9. Brahmavih±raniddeso

Mett±bh±van±kath±

240. Anussatikammaµµh±n±nantara½ uddiµµhesu pana mett±, karuº±, mudit±, upekkh±ti imesu cat³su brahmavih±resu metta½ bh±vetuk±mena t±va ±dikammikena yog±vacarena upacchinnapalibodhena gahitakammaµµh±nena bhattakicca½ katv± bhattasammada½ paµivinodetv± vivitte padese supaññatte ±sane sukhanisinnena ±dito t±va dose ±d²navo, khantiyañca ±nisa½so paccavekkhitabbo.
Kasm±? Im±ya hi bh±van±ya doso pah±tabbo, khanti adhigantabb±. Na ca sakk± kiñci adiµµh±d²nava½ pah±tu½, avidit±nisa½sa½ v± adhigantu½. Tasm± “duµµho kho, ±vuso, dosena abhibh³to pariy±diººacitto p±ºampi hanat²”ti-±d²na½ (a. ni. 3.72) vasena dose ±d²navo daµµhabbo.
“Khant² parama½ tapo titikkh±, nibb±na½ parama½ vadanti buddh±”; (d². ni. 2.90; dha. pa. 184);
“khantibala½ bal±n²ka½, tamaha½ br³mi br±hmaºa½”. (Dha. pa. 399; su. ni. 628).
“Khant± bhiyyo na vijjat²”ti-±d²na½ (sa½. ni. 1.250) vasena khantiya½ ±nisa½so veditabbo.
Atheva½ diµµh±d²navato dosato citta½ vivecanatth±ya, vidit±nisa½s±ya ca khantiy± sa½yojanatth±ya mett±bh±van± ±rabhitabb±. ¾rabhantena ca ±ditova puggalabhedo j±nitabbo “imesu puggalesu mett± paµhama½ na bh±vetabb±, imesu neva bh±vetabb±”ti.
Ayañhi mett± appiyapuggale, atippiyasah±yake, majjhatte, ver²puggaleti imesu cat³su paµhama½ na bh±vetabb±. Liªgavisabh±ge odhiso na bh±vetabb±. K±lakate na bh±vetabb±va. Ki½k±raº± appiy±d²su paµhama½ na bh±vetabb±? Appiya½ hi piyaµµh±ne µhapento kilamati. Atippiyasah±yaka½ majjhattaµµh±ne µhapento kilamati, appamattakepi cassa dukkhe uppanne ±rodan±k±rappatto viya hoti. Majjhatta½ garuµµh±ne ca piyaµµh±ne ca µhapento kilamati. Verimanussarato kodho uppajjati, tasm± appiy±d²su paµhama½ na bh±vetabb±.
Liªgavisabh±ge pana tameva ±rabbha odhiso bh±ventassa r±go uppajjati. Aññataro kira amaccaputto kul³pakatthera½ pucchi “bhante, kassa mett± bh±vetabb±”ti? Thero “piyapuggale”ti ±ha. Tassa attano bhariy± piy± hoti. So tass± metta½ bh±vento sabbaratti½ bhittiyuddhamak±si. Tasm± liªgavisabh±ge odhiso na bh±vetabb±.
K±lakate pana bh±vento neva appana½, na upac±ra½ p±puº±ti. Aññataro kira daharabhikkhu ±cariya½ ±rabbha metta½ ±rabhi. Tassa mett± nappavattati. So mah±therassa santika½ gantv± “bhante, paguº±va me mett±jh±nasam±patti, na ca na½ sam±pajjitu½ sakkomi, ki½ nu kho k±raºan”ti ±ha. Thero “nimitta½, ±vuso, gaves±h²”ti ±ha. So gavesanto ±cariyassa matabh±va½ ñatv± añña½ ±rabbha mett±yanto sam±patti½ appesi. Tasm± k±lakate na bh±vetabb±va.
241. Sabbapaµhama½ pana “aha½ sukhito homi niddukkho”ti v±, “avero aby±pajjo an²gho sukh² att±na½ parihar±m²”ti v± eva½ punappuna½ attaniyeva bh±vetabb±.
Eva½ sante ya½ vibhaªge (vibha. 643) vutta½–
“Kathañca bhikkhu mett±sahagatena cetas± eka½ disa½ pharitv± viharati? Seyyath±pi n±ma eka½ puggala½ piya½ man±pa½ disv± mett±yeyya, evameva sabbe satte mett±ya pharat²”ti.
“Yañca paµisambhid±ya½ (paµi. ma. 2.22)–
“Katamehi pañcah±k±rehi anodhisopharaº± mett± cetovimutti bh±vetabb±, sabbe satt± aver± hontu” aby±pajj± an²gh± sukh² att±na½ pariharantu. Sabbe p±º±… sabbe bh³t±… sabbe puggal±… sabbe attabh±vapariy±pann± aver± aby±pajj± an²gh± sukh² att±na½ pariharant³”ti-±di–
Vutta½. Yañca mettasutte (khu. p±. 9.3; su. ni. 145)–
“Sukhinova khemino hontu,
sabbasatt± bhavantu sukhitatt±”ti-±di.–

Vutta½, ta½ virujjhati. Na hi tattha attani bh±van± vutt±ti ce. Tañca na virujjhati. Kasm±? Tañhi appan±vasena vutta½. Ida½ sakkhibh±vavasena.

