“Yath±pi n±ma jaccandho, naro apariº±yako;
ekad± y±ti maggena, ummaggen±pi ekad±.
“Sa½s±re sa½sara½ b±lo, tath± apariº±yako;
karoti ekad± puñña½, apuññamapi ekad±”ti. (Vibha. aµµha. 226 saªg±rapadaniddesa)–

Vuttanayena tividhe saªkh±re abhisaªkharot²ti. Ki½ panettha ek±va avijj± saªkh±r±na½ paccayo hoti, nanu ekasm± k±raº± eka½va k±riya½ uppajjati, aneka½ k±riya½ na uppajjati, anekasm± v± ekanti, anekasm± k±raº± aneka½ k±riya½ uppajjat²ti? Sacca½, padh±nattap±kaµatta-as±dh±raºattad²panattha½ panettha anekesu k±raºesupi ek± avijj± eva paccayabh±vena niddiµµh± “phassapaccay± vedan± (ud±. 3), semhasamuµµh±n± ±b±dh±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 10.60; mah±ni. 5; c³¼ani. khaggavis±ºasuttaniddesa 128) viya. Avijj± hi padh±no hetu, saªkh±r±na½ p±kaµo, as±dh±raºo ca taºh±dihet³nampi hetutt±, na vatth±rammaº±d²ni kh²º±savassa tesa½ sambhavepi saªkh±r±na½ abh±v±ti. Eva½ t±vettha vaµµasaªkh±r±na½ avijj±ya eva bh±ve bh±vo veditabbo. Tath± viññ±ºass±pi upacitakamm±bh±ve abh±vato, sabbattha sabbesañca sabbavip±kaviññ±ºuppattippasaªgato ca saªkh±r±na½ eva bh±ve bh±vo veditabbo. Yath± cettha, eva½ uparipi n±mar³p±d²na½ viññ±º±dibh±ve bh±vo yath±nur³pa½ anubhavayutt²hi ñ±tabboti aya½ s±maññato paccayanayo.

Visesato pana avijj± puññ±bhisaªkh±r±na½ t±va ±rammaºapaccayena, upanissayapaccayena c±ti dvidh± paccayo hoti. S± hi avijja½ ±rabbha sammasan±divasena uppattiya½ k±m±vacar±na½, abhiññ±cittena samohacittassa j±nanak±le r³p±vacar±nañca puññ±bhisaªkh±r±na½ t±va ±rammaºapaccayena paccayo hoti, avijj±samatikkamanatth±ya pana avijj±samm³¼hat±ya k±mar³pabhavasampattiyo patthetv±va k±mar³p±vacarapuññ±ni karontassa upanissayapaccayena paccayo hoti. Apuññ±bhisaªkh±r±na½ panes± avijja½ ±rabbha r±g±d²na½ uppajjanak±le ±rammaº±dipaccayena avijj±samm³¼hat±ya p±º±tip±t±d²ni karontassa nissayapaccayena, dutiyajavan±d²na½ anantar³panissay±sevananatthivigatapaccayehi ya½ kiñci akusala½ karontassa hetusahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayasampayutta-atthi-avigatapaccayeh²ti eva½ anekadh± paccayo hoti, ±neñj±bhisaªkh±r±na½ pana ekena upanissayapaccayeneva paccayo hoti.
Saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºapade pana tayopi saªkh±r± viññ±ºassa yath±raha½ t²su bhavesu paµisandhipavatt²su kammapaccayena ceva upanissayapaccayena c±ti dvidh± paccay± honti. Abhidhammabh±jan²yanayena sahaj±tassa viññ±ºassa sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayasampayuttakammatthi-avigat±dipaccayehi paccay± honti.
Viññ±ºapaccay± n±mar³papade pana viññ±ºa½ vip±kabh³ta½, avip±kabh³tañca n±massa kevalassa v± r³pamissakassa v± paµisandhipavatt²su sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayasampayuttavip±ka-±h±ra-indriya-atthi-avigatapaccayehi yath±raha½ navadh±, aµµhadh± v± paccayo hoti. Paµisandhiya½ vip±kaviññ±ºa½ vatthur³passa sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayavip±ka-±h±ra-indriyavippayutta-atthi avigatapaccayehi navadh± paccayo hoti. Ýhapetv± pana vatthur³pa½ sesar³passa teheva aññamaññapaccayarahitehi aµµhahi paccayo hoti. Abhisaªkh±raviññ±ºa½ pana ekavok±rapañcavok±rabhavesu kammajar³passa suttantikapariy±yena upanissayavasena paccayo hoti. Pavattiya½ pana sabbampi viññ±ºa½ tassa tassa n±mar³passa yath±raha½ paccayo hoti. Tattha ar³pabhave viññ±ºa½ n±masseva, asaññibhave r³passeva, pañcavok±rabhave n±mar³passa paccayo hot²ti veditabba½. Teneva n±mañca r³pañca n±mar³pañca n±mar³panti nibbacana½ katanti.
