len±”ti-±din± pacc±masati. Tattha yasm± yog±vacarasant±nagat± n±n±kkhaŗik± missak± s²l±didhamm± g±th±ya gahit±, tasm± te ekacca½ gaŗhanto “chahi dhammehi samann±gato”ti ±ha. Na hi te cha dhamm± ekasmi½ sant±ne ekasmi½ khaŗe labbhanti. Yasm± ca puggal±dhiµµh±nena g±th± bh±sit±, tasm± puggal±dhiµµh±nameva upama½ dassento “seyyath±pi n±ma puriso”ti-±dim±ha Tattha sunisitanti suµµhu nisita½, ativiya tikhiŗanti attho. Satthassa nis±nasil±ya½ nisitatarabh±vakaraŗa½, b±hubalena cassa ukkhipananti ubhayampeta½ atth±panna½ katv± upam± vutt±ti tadubhaya½ upameyye dassento “sam±dhisil±ya½ sunisita½…pe… pańń±hatthena ukkhipitv±”ti ±ha. Sam±dhiguŗena hi pańń±ya tikkhabh±vo. Ten±ha bhagav± “sam±hito yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.5; 4.99; 5.1071; netti. 40; mi. pa. 2.1.14). V²riyańcass± upatthambhaka½ paggaŗhanato. Vijaµeyy±ti vijaµetu½ sakkuŗeyya. Vuµµh±nag±minivipassan±ya hi vattam±n±ya yog±vacaro taŗh±jaµa½ vijaµetu½ samattho n±ma. Vijaµana½ cettha samucchedavasena pah±nanti ±ha “sańchindeyya sampad±leyy±”ti. Dakkhiŗa½ arahat²ti dakkhiŗeyyo, aggo ca so dakkhiŗeyyo c±ti aggadakkhiŗeyyo, agg± v± dakkhiŗ± aggadakkhiŗ±, ta½ arahat²ti aggadakkhiŗeyyo.