Tattha mah±bh³tekadesatoti “bh³tamidanti, bhikkhave, samanupassath±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.401) hi avisesena khandhapańcaka½ “bh³tan”ti vuccati. Tattha yadida½ k±mabhave, r³pabhave, pańcavok±rabhave, ekacce ca sańń²bhave pavatta½ khandhapańcaka½, ta½ mah±visayat±ya “mah±bh³tan”ti vattabbata½ arahati. Pathav²-±dayo pana catasso dh±tuyo tassa mah±bh³tassa ekadesabh³t± “mah±bh³t±”ti vuccanti. Samud±yesu hi pavattavoh±r± avayavesupi dissanti yath± “samuddo diµµho, paµo da¹¹ho”ti ca. Mah±bh³tasamańńatoti tadadh²navuttit±ya bhavanti ettha up±d±r³p±n²ti bh³t±ni, pathav²-±dayo catasso dh±tuyo. S± pan±yamet±su bh³tasamańń± anańńatthavuttit±ya up±d±r³p±na½ avipar²taµµh±, lokassa cet± bah³pak±r±, cakkhusamudd±d²na½ nissayabh³t± c±ti mahant±ni bh³t±n²ti samańń±yi½su. Mah±bh³tasannissayatoti mahant±na½ mah±nubh±v±na½ mah±sammatamandh±tuppabhut²na½ rańńa½, sakk±d²na½ dev±na½, vepacitti-±d²na½ asur±na½, mah±brahm±d²na½ brahm±na½, guŗato v± mahant±na½ buddh±na½, paccekabuddh±na½, s±vak±na½ up±d±yup±d±ya v± sabbesampi bh³t±na½ satt±na½ nissayabh³tat±ya mahant± bh³t± etes³ti mah±bh³t±. C±tumah±bh³tiko hi nesa½ k±yoti. Mah±bh³tabh±vatoti bahubh³tabh±vato. Aya½ hi mah±-saddo “mah±jano sannipatito”ti-±d²su bahubh±ve dissati. Pathav²-±dayo ca dh±tuyo ekasmimpi attabh±ve aparimeyyappabhed± pavattanti. Tasm± mahant± bah³ anekasatasahassappabhed± bh³t±ti mah±bh³t±. Mah±bh³tapariyos±natoti mah±bh³tassa vasena pariyos±nappattito.
“K±lo ghasati bh³t±ni, sabb±neva sahattan±;
yo ca k±laghaso bh³to, sa bh³tapacani½ pac²”ti. (J±. 1.2.190)–

Hi evam±d²su kh²ŗ±savo “bh³to”ti vutto. So hi ucchinnabhavanettikat±ya ±yati½ appaµisandhikatt± ekantato “bh³to”ti vuccati, na itare, bhavissant²ti voh±ra½ anat²tatt±. Bh³to eva idha p³j±vasena “mah±bh³to”ti vutto yath± “mah±kh²ŗ±savo, mah±moggall±no”ti ca. Im±sańca dh±t³na½ an±dimati sa½s±re pabandhavasena pavattam±n±na½ yath±vuttassa mah±bh³tasseva sant±ne pariyos±nappatti, n±ńńatra. Tasm± mah±bh³te bh³t± pariyos±na½ patt±ti mah±bh³t± purimapade bh³ta-saddassa lopa½ katv±. Evamet± dh±tuyo mah±bh³tekadesat±d²hi mah±bh³t±ti veditabb±. Pathav²-±d²na½ kakkha¼apaggharaŗ±divisesalakkhaŗasamaŖgit± apariccattadh±tulakkhaŗ±na½yev±ti ±ha “dh±tulakkhaŗa½ anat²tatt±”ti. Na hi s±mańńaparicc±gena viseso, visesanirapekkha½ v± s±mańńa½ pavattati. Tath± hi vadanti–

“Tamatth±pekkhato bheda½, sas±mańńa½ jah±ti no;
gaŗh±ti sa½sayupp±d±, samevekatthaka½ dvayan”ti.