N±mar³papaccay± sa¼±yatanapade pana n±ma½ vip±kabh³ta½, avip±kabh³tañca ar³pabhave chaµµh±yatanassa avaka½sato sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayasampayuttavip±ka-atthi-avigatavasena yath±raha½ sattadh± paccayo hoti. Itaresa½ paneta½ pañcanna½ cakkh±yatan±d²na½ pañcavok±rabhave paµisandhiya½ catumah±bh³tasah±ya½ hutv± sahaj±tanissayavip±kavippayutta-atthi-avigatavasena chadh± paccayo hoti. Kiñci panettha hetupaccayena, kiñci ±h±rapaccayena c±ti tesa½ vasena sabbav±resu ukka½s±vaka½so veditabbo. Pavatte pana cakkh±d²na½ pañcanna½ vip±kamavip±kampi n±ma½ pacch±j±tavippayutta-atthi-avigatavasena catudh± paccayo hot²ti. Eva½ t±va n±mameva sa¼±yatanassa paccayo hot²ti veditabba½.
R³pa½ pana vatthubh³ta½ paµisandhiya½ chaµµh±yatanassa sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayavippayutta-atthi-avigatavasena chadh± paccayo hoti. Catumah±bh³tar³pa½ cakkh±d²na½ pañcanna½ paµisandhiya½, pavatte ca sahaj±tanissaya-atthi-avigatapaccayehi catudh± paccayo hoti. R³paj²vitindriya½ pana indriya-atthi-avigatavasena tividh±. Tath± ±h±ro ±h±ratthi-avigatavasena. So ca ±h±r³paj²v²na½ pavatteyeva, no paµisandhiya½. T±ni pana pañca cakkh±yatan±d²ni pañcaviññ±ºasaªkh±tassa chaµµhassa man±yatanassa nissayapurej±ta-indriyavippayutta-atthi-avigatavasena chadh± paccay± honti pavatteyeva, no paµisandhiya½. Tath± pañcaviññ±ºavirahitaman±yatanassa vatthur³pa½ nissayapurej±tavippayutta-atthi-avigatavasena pañcadh± paccayo hot²ti. Eva½ r³pameva chaµµh±yatanassa, sa¼±yatanassa ca paccayo hot²ti veditabba½. Khandhattayavatthur³pasaªkh±ta½ pana n±mar³pa½ chaµµh±yatanassa paµisandhiya½ sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayasampayuttavippayuttavip±ka-atthi-avigat±divasena yath±raha½ paccayo hot²ti. Eva½ n±mañca r³pañca n±mar³pañca yath±raha½ chaµµh±yatanassa, sa¼±yatanassa ca paccayo hot²ti veditabba½.
Sa¼±yatanapaccay± phassapade pana chaµµh±yatana½ vip±ka½, avip±kañca sabbattha sampayuttaphassassa sahaj±t±divasena navadh±, aµµhadh± v± paccayo hoti. Cakkh±yatan±d²ni pañca yath±kkama½ pavatte cakkhusamphass±d²na½ pañcanna½ nissayapurej±ta-indriyavippayutta-atthi-avigatavasena chadh±, r³p±yatan±d²ni pañca tesa½ ±rammaºapurej±ta-atthi-avigatavasena tidh±. Manosamphassassa pana t±ni, dhamm±rammaºañca tath± ca ±rammaº±dhipatimattena c±ti bahudh± paccay± honti. Eva½ chaµµh±yatanañca sa¼±yatanañca chabbidhass±pi phassassa paccayo hot²ti veditabba½.
Phassapaccay± vedan±pade sabbopi phasso sahaj±t±na½ vedan±na½ sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayavip±ka-±h±rasampayutta-atthi-avigatavasena aµµhadh±, sattadh± v± paccayo hoti, asahaj±t±na½ upanissayavasenev±ti.
Vedan±paccay± taºh±pade vip±kavedan± anusayapatit±ya taºh±ya upanissayavasena, sahaj±t±divasena ca paccayo hoti. Yasm± pana–
Dukkh² sukha½ patthayati, sukh² bhiyyopi icchati;
upekkh± pana santatt±, sukhamicceva bh±sit±;
taºh±ya paccay± tasm±, honti tissopi vedan±ti. (Visuddhi. 2.644).
