5. Kath±vatthum±tik±

Puggalakath±vaŗŗan±

Id±ni kath±vatthum±tik±ya atthasa½vaŗŗan±nayo hoti. Tattha anutt±natthato t±va “puggalo upalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±”ti aya½ pucch±, “±mant±”ti aya½ paµij±nan±. Kassa pan±ya½ pucch±, kassa paµij±nan±ti? “Asukass±”ti na vattabb±. Na hi bhagav± parav±d²hi saddhi½ vigg±hikakatha½ kathento ima½ m±tika½ µhapesi, puggalapańńattidesan±di½ pana niss±ya “paramatthato att± n±ma atth²”ti-±din± an±gate vipall±sag±hibhikkh³na½, parav±d²nańca n±nappak±radiµµhiµµh±navisodhanattha½ moggaliputtatissattherassa v±danayadassanavasena puggalav±dameta½ ±rabbha tantivasena m±tika½ µhapento sakav±diparav±d²na½ pucch±visajjanados±ropananiggahap±pan±divacanapaµivacanavaseneva µhapesi, tasm± tadatthassa sukh±vadh±raŗattha½ sakav±d²pucch± parav±d²pucch± sakav±d²paµińń± parav±d²paµińń±ti eva½ vibh±ga½ dassetv± atthavaŗŗana½ kariss±ma.
“Puggalo upalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±”ti aya½ sakav±d²pucch±, t±ya ca “ye ‘atthi puggalo’ti eva½laddhik± puggalav±dino, te eva½ pucchitabb±”ti d²peti. Ke pana te puggalav±dinoti? S±sane vajjiputtak± ceva sammitiy± ca bahiddh± bah³ ańńatitthiy± ca. Kad± panete s±sane uppann±ti? Parinibb±nato dutiye vassasate. Bhagavati kira parinibbute mah±kassapattherena samuss±hitehi tappamukhehi vasigaŗehi subhaddavu¹¹hapabbajit±d²na½ p±pabhikkh³na½ pavesok±sanisedhanattha½ aj±tasattur±j±na½ sah±ya½ labhitv± dhammavinayasar²ra½ saŖgaha½ ±ropetv± s±sane acale pavatt±pite tato vassasatassa accayena ves±liya½ vajjiputtakehi d²pit±ni dasa vatth³ni madditv± te ca bhikkh³ niggahetv± yasattherasamuss±hitehi vasigaŗehi puna dhammavinayasaŖgahe kate tehi niggahit± dasasahass± vajjiputtak± kańci dubbalar±j±na½ bala½ labhitv± m³lasaŖgaha½ bhinditv± attano an±c±r±nuk³lavacana½ pakkhipitv± buddhavacanańca cha¹¹etv± mah±saŖg²t²hi visu½ dhammavinayasaŖgaha½ katv± mah±saŖghik±cariyakula½ n±ma aka½su. Parisuddhas±sana½ pana therehi parip±litatt± “therav±do”ti pańń±yi, imesu pana dv²su v±desu mah±saŖghikato bhijjitv± ekabyoh±rik±, gokulik± ca, tato paŗŗattiv±d±, bahuliy±, cetiyav±d± c±ti pańca v±d±, mah±saŖghikehi pana saddhi½ cha ±cariyakul±ni n±ma j±t±ni. Tath± therav±dato bhijjitv± mahis±sak±, vajjiputtak± ca, tato dhammuttariy±, bhadray±nik±, chann±g±rik±, sammitiy± ca, mahis±sakato dhammaguttik±, sabbatthik± ca, tato kassapik±, tato saŖkantik±, tato suttav±d± c±ti ime ek±dasa v±d± j±t±. Te purimehi chahi saddhi½ sattarasa bhinnav±d± dutiye vassasate uppann±, therav±do pana ekova asambhinnako, tena saddhi½ s±sane aµµh±rasa nik±y± j±t±ti veditabb±, ye “aµµh±ras±cariyakul±n²”ti pavuccanti. Imesa½ pana aµµh±rasanna½ ±cariyav±d±na½ vasena ±yati½ s±sanassa ±lu¼ana½ ńatv± samm±sambuddho dvinna½ vassasat±na½ accayena s±sane paµiladdhasaddhena asokena dhammarańń± b±hirake anoloketv± s±sane eva l±bhasakk±re pavattante l±bhasakk±ratth±ya s±sanavesa½ gahetv± sak±ni sak±ni diµµhigat±ni tathato d²pentesu dv±saµµhidiµµhigatikesu yath±vuttasattaras±cariyakulesu ca samayakusalat±ya vicinitv± setak±ni datv± uppabb±jitesu parisuddhe mah±bhikkhusaŖghe nis²ditv± moggaliputtatissattherassa y±ni tad± uppann±ni vatth³ni, y±ni ca ±yati½ uppajjissanti, sabb±nipi t±ni attano satth±r± dinnam±tik±mukhamattena paµib±hitv± suttasahassapaµimaŗ¹ita½ parappav±damathana½ ±yatilakkhaŗa½ kath±vatthuppakaraŗa½ m±tik±vibhajanavasena bh±sitv± ta½ tatiyasaŖg²tiya½ saŖgaha½ ±ropetv± ±lu¼ita½ s±sana½ paggahetu½ samatthabh±va½ bhikkhusaŖghe pak±sanattha½ ±yativ±dappaµib±hananayadassanavasena ima½ kath±vatthum±tika½ vatv± therassa ok±sa½ µhapento tass± vibhaŖga½ na avoc±ti veditabba½.