Salakkhaŗadh±raŗena c±ti yena salakkhaŗadh±raŗena “dh±tuyo”ti vuccanti, teneva “dhamm±”tipi vuccanti ubhayath±pi nissattanijj²vat±ya eva vibh±vanato. Tenev±ha– “chadh±turoya½ bhikkhu puriso, dhammesu dhamm±nupass² viharat²”ti ca. Ar³p±na½ khaŗato r³p±na½ khaŗassa n±ti-ittarat±y±ha “attano khaŗ±nur³pan”ti. Dharaŗen±ti µh±nena, pavattanen±ti attho. Khayaµµhen±ti khaŗabhaŖgut±ya. Bhayaµµhen±ti udayavayapaµip²¼an±din± sappaµibhayat±ya. As±rakaµµhen±ti attas±ravirahena.
353. Sahuppann±va et±ti et± catasso dh±tuyo saha uppann±va saha pavattam±n±va sam±nak±le labbham±n±pi avaka½sato sabbapariyantime utucitt±h±rasamuµµh±nesu suddhaµµhake, kammajesu j²vitanavaketi ekekasmi½ suddhaµµhak±dikal±pepi padesena avinibbhutt± visu½ visu½ aniddisitabbaµµh±nat±ya. Yattha hi tissanna½ dh±t³na½ patiµµh±vasena pathav², tattheva tass± ±bandhanaparip±canasamud²raŗavasena itar±. Esa nayo ses±supi.
354. Purim± dve garukatt± sabh±g± ańńamańńanti adhipp±yo. Ettha ca nanu pathaviy±pi lahubh±vo atthi. Tath± hi s± “kakkha¼a½ muduka½ saŗha½ pharusa½ garuka½ lahukan”ti niddiµµh±, ±pepi lahubh±vo labbhatev±ti? Na, nippariy±yagarubh±vassa adhippetatt±. Garubh±vo eva hi pathav²dh±tuy± garutara½ up±d±ya lahubh±voti pariy±yena vutto s²tabh±vo viya tejodh±tuy±. Yadi eva½ r³passa lahut±ti katha½? Ayampi vuttanay± eva lahut±k±ra½ up±d±ya labbhanato. Na hi paricchedavik±ralakkhaŗ±ni paramatthato labbhanti nipphannar³p±na½ avatth±visesasabh±vato. Tasm± paramatthasiddha½ garubh±va½ sandh±ya vutta½ “purim± dve garukatt± sabh±g±”ti. “Tath±”ti padena “sabh±g±”ti imamattha½ upasa½harati. “Dve”ti pana ida½ yath± “purim±”ti ettha, eva½ “pacchim±”ti etth±pi ±netv± sambandhitabba½. Visabh±g± garukalahukabh±vatoti adhipp±yo. Yath± ca garukalahukabh±vehi, eva½ peyyabh±v±peyyabh±vehi ca sabh±gavisabh±gat± yojetabb±.
355. Ajjhattik± heµµh± vutta-ajjhattik±, sattasant±napariy±pann±ti attho. Vińń±ŗavatthu vińńatti-indriy±nanti cakkh±d²na½ channa½ vińń±ŗavatth³na½, dvinna½ vińńatt²na½, itthipurisindriyaj²vitindriy±nańca. Ye pana “vińń±ŗavatth³ti hadayavatthu gahitan”ti vadanti, tesa½ indriya-ggahaŗena aµµhannampi r³pindriy±na½ gahaŗa½ veditabba½. “Vuttavipar²tappak±r±”ti ida½ b±hir±na½ dh±t³na½ yath± sabbaso vińń±ŗavatthuvińńatti-indriy±na½ anissayat± ca iriy±pathaviraho ca vuttavipariy±yo, eva½ catusamuµµh±nat±p²ti katv± vutta½, na lakkhaŗar³passa viya kutocipi samuµµh±nassa abh±vato utusamuµµh±nat±ya t±sa½. Lahut±dinissayat±pi ajjhattik±na½ dh±t³na½ vattabb±, na v± vattabb±. Vińńatti-ggahaŗa½ hi lakkhaŗanti.
356. Itar±h²ti ±potejov±yudh±t³hi. EkasaŖgah±ti saj±tisaŖgahena ekasaŖgah±. Sam±naj±tiy±na½ hi saŖgaho sahaj±tisaŖgaho. Ten±ha “samuµµh±nan±natt±bh±vato”ti.
357. Tiŗŗa½ mah±bh³t±na½ patiµµh± hutv± paccayo hot²ti yehi mah±bh³tehi sampiŗ¹anavasena saŖgahit±, parip±canavasena anup±lit±, samud²raŗavasena vitthambhit± ca, tesa½ attan± sahaj±t±na½ tiŗŗa½ mah±bh³t±na½ patiµµh± hutv± tato eva sandh±raŗavasena avassayo hoti, vuttanayena v± patiµµh± hutv± sahaj±t±divasena paccayo hot²ti. Esa nayo ses±supi.