Sacepi hi vassasata½ vassasahassa½ v± “aha½ sukhito hom²”ti-±din± nayena attani metta½ bh±veti, nevassa appan± uppajjati. “Aha½ sukhito hom²”ti bh±vayato pana yath± aha½ sukhak±mo dukkhapaµikk³lo j²vituk±mo amarituk±mo ca, eva½ aññepi satt±ti att±na½ sakkhi½ katv± aññasattesu hitasukhak±mat± uppajjati. Bhagavat±pi–
“Sabb± dis± anuparigamma cetas±,
nevajjhag± piyataramattan± kvaci;
eva½ piyo puthu att± paresa½,
tasm± na hi½se paramattak±mo”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.119; ud±. 41).–

Vadat± aya½ nayo dassito.

242. Tasm± sakkhibh±vattha½ paµhama½ att±na½ mett±ya pharitv± tadanantara½ sukhappavattanattha½ yv±ya½ piyo man±po garu bh±van²yo ±cariyo v± ±cariyamatto v± upajjh±yo v± upajjh±yamatto v± tassa d±napiyavacan±d²ni piyaman±pattak±raº±ni s²lasut±d²ni garubh±van²yattak±raº±ni ca anussaritv± “esa sappuriso sukh² hotu niddukkho”ti-±din± nayena mett± bh±vetabb±.
Evar³pe ca puggale k±ma½ appan± sampajjati, imin± pana bhikkhun± t±vatakeneva tuµµhi½ an±pajjitv± s²m±sambheda½ kattuk±mena tadanantara½ atippiyasah±yake, atippiyasah±yakato majjhatte, majjhattato ver²puggale mett± bh±vetabb±. Bh±ventena ca ekekasmi½ koµµh±se mudu½ kammaniya½ citta½ katv± tadanantare tadanantare upasa½haritabba½.
Yassa pana ver²puggalo v± natthi, mah±purisaj±tikatt± v± anattha½ karontepi pare ver²saññ±va nuppajjati, tena “majjhatte me mettacitta½ kammaniya½ j±ta½, id±ni na½ verimhi upasa½har±m²”ti by±p±rova na k±tabbo. Yassa pana atthi, ta½ sandh±ya vutta½ “majjhattato ver²puggale mett± bh±vetabb±”ti.
243. Sace panassa verimhi cittamupasa½harato tena kat±par±dh±nussaraºena paµighamuppajjati, ath±nena purimapuggalesu yattha katthaci punappuna½ metta½ sam±pajjitv± vuµµhahitv± punappuna½ ta½ puggala½ mett±yantena paµigha½ vinodetabba½. Sace evampi v±yamato na nibb±ti, atha–
Kakac³pama-ov±da-±d²na½ anus±rato;
paµighassa pah±n±ya, ghaµitabba½ punappuna½.
Tañca kho imin± ±k±rena att±na½ ovadanteneva “are kujjhanapurisa, nanu vutta½ bhagavat±–
‘Ubhatodaº¹akena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena cor± ocarak± aªgamaªg±ni okanteyyu½, tatr±pi yo mano padoseyya. Na me so tena s±sanakaro’ti (ma. ni. 1.232) ca,
‘Tasseva tena p±piyo, yo kuddha½ paµikujjhati;
kuddhamappaµikujjhanto, saªg±ma½ jeti dujjaya½.
“‘Ubhinnamattha½ carati, attano ca parassa ca;
para½ saªkupita½ ñatv±, yo sato upasammat²’ti ca. (Sa½. ni. 1.188).–
“‘Sattime, bhikkhave, dhamm± sapattakant± sapattakaraº± kodhana½ ±gacchanti itthi½ v± purisa½ v±. Katame satta? Idha, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa eva½ icchati aho vat±ya½ dubbaººo ass±ti. Ta½ kissahetu? Na, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa vaººavat±ya nandati. Kodhan±ya½, bhikkhave, purisapuggalo kodh±bhibh³to kodhapareto kiñc±pi so hoti sunh±to suvilitto kappitakesamassu od±tavatthavasano, atha kho so dubbaººova hoti kodh±bhibh³to. Aya½, bhikkhave, paµhamo dhammo sapattakanto sapattakaraºo kodhana½ ±gacchati itthi½ v± purisa½ v±. Puna capara½, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa eva½ icchati ahovat±ya½ dukkha½ sayeyy±ti…pe… na pacurattho ass±ti…pe… na bhogav± ass±ti…pe… na