Tattha puggaloti att± j²vo satto. Upalabbhat²ti pańń±ya upagantv± labbhati, ń±yat²ti attho. Saccikaµµhaparamatthen±ti ettha saccikaµµhoti m±y±mar²ci-±dayo viya abh³t±k±rena aggahetabbo bh³taµµho. Paramatthoti anussav±divasena aggahetabbo uttamattho. Ubhayen±pi yath± r³pavedan±dayo dhamm± bh³tena sabh±vena upalabbhanti, eva½ t±va “puggalo upalabbhat²”ti pucchati. Parav±d² “±mant±”ti paµij±n±ti. Paµij±nanańhi katthaci “±ma bhante”ti ±gacchati, katthaci “±mo”ti ±gacchati, idha pana “±mant±”ti ±gata½. Tatr±ya½ adhipp±yo– parav±d² hi yasm± bhagavat± “atthi puggalo attahit±ya paµipanno”ti-±din± (a. ni. 4.95-96) puggalo pak±sito, bhagav± ca avitathav±d², tasm± so “saccikaµµhaparamattheneva atth²”ti laddhi½ gahetv± “±mant±”ti paµij±n±ti.
Athassa t±disassa lesavacanassa chalav±dassa ok±sa½ adadam±no sakav±d² “yo saccikaµµho”ti-±dim±ha. Tatr±ya½ adhipp±yo– yv±ya½ heµµh± r³pavedan±diko dhammappabhedo ±gato, na sammutisaccavasena, n±pi anussav±divasena gahetabbo, attano pana bh³tat±ya eva saccikaµµho, attapaccakkhat±ya ca paramattho, so tath±paµińń±to puggalo tato tena saccikaµµhaparamatthena ±k±rena upalabbhati, yath± ruppan±nubhavan±din± sakiyen±k±rena puna saccikaµµhaparamattho upalabbhati, ki½ tava puggalopi eva½ upalabbhat²ti vutta½ hoti. Na heva½ vattabbeti avaj±nan± parav±dissa. So hi tath±r³pa½ puggala½ anicchanto avaj±n±ti. Na hi att± n±ma khandh±divimutto koci dissati ańńatra by±mohamatt±. Tatr±ya½ padacchedo– na hi eva½ vattabbeti. “Na ha evan”tipi paµhanti, dvinnampi eva½ na vattabboti attho.
¾j±n±hi niggahanti sakav±divacana½. Yasm± te purim±ya vattabbapaµińń±ya pacchim± navattabbapaµińń±, pacchim±ya ca purim± na sandh²yati, tasm± niggaha½ patto, ta½ niggaha½ dosa½ apar±dha½ ±j±n±hi, sampaµicch±h²ti attho. Eva½ niggaha½ ±j±n±petv± id±ni ta½ µhapan±ya ceva anulomapaµilomato p±pan±ropan±nańca vasena p±kaµa½ karonto “hańci puggalo”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha hańc²ti yadi, sace puggalo upalabbhat²ti attho. Aya½ t±va parav±d²pakkhassa anuvadanena µhapanato niggahapatiµµh±panato niggahap±pan±ropan±na½ lakkhaŗabh³t± anulomaµµhapan± n±ma. Tena vata reti-±di anulomapakkhe niggahassa p±pikatt± anulomap±pan± n±ma. Tattha ten±ti k±raŗavacana½. Vat±ti okappanavacana½ niyamavacana½. Reti ±mantanavacana½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– tena vata re vattabbe vata re hambho bhadramukha tena k±raŗena vattabbo ev±ti attho. Ya½ tattha vades²ti-±di anulomapakkhe niggahassa ±ropitatt± anulomaropan± n±ma. Yańcassa pariyos±ne “micch±”ti pada½, tassa purato “ida½ te”ti ±haritabba½. Ida½ te micch±ti ayańhettha attho. Eva½ uparipi Parato p±¼iyampi eta½ ±gatameva. No ce pana vattabbeti-±di “na heva½ vattabbe”ti paµikkhittapakkhassa anuvadanena µhapitatt± paµilomato niggahap±pan±ropan±na½ lakkhaŗabh³t± paµilomaµµhapan± n±ma. No ca vata reti-±di paµilomapakkhe niggahassa p±pitatt± paµilomap±pan± n±ma. Puna ya½ tattha vades²ti-±di paµilomapakkhe niggahassa ±ropitatt± paµilomaropan± n±ma.