358. Yadipi ańńamańńa-±bhogapaccavekkhaŗarahit± ete dhamm±ti heµµh± dh±t³na½ asamann±h±rat± dassit± eva, ath±pi imin±va nayena visu½ kammaµµh±napariggaho k±tabboti dassento “pathav²dh±tu cetth±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha pathav²dh±tu cetth±ti ca-saddo sampiŗ¹anattho, tena ayampi eko manasik±rappak±roti d²peti. Etth±ti et±su dh±t³su. Aha½ “pathav²dh±t³”ti v± “paccayo hom²”ti v± na j±n±t²ti attani viya attano kicce ca ±bhog±bh±va½ dassetv± upak±rakassa viya upakattabb±nampi ±bhog±bh±va½ dassetu½ “itar±nip²”ti-±di vutta½. Sabbatth±ti sabb±su dh±t³su, tatth±pi attakiccupakattabbabhedesu sabbesu.
359. Paccayavibh±gatoti paccayadhammavibh±gato ceva paccayabh±vavibh±gato ca. “Paccayato”ti hi imin± pathav²-±d²na½ ańń±s±dh±raŗo patiµµh±bh±v±din± sesabh³tattayassa paccayabh±vo vutto. Idha pana yehi dhammehi pathav²-±d²na½ uppatti, tesa½ pathav²-±d²nańca anavasesato paccayabh±vavibh±go vuccat²ti aya½ imesa½ dvinna½ ±k±r±na½ viseso. Kammanti kusal±kusala½ r³pupp±daka½ kamma½. Cittanti ya½ kińci r³pupp±daka½ citta½. ¾h±roti ajjhattiko r³pupp±dako ±h±ro. Ut³ti yo koci utu, atthato tejodh±tu. Kammamev±ti avadh±raŗa½ samuµµh±nasaŖkar±bh±vadassanattha½, tena akammaj±nampi kesańci kammassa pariy±yapaccayabh±vo d²pito hoti. Tath± hi vakkhati “kammapaccayacittasamuµµh±nan”ti-±di. Nanu ca kammasamuµµh±n±na½ kammato ańńenapi paccayena bhavitabbanti? Bhavitabba½, so pana kammagatikov±ti paµiyog²nivattanattha½ avadh±raŗa½ kata½, ten±ha “na citt±dayo”ti. Citt±disamuµµh±n±nanti etth±pi ayamattho yath±raha½ vattabbo. Itareti citt±dito ańńe. Janakapaccayoti samuµµh±pakata½ sandh±ya vutta½, paccayo pana kammapaccayova. Vutta½ hi “kusal±kusal± cetan± vip±k±na½ khandh±na½ kaµatt± ca r³p±na½ kammapaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.427).
Ses±nanti citt±disamuµµh±n±na½. Pariy±yato upanissayapaccayo hot²ti paµµh±ne (paµµh±. 1.1.9) ar³p±na½yeva upanissayapaccayassa ±gatatt± nippariy±yena r³padhamm±na½ upanissayapaccayo natthi. Sutte pana “puggala½ upaniss±ya vanasaŗ¹a½ upaniss±y±”ti vacanato suttantikapariy±yena vin± abh±vo upanissayapaccayoti veditabbo. Citta½ janakapaccayo hot²ti sahaj±tanissay±h±r±divasena paccayo honta½ citta½ samuµµh±pakata½ up±d±ya “janakapaccayo hot²”ti vutta½. ¾h±ra-ut³supi eseva nayo.