yasav± ass±ti…pe… na mittav± ass±ti…pe… na k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± sugati½ sagga½ loka½ upapajjeyy±ti. Ta½ kissa hetu? Na, bhikkhave, sapatto sapattassa sugatigamanena nandati. Kodhan±ya½, bhikkhave, purisapuggalo kodh±bhibh³to kodhapareto k±yena duccarita½ carati, v±c±ya manas± duccarita½ carati. So k±yena v±c±ya manas± duccarita½ caritv± k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± ap±ya½ duggati½ vinip±ta½ niraya½ upapajjati kodh±bhibh³to’ti (a. ni. 7.64) ca,
“‘Seyyath±pi bhikkhave, chav±l±ta½ ubhatopaditta½ majjhe g³thagata½ neva g±me kaµµhattha½ pharati, na araññe kaµµhattha½ pharati. Tath³pam±ha½, bhikkhave, ima½ puggala½ vad±m²’ti ca,
“So d±ni tva½ eva½ kujjhanto na ceva bhagavato s±sanakaro bhavissasi, paµikujjhanto ca kuddhapurisatopi p±piyo hutv± na dujjaya½ saªg±ma½ jessasi, sapattakaraºe ca dhamme att±va attano karissasi, chav±l±t³pamo ca bhavissas²”ti.
244. Tasseva½ ghaµayato v±yamato sace ta½ paµigha½ v³pasammati, icceta½ kusala½. No ce v³pasammati, atha yo yo dhammo tassa puggalassa v³pasanto hoti parisuddho, anussariyam±no pas±da½ ±vahati, ta½ ta½ anussaritv± ±gh±to paµivinetabbo.
Ekaccassa hi k±yasam±c±rova upasanto hoti. Upasantabh±vo cassa bahu½ vattapaµipatti½ karontassa sabbajanena ñ±yati. Vac²sam±c±ramanosam±c±r± pana av³pasant± honti. Tassa te acintetv± k±yasam±c±rav³pasamoyeva anussaritabbo.
Ekaccassa vac²sam±c±rova upasanto hoti. Upasantabh±vo cassa sabbajanena ñ±yati. So hi pakatiy± ca paµisanth±rakusalo hoti sakhilo sukhasambh±so sammodako utt±namukho pubbabh±s² madhurena sarena dhamma½ os±reti, parimaº¹alehi padabyañjanehi dhammakatha½ katheti. K±yasam±c±ramanosam±c±r± pana av³pasant± honti, tassa te acintetv± vac²sam±c±rav³pasamoyeva anussaritabbo.
Ekaccassa manosam±c±rova upasanto hoti, upasantabh±vo cassa cetiyavandan±d²su sabbajanassa p±kaµo hoti. Yo hi av³pasantacitto hoti, so cetiya½ v± bodhi½ v± there v± vandam±no na sakkacca½ vandati, dhammassavanamaº¹ape vikkhittacitto v± pacal±yanto v± nis²dati. Upasantacitto pana okappetv± vandati, ohitasoto aµµhi½katv± k±yena v± v±c±ya v± cittappas±da½ karonto dhamma½ suº±ti. Iti ekaccassa manosam±c±rova upasanto hoti, k±yavac²sam±c±r± av³pasant± honti, tassa te acintetv± manosam±c±rav³pasamoyeva anussaritabbo.
Ekaccassa pana imesu t²su dhammesu ekopi av³pasanto hoti, tasmi½ puggale “kiñc±pi esa id±ni manussaloke carati, atha kho katip±hassa accayena aµµhamah±nirayaso¼asa-ussadanirayaparip³rako bhavissat²”ti k±ruñña½ upaµµhapetabba½. K±ruññampi hi paµicca ±gh±to v³pasammati.
Ekaccassa tayopime dhamm± v³pasant± honti, tassa ya½ ya½ icchati, ta½ ta½ anussaritabba½. T±dise hi puggale na dukkar± hoti mett±bh±van±ti.
Imassa ca atthassa ±vibh±vattha½– “pañcime, ±vuso, ±gh±tapaµivinay±. Yattha bhikkhuno uppanno ±gh±to sabbaso paµivinodetabbo”ti (a. ni. 5.162) ida½ pañcakanip±te ±gh±tapaµivinayasutta½ vitth±retabba½.
245. Sace panassa evampi v±yamato ±gh±to uppajjatiyeva, ath±nena eva½ att± ovaditabbo
“Attano visaye dukkha½, kata½ te yadi verin±;
ki½ tass±visaye dukkha½, sacitte kattumicchasi.
“Bah³pak±ra½ hitv±na, ñ±tivagga½ rudammukha½;