Tatr±ya½ ±dito paµµh±ya saŖkhepattho– yadi puggalo upalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthena, tena vata bho so upalabbhat²ti vattabbo. Ya½ pana tattha vadesi “vattabbo kho purimapańhe ‘saccikaµµhaparamatthena upalabbhat²’ti no ca vattabbo dutiyapańhe ‘tato so puggalo upalabbhat²”’ti, ida½ te micch±ti eva½ t±va anulomato µhapan±p±pan±ropan± honti.
Atha na vattabbo dutiyapańhe “tato so puggalo upalabbhat²”ti, purimapańhepi na vattabbova. Ya½ pana tattha vadesi “vattabbo kho purimapańhe ‘saccikaµµhaparamatthena upalabbhat²’ti, no ca vattabbo dutiyapańhe ‘tato so puggalo upalabbhat²”’ti, ida½ te micch±ti eva½ paµilomato µhapan±p±pan±ropan± honti. Evameta½ niggahassa ca anulomato dvinna½, paµilomato dvinnanti catunna½ p±pan±ropan±nańca vuttatt± upalabbhat²ti-±dika½ anulomapańcaka½ n±ma. Ettha ca kińc±pi anulomato p±pan±ropan±hi eko, paµilomato p±pan±ropan±hi ekoti dve niggah± kat±, ±j±n±hi niggahanti etasseva pana paµhamassa niggahassa dv²h±k±rehi ±ropitatt± ekov±ya½ niggahoti gahetabbo. Paµhamo niggaho.
Id±ni paccan²kanayo hoti. Tattha puggalo nupalabbhat²ti pucch± parav±dissa. Sakav±d² yath± r³pavedan±dayo dhamm± upalabbhanti, eva½ anupalabbhan²yato “±mant±”ti paµij±n±ti. Puna itaro attan± adhippeta½ saccikaµµha½yeva sandh±ya “yo saccikaµµho”ti-±dim±ha. Sammutisaccaparamatthasacc±ni v± ekato katv±pi parav±d² evam±ha. Sakav±d² puggalo hi up±d±yapańńattisabbh±vatopi dvinna½ sacc±na½ ekato katv± pucchitatt±pi “na hevan”ti paµikkhipati. Id±ni kińc±pi tena paµhama½ paramatthasaccavasena nupalabbhan²yat± sampaµicchit±, pacch± pana sammutisaccavasena v± vomissakavasena v± paµikkhitt±. Parav±d² pana “nupalabbhat²”ti vacanas±mańńamatta½ chalav±da½ niss±ya “ya½ tay± paµhama½ paµińń±ta½, ta½ pacch± paµikkhittan”ti bhaŗ¹anassa paµibhaŗ¹ana½ viya attano katassa niggahakammassa paµikamma½ karonto “±j±n±hi paµikamman”ti ±ha. Id±ni yath±ssa anulomapańcake sakav±din± v±daµµhapana½ katv± anulomapaµilomato p±pan±ropan±hi parav±diniggaho p±kaµo kato, eva½ paµikamma½ p±kaµa½ karonto “hańci puggalo”ti-±dim±ha. Ta½ heµµh± vuttanayeneva atthato veditabba½. Yasm± panettha µhapan± n±ma parav±dipakkhassa µhapanato “aya½ tava doso”ti dassetu½ µhapanamattameva hoti, na niggahassa v± paµikammassa v± p±kaµ²bh±vakaraŗa½, p±pan±ropan±hi panassa p±kaµ²karaŗa½ hoti, tasm± ida½ anulomapaµilomato p±pan±ropan±na½ vasena cat³h±k±rehi paµikammassa katatt± paµikammacatukka½ n±m±ti eka½ catukka½ veditabba½.
Eva½ paµikamma½ katv± id±ni yv±ssa anulomapańcake sakav±din± niggaho kato, tassa tameva chalav±da½ niss±ya dukkaµabh±va½ dassento “tva½ ce pana mańńas²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tva½ ce pana mańńas²ti yadi tva½ mańńasi. “Vattabbe kho”ti ida½ paccan²ke “±mant±”ti paµij±nana½ sandh±ya vutta½, “no ca vattabbe”ti ida½ pana “na hev±”ti avaj±nana½ sandh±ya vutta½. Tena tava tatth±ti tena k±raŗena tva½yeva tasmi½ “yo nupalabbhat²”ti pakkhe heva½ paµij±nanti “±mant±”ti eva½ paµij±nanto. Heva½ niggahetabbeti puna “na hev±”ti avaj±nanto eva½ niggahetabbo. Atha ta½ niggaŗh±m±ti atheva½ niggaŗhan±raha½ ta½ niggaŗh±ma, suniggahito ca hos²ti sakena matena niggahitatt± suniggahito ca bhavasi. Evamassa niggahetabbabh±va½ dassetv± id±ni ta½ niggaŗhanto “hańc²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha µhapan±p±pan±ropan± heµµh± vuttanayeneva veditabb±. Pariyos±ne pana ida½ te micch±ti ida½ tava vacana½ micch± hot²ti attho. Ida½ chalav±dena cat³hi ±k±rehi niggahassa katatt± niggahacatukka½ n±ma.