Eva½ kamm±d²na½ paccayadhamm±na½ vasena dh±t³su paccayavibh±ga½ dassetv± id±ni ta½samuµµh±n±na½ dh±t³nampi vasena paccayavibh±ga½ dassento paµhama½ t±va “kammasamuµµh±na½ mah±bh³tan”ti-±din± uddisitv± puna “tattha kammasamuµµh±n± pathav²dh±t³”ti-±din± niddisati. Tattha kammasamuµµh±n± pathav²dh±t³ti “kammasamuµµh±na½ mah±bh³tan”ti ettha s±mańńato vutt± kammajapathav²dh±tu. Kammasamuµµh±n±na½ itar±santi kammaj±na½ ±podh±tu-±d²na½ tissanna½ dh±t³na½ sahuppattiy± attano upak±rak±na½ t±sa½ upak±rakato, ±dh±rabh±vato, upp±dato y±va bhaŖg±dharaŗato, vigam±bh±vato ca sahaj±ta-ańńamańńanissaya-atthi-avigatavasena ceva patiµµh±vasena ca paccayo hoti, hont² ca kamma½ viya attano, t±sańca na janakavasena paccayo hoti asamuµµh±pakatt± t±sa½. K±mańcettha nissayapaccaya-ggahaŗeneva patiµµh±bh±vo saŖgahito, pathav²dh±tuy± pana anańńas±dh±raŗakicca½ sahaj±t±na½ patiµµh±bh±voti ima½ visesa½ dassetu½ “patiµµh±vasena c±”ti visu½ katv± vutta½. ¾bandhanavasena c±ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Tisantatimah±bh³t±nanti utucitt±h±rasamuµµh±n±na½ catumah±bh³t±na½ ańńamańńa½ avokiŗŗ±na½, avicchedena pavatti½ up±d±ya santat²ti santatiggahaŗa½. Pathav²dh±tuy± patiµµh±bh±vo n±ma sahaj±t±na½ dhamm±na½yev±ti ±ha “na patiµµh±vasen±”ti. Na ±bandhanavasen±ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Etth±ti etesu kammasamuµµh±namah±bh³tesu. “Cittasamuµµh±n± pathav²dh±tu cittasamuµµh±n±na½ itar±san”ti-±d²su sukaro tantinayo netunti “citta-±h±ra…pe… eseva nayo”ti atidisati.
Sahaj±t±dipaccayavasappavatt±su ca pan±ti ettha ca-saddo samuccayattho, pana-saddo visesattho, tadubhayena ca yath±vuttasahaj±t±dipaccayehi pavattam±n± dh±tuyo imin± visesena pavattant²ti imamattha½ d²peti.
Id±ni ta½ visesa½ dassetu½ “eka½ paµicc±”tig±tham±ha. Tattha eka½ dh±tu½ paµicca tisso dh±tuyo catudh± sampavattanti, tisso dh±tuyo paµicca ek±va dh±tu catudh± sampavattati, dve dh±tuyo paµicca dve dh±tuyo chadh± sampavattant²ti yojan±. Attho pana pathav²-±d²su ekekiss± paccayabh±ve itar±sa½ tissanna½ tissanna½ paccayuppannat±ti ayameko catukko, tissanna½ tissanna½ paccayabh±ve itar±ya ekekiss± paccayuppannat±ti ayamaparo catukko, paµhamadutiy±, tatiyacatutth±, paµhamatatiy±, dutiyacatutth±, paµhamacatutth±, dutiyatatiy±ti im±sa½ dvinna½ dvinna½ paccayabh±ve tattha tattha itar±sa½ dvinna½ dvinna½ paccayuppannat±ti ayameko chakko. Eva½ paccayabh±vena catudh±, chadh± ca pavattam±n±na½ ekakadvikatikavasena tikaduka-ekakavasena ca yath±kkama½ paccayapaccayuppannat±vibh±go veditabbo. Ayańca paccayabh±vo sahaj±ta-ańńamańńanissaya-atthi-avigatapaccayavasena, tatth±pi ca ańńamańńamukheneva veditabbo. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½ paµiccav±re “eka½ mah±bh³ta½ paµicca tayo mah±bh³t±, tayo mah±bh³te paµicca eka½ mah±bh³ta½, dve mah±bh³te paµicca dve mah±bh³t± uppajjant²”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.53).
Abhikkamapaµikkam±d²ti ±di-saddena ±d±navissajjan±dik±yikakiriy±karaŗassa saŖgaho daµµhabbo. Upp²¼anassa paccayo hoti ghaµµanakiriy±ya pathav²dh±tuvasena sijjhanato. S±v±ti pathav²dh±tuyeva. ¾podh±tuy± anugat± ±podh±tuy± tattha appadh±nabh±va½, pathav²dh±tuy± ca padh±nabh±vanti patiµµh±bh±ve viya patiµµh±panepi s±tisayakiccatt± tass± patiµµh±panassa p±daµµhapanassa paccayo hot²ti sambandho. Avakkhepanass±ti adhonikkhipanassa. Tattha ca garutarasabh±v±ya ±podh±tuy± s±tisayo by±p±roti ±ha “pathav²dh±tuy± anugat± ±podh±t³”ti. Tath± uddhaŖgatik± tejodh±t³ti uddharaŗe v±yodh±tuy± tass± anugatabh±vo vutto. Tiriya½ gatik±ya v±yodh±tuy± atiharaŗav²tiharaŗesu s±tisayo by±p±roti tejodh±tuy± tass± anugatabh±vo gahito. Tattha µhitaµµh±nato abhimukha½ p±dassa haraŗa½ atiharaŗa½, purato haraŗa½. Tato thoka½ v²tikkamma haraŗa½ v²tiharaŗa½, passato haraŗa½.