Taºh±paccay± up±d±napade taºh± asahaj±t± catunnampi up±d±n±na½ upanissayavasena ceva anantar±divasena ca, sahaj±t± pana k±mup±d±navajjit±na½ tiººa½ hetusahaj±ta aññamaññanissayasampayutta-atthi-avigatavasena sattadh± paccayo hoti.
Up±d±napaccay± bhavapade catubbidhampi up±d±na½ asahaj±tassa sabbakammabhavassa ceva upapattibhavassa ca upanissayavaseneva paccayo hoti, sahaj±tassa pana kammabhavassa hetusahaj±t±divasena paccayo hoti.
Bhavapaccay± j±tipade bhavoti kammabhavova adhippeto, so ca j±tiy± kammapaccaya-upanissayapaccayavasena dvidh± paccayo hoti.
J±tipaccay± jar±maraº±dipade j±ti pana jar±maraº±na½, sok±d²nañca tabbh±vabh±v²bh±vamattato suttantikanayena upanissayakoµiy±va paccayo hot²ti aya½ t±vettha paccayanayo.
K±rak±d²hi suññato panete avijj±dayo dv±dasa dhamm± yasm± eva½ paccayapaccayuppannabh±vena aññamañña½ paµibaddh± aññanirapekkh± hutv± avicchinn± an±dik± pavattanti, tasm± tato aññena brahm±din± k±rakena, pakati-aºuk±l±dihetun± v± k±rakavedakar³pena paraparikappitena attan± v± rahit±. Na cete att±, na attani, na attavanto, suññ± ete attena v± attaniyena v± dhuvabh±vena v± subhabh±vena v± sukhabh±vena v±ti aya½ k±rak±d²hi suññat±.
M³laddhasandhisaªkhep±k±ravaµµavibh±gatoti ettha m³lato t±va avijj±, taºh± c±ti dve dhamm± m³lanti veditabb±. Addhato panettha avijj±, saªkh±r±ti dve aªg±ni at²to addh±, viññ±º±d²ni bhav±vas±n±ni aµµha paccuppanno addh±, j±ti ceva jar±maraºañc±ti dve an±gato addh±ti tayo addh± veditabb±. Sandhito pana saªkh±r±na½, paµisandhiviññ±ºassa ca antar± eko hetuphalasandhi, vedan±ya ca taºh±ya ca antar± eko phalahetusandhi, bhavassa ca j±tiy± ca antar± eko hetuphalasandhi c±ti tayo sandh² veditabb±. Saªkhepato pana sandh²na½ ±dipariyos±navavatthit± catt±ro saªkhep± honti. Seyyathida½– avijj±saªkh±r± eko saªkhepo, viññ±ºan±mar³pasa¼±yatanaphassavedan± dutiyo, taºhup±d±nabhav± tatiyo, j±tijar±maraº±ni catutthoti eva½ catt±ro saªkhep± veditabb±.
¾k±rato panettha–
At²te hetuyo pañca, id±ni phalapañcaka½;
id±ni hetuyo pañca, ±yati½ phalapañcakanti.–

Eva½ v²sati ±k±r± honti.

Ettha hi sar³pato vutt± avijj±saªkh±r±, tesa½ gahaºena tadavin±bh±vato gahit± taºhup±d±nabhav±ti ime pañca dhamm± at²te hetuyo n±ma, sar³pato vutt± viññ±º±dayo pañca dhamm± id±ni phalapañcaka½ n±ma, sar³pato pana vutt± taºhup±d±nabhav±, tesa½ gahaºena tadavin±bh±vato gahit± avijj±saªkh±r±ti ime pañca id±ni hetuyo n±ma. J±ti-±di-apadesena vutt± viññ±º±dayo pañca dhamm± ±yati½ phalapañcaka½ n±m±ti eva½ v²sati ±k±r± veditabb±. Vaµµato panettha saªkh±rabhav± kammavaµµa½, avijj±taºhup±d±n± kilesavaµµa½, ses±ni vip±kavaµµanti t²ºi vaµµ±ni honti. Y±va ca tesu kilesavaµµa½ ariyamaggena na upacchijjati, t±va ida½ bhavacakka½ anupacchinna½ pavattat²ti ayamettha m³laddhasandhisaªkhep±k±ravaµµavibh±go.
V±raºopamatoti ettha v±raºato t±va– “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti idamahetukavisamahetukadassananiv±raºa½, “saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºan”ti uccheda-attasaªkantidassananiv±raºa½, “viññ±ºapaccay± n±mar³pan”ti att±ti parikappitavatthubhedadassanato ghanasaññ±niv±raºa½, “n±mar³papaccay± sa¼±yatanan”ti-±di att± passati…pe… vij±n±ti phusati, vedayati, taºhiyati, up±diyati, bhavati, j±yati, j²yati, m²yat²ti evam±didassananiv±raºanti idamettha micch±dassananiv±raºa½.
