Nid±n±dikath±vaººan±

1. Sv±ya½ visuddhimaggo ya½ suttapada½ niss±ya paµµhap²yati, ta½ t±va nikkhipitv± tassa nid±n±diniddh±raºamukhena n±nappak±rato attha½ sa½vaººetu½ “s²le patiµµh±y±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Dhamma½ sa½vaººentena hi ±dito tassa nid±na½ vattabba½, tato payojana½ piº¹attho padattho sambandho adhipp±yo codan± sodhana½ vattabba½. Tath± ceva ±cariyena paµipanna½. Ettha hi bhagavanta½ kir±ti-±di desan±ya nid±napayojananiddh±raºa½, visuddhimagga½ bh±sissanti-±di piº¹atthaniddh±raºa½ s²le µhatv±ti-±di padatthasambandh±dhipp±yavibh±van±, ki½ s²lanti-±di codan±, tato para½ sodhana½, sam±dhipaññ±kath±supi eseva nayo. Kasm± panettha vissajjanag±th± ±dimhi nikkhitt±, na pucch±g±th±. Pucch±pubbik± hi vissajjan±ti? Vuccate– tadatthassa maªgalabh±vato, s±sanassa ±dikaly±º±dibh±vavibh±vanato, bhay±di-upaddavaniv±raºena antar±yavidhamanato, upari sa½vaººetabbadhammasaªgahato c±ti veditabba½.
Etth±ha– kasm± pan±ya½ visuddhimaggakath± vatthupubbik± ±raddh±, na satthuthoman±pubbik±ti? Vuccate– visu½ asa½vaººan±dibh±vato. Sumaªgalavil±sin²±dayo viya hi d²ghanik±y±d²na½ n±ya½ visu½ sa½vaººan±, na pakaraºantara½ v± abhidhamm±vat±rasumat±vat±r±di viya. T±sa½yeva pana sumaªgalavil±sin²-±d²na½ visesabh³t±. Tenev±ha “majjhe visuddhimaggo”ti-±di (d². ni. aµµha. 1.ganth±rambhakath±; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.ganth±rambhakath±; sa½. ni. aµµha. 1.1.ganth±rambhakath±; a. ni. aµµha. 1.1.ganth±rambhakath±). Atha v± thoman±pubbik±pi c±ya½ kath± na vatthupubbik±v±ti daµµhabba½. S±sane hi vatthukittana½ na loke viya kevala½ hoti, s±sanasampattikittanatt± pana satthu avipar²tadhammadesan±bh±vavibh±vanena satthuguºasa½kittana½ ulliªgantameva pavattati. Tath± hi vakkhati “ett±vat± tisso sikkh±”ti-±di. Sot±pann±dibh±vassa ca k±raºanti ettha hi ±di-saddena sabbasakad±g±mi-an±g±mino viya sabbepi arahanto saªgayhanti vibh±gassa anuddhaµatt±. Tena tiººampi bodhisatt±na½ nibbedhabh±giy± s²l±dayo idha “s²le patiµµh±y±”ti-±divacanena saªgahit±ti daµµhabba½. Tiººampi hi nesa½ carimabhave visesato sa½s±rabhayikkhaºa½, yath±saka½ s²le patiµµh±ya samathavipassana½ ussukk±petv± taºh±jaµ±vijaµanapaµipatti ca sam±n±ti. Atha v± “so ima½ vijaµaye jaµan”ti s±dh±raºavacanena s±tisaya½, niratisayañca taºh±jaµ±vijaµana½ gahita½. Tattha ya½ niratisaya½ sav±sanappah±nat±ya. Tena satthu pah±nasampad± kittit± hoti, tannimitt± ñ±ºasampad± ca. Tadubhayena n±nantarikat±ya ±nubh±vasampad±dayop²ti. Evampi thoman±pubbik±ya½ kath±ti veditabba½. Atha v± thoman±pubbik± ev±ya½ kath±ti daµµhabba½, “sabbadhammesu appaµihatañ±ºac±ro”ti-±din± satthu thomana½ purakkhatv± sa½vaººan±ya ±raddhatt±. S± pan±ya½ yasm± pucchantassa ajjh±say±nur³pa½ by±karaºasamatthat±ya vibh±vanavasena pavattit±, ±ciººañceta½ ±cariyassa yadida½ sa½vaººetabbadhamm±nuk³la½ sa½vaººan±rambhe satthu abhitthavana½. Tasm± imin± k±raºena evamettha thoman± pavattit±ti. Thoman±k±rassa vuccam±nassa k±raºa½ uddharantena paµhama½ vissajjanag±tha½ nikkhipitv± tass± nid±nacodan±mukhena pucch±g±tha½ sar³pato ca atthato ca dassetv± tass± pucch±ya avipar²taby±karaºasamatthabh±v±vajotana½ bhagavato thomana½ purakkhatv± yath±dhippetadhammasa½vaººan± kat±. Ten±ha “s²le patiµµh±y±”ti-±di. Tattha g±th±ya attho parato ±vi bhavissati.