Ekekena mukhen±ti “patthaµatt± pathav²”ti-±din± (visuddhi. 1.347) vibhattesu terasasu ±k±resu ekekena dh±t³na½ pariggaŗhanamukhena. Sv±yanti so aya½ upac±rasam±dhi. Katha½ panassa vavatth±napariy±yoti ±ha “catunna½ dh±t³nan”ti-±di.
360. Id±ni imiss± bh±van±ya ±nisa½se dassetu½ “idańca pan±”ti-±di vutta½. Suńńata½ avag±hat²ti dh±tumattat±dassanena r³pak±yassa anattakata½ vavatth±payato tadanus±rena n±mak±yass±pi anattakat± sup±kaµ± hot²ti sabbaso attasuńńata½ pariyog±hati tattha patiµµhahati. Sattasańńa½ samuggh±tet²ti tato eva “satto poso itth² puriso”ti eva½ pavatta½ ay±th±vasańńa½ uggh±teti sam³hanati. V±¼amigayakkharakkhas±divikappa½ an±vajjam±noti sasant±ne viya parasant±nepi dh±tumattat±ya sudiµµhatt± kh²ŗ±savo viya “ime s²habyaggh±dayo v±¼amig±, ime yakkharakkhas±”ti evam±divikappa½ akaronto bhayabherava½ sahati abhibhavati. Yath±vuttavikappan±pajjana½ hi bhayabheravasahanassa k±raŗa½ vutta½. Uggh±to uppil±vitatta½. Niggh±to d²nabh±vappatti. Mah±pańńo ca pana hoti dh±tuvasena k±ye sammadeva ghanavinibbhogassa karaŗato. Tath± hida½ kammaµµh±na½ buddhicaritassa anuk³lanti vutta½, sugatipar±yaŗo v± indriy±na½ aparipakkat±yanti adhipp±yo.

Ek³nav²satibh±van±nayapaµimaŗ¹itassa

Catudh±tuvavatth±naniddesassa l²natthavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.

361. “Ko sam±dh²”ti-±din± sar³p±dipucch± y±vadeva vibh±g±vabodhanatth±. Sar³p±dito hi ń±tassa pabhedo vuccam±no suvińńeyyo hoti saŖkhepapubbakatt± vitth±rassa, vitth±ravidhin± ca saŖkhepavidhi saŖgayhat²ti “sam±dhissa vitth±ra½ bh±van±nayańca dassetun”ti vutta½. Atha v± “ko sam±dh²”ti-±din±pi sam±dhisseva pak±rabhedo dass²yati, bh±van±nisa½sopi bh±van±nayanissito ev±ti adhipp±yena “vitth±ra½ bh±van±nayańca dassetun”ti vutta½. Sabbappak±ratoti palibodhupacched±dikassa sabbassa bh±van±ya pubbakiccassa karaŗappak±rato ceva sabbakammaµµh±nabh±van±vibh±vanato ca.
“Samatt± hot²”ti vatv± tameva samattabh±va½ vibh±vetu½ “duvidhoyev±”ti-±di vutta½. Idha adhippeto sam±dh²ti lokiyasam±dhi½ ±ha. Dasasu kammaµµh±nes³ti y±ni heµµh± “upac±r±vah±n²”ti vutt±ni dasa kammaµµh±n±ni, tesu. Appan±pubbabh±gacittes³ti appan±ya pubbabh±gacittesu aµµhanna½ jh±n±na½ pubbabh±gacittupp±desu. Ekaggat±ti ek±vajjanav²thiya½, n±n±vajjanav²thiyańca ekaggat±. Avasesakammaµµh±nes³ti “appan±vah±n²”ti vuttesu ti½sakammaµµh±nesu.