Upam±to panettha andho viya avijj±, tassa upakkhalana½ viya saªkh±r±, patana½ viya viññ±ºa½, tena gaº¹ap±tubh±vo viya n±mar³pa½, tassa gaº¹abhedap²¼ak± viya sa¼±yatana½, tassa saªghaµµana½ viya phasso, tajjanitadukkha½ viya vedan±, dukkhassa paµik±r±bhil±so viya taºh±, asapp±yaggahaºa½ viya up±d±na½, asapp±y±lepana½ viya bhavo, tena gaº¹avik±rap±tubh±vo viya j±ti, tabbik±rabhedo viya jar±maraºa½. Yath±sabh±vadassananiv±raº±dito v± ete avijj±dayo akkhipaµal±di upam±hipi veditabb±ti ayamettha upam±.
Gambh²ranayabhedatoti ettha gambh²rabhedo t±va imesa½ avijj±d²na½ pacceka½ dhammatthadesan±paµivedhagambh²rat± veditabb±. Ime hi avijj±dayo dhamm± yen±k±rena yadavatth± ca saªkh±r±d²na½ phal±na½ paccay± honti, so nesa½ paccayaµµho duravabodhato gambh²roti ayamettha dhammagambh²rat±. Dhammoti hetu “hetumhi ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±”ti (vibha. 720) vacanato. Jar±maraº±d²na½ phal±na½ j±ti-±d²hi paccayehi sambh³tasamud±gataµµho duravabodhato gambh²roti aya½ atthagambh²rat±. Atthoti phala½ “hetuphale ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±”ti (vibha. 720) vacanato. Tesa½ pana het³na½, phal±nañca tena ten±k±rena avipar²tato desan±pi sabbaññutaññ±ºasseva gocarato gambh²r±ti aya½ desan±gambh²rat±. Yo panesa½ avijj±saªkh±r±d²na½ adassan±y³han±disabh±vo, so mandapaññehi duppariyog±hatt± gambh²roti aya½ paµivedhagambh²rat±ti ayamettha gambh²rabhedo.
Nayabhedo panettha ekattanayo n±nattanayo aby±p±ranayo eva½dhammat±nayoti imesa½ catunna½ atthanay±na½ vasena veditabbo. Tattha hi “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±, saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºan”ti eva½ b²jassa aªkur±dibh±vena rukkhabh±vappatti viya sant±n±nupacchedo ekattanayo n±ma. Ya½ samm± passanto hetuphalasambandhena sant±n±nupacched±vabodhato ucchedadiµµhi½ pajahati, micch± passanto hetuphalasambandhena pavattam±nassa sant±n±nupacchedassa ekattaggahaºato sassatadiµµhi½ up±diyati.
Avijj±d²na½ pana yath±saka½ lakkhaºavavatth±na½ n±nattanayo n±ma. Ya½ samm± passanto navanav±na½ upp±dadassanato sassatadiµµhi½ pajahati, micch± passanto ekasant±napatitassa bhinnasant±nasseva n±nattaggahaºato ucchedadiµµhi½ up±diyati.
Avijj±ya pana “saªkh±r± may± upp±detabb±, saªkh±r±na½ v± viññ±ºa½ amheh²”ti evam±diby±p±r±bh±vo aby±p±ranayo n±ma. Ya½ samm± passantok±rakassa abh±v±vabodhato attadiµµhi½ pajahati, micch± passanto yo asatipi by±p±re avijj±d²na½ sabh±vaniyamasiddho hetubh±vo, tassa aggahaºato akiriyadiµµhi½ up±diyati.
Avijj±d²hi pana k±raºehi saªkh±r±d²na½yeva sambhavo kh²r±d²hi dadhi-±d²na½ viya, na aññesanti aya½ eva½dhammat±nayo n±ma. Ya½ samm± passanto paccay±nur³pato phal±vabodhato ahetukadiµµhi½, akiriyadiµµhiñca pajahati, micch± passanto paccay±nur³pa½ phalappavatti½ aggahetv± yato kutoci yassa kassaci asambhavaggahaºato ahetukadiµµhi½ ceva niyatav±dañca up±diyat²ti ayamettha nayabhedoti eva½ vij±n²yo p±¼imuttavinicchayo.

Paccay±k±ravibhaªgam±tikatthavaººan± niµµhit±.