It²ti-±d²su it²ti aya½ iti-saddo hetu parisam±pan±dipadatthavipariy±yapak±r±vadh±raºanidassan±di-anekatthappabhedo. Tath± hesa “ruppat²ti kho, bhikkhave, tasm± ‘r³pan’ti vuccat²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.79) hetumhi ±gato. “Tasm±tiha me, bhikkhave, dhammad±y±d± bhavatha, m± ±misad±y±d±. Atthi me tumhesu anukamp± ‘kinti me s±vak± dhammad±y±d± bhaveyyu½, no ±misad±y±d±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.29) parisam±pane. “Iti v± iti evar³p± naccag²tav±ditavis³kadassan± paµivirato”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.197) ±di-atthe. “M±gaº¹iyoti tassa br±hmaºassa saªkh± samaññ± paññatti voh±ro n±ma½ n±makamma½ n±madheyya½ nirutti byañjana½ abhil±po”ti-±d²su (mah±ni. 73, 75) padatthavipariy±ye. “Iti kho, bhikkhave, sappaµibhayo b±lo, appaµibhayo paº¹ito. Sa-upaddavo b±lo, anupaddavo paº¹ito. Sa-upasaggo b±lo, anupasaggo paº¹ito”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.124) pak±re. “Atthi idappaccay± jar±maraºanti iti puµµhena sat±, ±nanda, atth²tissa vacan²ya½, ki½paccay± jar±maraºanti iti ce vadeyya, j±tipaccay± jar±maraºanti iccassa vacan²yan”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.96) avadh±raºe, sanniµµh±neti attho. “Atth²ti kho, kacc±na, ayameko anto, natth²ti kho, kacc±na, aya½ dutiyo anto”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 2.15; 3.90) nidassane. Idh±pi nidassane daµµhabbo, pak±retipi vattu½ vaµµateva. Paµhamo pana iti-saddo parisam±pane daµµhabbo. ti avadh±raºe. Idanti ±sannapaccakkhavacana½ yath±dhigatassa suttapadassa abhimukh²karaºato.
Vuttanti aya½ vutta-saddo sa-upasaggo, anupasaggo ca vappanav±pasam²karaºakesoh±raºaj²vitavuttipamuttabh±vap±vacanapavattita-ajjhesanakathan±d²su dissati. Tath± hi aya½–
“G±vo tassa paj±yanti, khette vutta½ vir³hati;
vutt±na½ phalamasn±ti, yo mitt±na½ na dubbhat²”ti.–

¾d²su (j±. 2.22.19) vappane ±gato. “No ca kho paµivuttan”ti-±d²su (p±r±. 289) aµµhadantak±d²hi v±pasam²karaºe. “K±paµiko m±ºavo daharo vuttasiro”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.426) kesoh±raºe. “Pannalomo paradattavutto migabh³tena cetas± viharat²”ti-±d²su (c³¼ava. 332) j²vitavuttiya½. “Seyyath±pi n±ma paº¹upal±so bandhan± pavutto abhabbo haritatth±y±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.59; p±r±. 92; p±ci. 666; mah±va. 129) bandhanato pamuttabh±ve. “Yesamida½ etarahi por±ºa½ mantapada½ g²ta½ pavutta½ samihitan”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.285; ma. ni. 2.427; mah±va. 300) p±vacanabh±vena pavattite. Loke pana “vutto guºo vutto p±r±yano”ti-±d²su ajjhesane. “Vutta½ kho paneta½ bhagavat± ‘dhammad±y±d± me, bhikkhave, bhavatha, m± ±misad±y±d±’ti”±d²su (ma. ni. 1.30) kathane. Idh±pi kathane eva daµµhabbo. Tasm± “iti hi evameva ida½ sutta½ desitan”ti yath±nikkhitta½ g±tha½ desitabh±vena nidasseti. Tass± v± desit±k±ra½ avadh±reti.

Kasm±ti hetumhi nissakka½. Pan±ti vacan±laªk±ramatta½. Ubhayen±pi k±raºa½ pucchati. Etanti yath±vutta½ suttapada½ pacc±masati. Vuttanti pucch±nimitta½. Tadatthassa attano buddhiya½ viparivattam±nata½ up±d±ya “idan”ti vatv± puna bhagavat± bh±sit±k±ra½ sandh±ya “etan”ti vutta½. Sakalena pan±nena vacanena desan±ya nid±na½ jotita½ hoti. Parato tass± desakadesak±lapaµigg±hake vibh±vetu½ “bhagavanta½ kir±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha kir±ti anussavanatthe nip±to. Tena vuccam±nassatthassa anu anu suyyam±nata½ d²peti. Rattibh±geti rattiy± ekasmi½ koµµh±se, majjhimay±meti adhipp±yo. Vessavaº±dayo viya ap±kaµan±madheyyatt± aññataro. Devo eva devaputto. Sa½sayasamuggh±µatthanti vicikicch±sallasamuddharaºattha½ pucch²ti yojan±. “Sa½sayasamuggh±µatthan”ti ca imin± pañcasu pucch±su aya½ vimaticchedan±pucch±ti dasseti. Yena atthena taºh± “jaµ±”ti vutt±, tameva attha½ dassetu½ “j±liniy±”ti-±di vutta½. S± hi aµµhasatataºh±vicaritappabhedo attano avayavabh³to eva j±lo etiss± atth²ti “j±lin²”ti vuccati.
Id±niss± jaµ±k±rena pavatti½ dassetu½ “s± h²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha r³p±d²su ±rammaºes³ti tass± pavattiµµh±nam±ha, r³p±dicha¼±rammaºavinimuttassa taºh±visayassa abh±vato. Heµµhupariyavasen±ti kad±ci r³p±rammaºe kad±ci y±va dhamm±rammaºe kad±ci dhamm±rammaºe kad±ci y±va r³p±rammaºeti eva½ heµµh±, upari ca pavattivasena. Desan±kkamena cettha heµµhupariyat± daµµhabb±. Kad±ci k±mabhave kad±ci r³pabhave kad±ci ar³pabhave kad±ci v± ar³pabhave…pe… kad±ci k±mabhaveti evamettha heµµhupariyavasena pavatti veditabb±. Sabbasaªkh±r±na½ khaºe khaºe bhijjanasabh±vatt± apar±paruppatti ettha sa½sibbananti ±ha “punappuna½ uppajjanato”ti. “Sa½sibbanaµµhen±”ti ida½ yena sambandhena jaµ± viy±ti jaµ±ti jaµ±taºh±na½ upam³pameyyat±, ta½dassana½. Aya½ hettha attho– yath± j±lino ve¼ugumbassa s±kh±, kosasañcay±dayo ca attan± attano avayavehi sa½sibbit± vinaddh± “jaµ±”ti vuccanti, eva½ taºh±pi sa½sibbanasabh±ven±ti, “sa½sibbitaµµhen±”ti v± p±µho, attan±va attano sa½sibbitabh±ven±ti attho. Aya½ hi taºh± kosak±rakimi viya attan±va att±nampi sa½sibbant² pavattati. Ten±ha bhagav± “r³pataºh± loke piyar³pa½ s±tar³pa½, etthes± taºh± uppajjam±n± uppajjati, ettha nivisam±n± nivisat²”ti-±di (d². ni. 2.400; ma. ni. 1.86; vibha. 203). Ime satt± “mama idan”ti pariggahita½ vatthu½ attanibbisesa½ maññam±n± abbhantarima½ karonti. Abbhantarattho ca antosaddoti sakaparikkh±re uppajjam±n±pi taºh± “antojaµ±”ti vutt±. Pabbajitassa patt±di, gahaµµhassa hatthi-±di sakaparikkh±ro.
“Att±”ti bhavati ettha abhim±noti attabh±vo, up±d±nakkhandhapañcaka½. Sar²ranti keci. Mama attabh±vo sundaro, asukassa viya mama attabh±vo bhaveyy±ti v± ±din± saka-attabh±v±d²su taºh±ya uppajjam±n±k±ro veditabbo. Attano cakkh±d²ni ajjhattik±yatan±ni. Attano, paresañca r³p±d²ni b±hir±yatan±ni. Paresa½ sabb±ni v±, saparasantatipariy±pann±ni v± cakkh±d²ni ajjhattik±yatan±ni. Tath± r³p±d²ni b±hir±yatan±ni. Parittamahaggatabhavesu pavattiy±pi taºh±ya antojaµ±bahijaµ±bh±vo veditabbo. K±mabhavo hi kassacipi kilesassa avikkhambhitatt± kathañcipi avimutto ajjhattaggahaºassa visesapaccayoti “ajjhatta½, anto”ti ca vuccati. Tabbipariy±yato r³p±r³pabhavo “bahiddh±, bah²”ti ca. Ten±ha bhagav± “ajjhattasa½yojano puggalo, bahiddh±sa½yojano puggalo”ti (a. ni. 2.37). Visayabhedena, pavatti-±k±rabhedena ca anekabhedabhinnampi taºha½ jaµ±bh±vas±maññena ekanti gahetv± “t±ya eva½ uppajjam±n±ya jaµ±y±”ti vutta½. S± pana “paj±”ti vuttasattasant±napariy±pann± eva hutv± punappuna½ ta½ jaµent² vinandhant² pavattat²ti ±ha “jaµ±ya jaµit± paj±”ti. Tath± hi paramatthato yadipi avayavabyatirekena samud±yo natthi, ekadeso pana samud±yo n±ma na hot²ti avayavato samud±ya½ bhinna½ katv± upam³pameyya½ dassento “yath± n±ma ve¼ujaµ±d²hi…pe… sa½sibbit±”ti ±ha. Ima½ jaµanti sambandho. T²su dh±t³su ekampi asesetv± sa½sibbanena tedh±tuka½ jaµetv± µhita½. Tenass± mah±visayata½, vijaµanassa ca sudukkarabh±vam±ha. “Vijaµetu½ ko samattho”ti imin± “vijaµaye”ti pada½ satti-attha½, na vidhi-±di-atthanti dasseti.