10. Dasamo paricchedo

R³pavibh±gavaººan±

622. ¾dimh²ti uddesag±th±ya½. Id±n²ti cittacetasikavibh±van±nantara½. Vibh±vananti niddesapaµiniddesavasena sar³pato pak±sana½.
623. Ruppat²ti s²tuºh±d²hi vik±ram±pajjati, ±p±d²yat²ti v± attho. Vik±r±patti ca s²t±divirodhipaccayasannidh±ne visadisuppattiyeva. Na hi yath±saka½ paccayehi uppajjitv± µhitadhamm±na½ aññena kenaci vik±r±p±dana½ sakk± k±tu½, tasm± purimuppannar³pasantati viya ahutv± pacch± uppajjam±n±na½ visabh±gapaccayasamav±yena visadisuppattiyeva idha “ruppanan”ti daµµhabba½. Evañca katv± saªghiy±na½ vipariº±mav±do paccakkhato hoti. Nanu ca ar³padhamm±nampi virodhipaccayasamav±ye visadisuppatti labbhat²ti? Sacca½ labbhati, na pana vibh³tatar±. Vibh³tatar± hettha visadisuppatti adhippet± ukkaµµhagativasena yath± “abhir³passa kaññ± d±tabb±”ti (sa½. ni. 3.78).
Kuto eta½ viññ±yat²ti ce? S²t±diggahaºato. Tath± hi vutta½–
“Kiñca, bhikkhave, r³pa½ vadetha, ruppat²ti kho, bhikkhave, tasm± r³panti vuccati. Kena ruppati? S²tenapi ruppati, uºhenapi ruppati, jighacch±yapi ruppati, pip±s±yapi ruppati, ¹a½samakasav±t±tapasar²sapasamphassenapi ruppati, ruppat²ti kho, bhikkhave, tasm± r³panti vuccat²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.79).
Ettha hi s²t±diggahaºa½ s²t±din± phuµµhassa ruppana½ vibh³tatara½, tasm± tadevettha gahitanti ñ±panattha½. Itarath± ruppat²ti s±maññavacaneneva siddhe s²t±diggahaºa½ niratthaka½ siy±ti.
Yadi eva½, katha½ brahmaloke r³pasamaññ±? Na hi tattha upagh±tako s²t±diphassaviseso labbhat²ti? Sacca½, tatth±pi ta½sabh±v±nativattanato. Aruppanass±pi hi ruppanasabh±v±nativattanato r³pasamaññ± hoti. Yath± aduddhampi kh²ra½ ta½sabh±v±nativattanato “duddhan”ti vuccat²ti. Atha v± kiñc±pi tattha upagh±tako s²t±diphassaviseso natthi, anugg±hako pana atthi. Tath± hi brahm±na½ utujar³pa½ atthi, tasm± attheva tattha ruppananti na koci tattha r³pasamaññ±ya vibandhoti.
R³payat²ti v±ti saya½ vijjam±nameva attano sant±na½ vik±ram±p±dayat²ti attho. Iti purimaviggahena vik±ruppatti “ruppanan”ti d²pita½. Imin± pana virodhipaccayasannip±te vijjam±nasseva yo attano sant±ne visadisuppattihetubh±vo, ta½ ruppananti d²pita½ hoti. Imasmi½ pakkhe ar³passa r³pasamaññ±pasaªgo eva natthi. Niruddhameva hi ta½ anantar±dipaccayehi ar³pa½ upp±deti, na vijjam±nanti. Ghaµµane vik±r±pattiya½ r³pa-saddassa ru¼h², tasm± ar³padhamm±na½ ghaµµan±bh±vato na tesu r³pasamaññ±ti keci. Paµigh±to ruppananti apare, tesa½ matena kiñc±pi sappaµighar³p±nameva r³pasamaññ±pasaªgo, atha kho avayavavoh±rena samud±yopi vohar²yat²ti sabbameva r³pa½ r³pasamañña½ labhati. Keci panettha “r³payat²ti vaºº±yatanavasena vuttan”ti vadanti. Tañhi vaººavik±ra½ ±pajjam±na½ r³payati, hadayaªgatabh±va½ pak±set²ti. Tayida½ upari vaºº±yatananiddese visu½yeva vuccat²ti na tassa idha sa½vaººane payojana½ atthi. Sur³poti dvatti½samah±purisalakkhaºa-as²ti-anubyañjanaby±mappabh±ketum±l±d²hi alaªkatatt± sobhanar³pak±yo, sabh±vattho v± r³pa-saddo “ya½ loke piyar³pa½ s±tar³pan”ti-±d²su (paµi. ma. 1.114) viya, tasm± sur³poti sobhanasabh±vo, tena dasabalacatuves±rajj±di-as±dh±raºaguºavisesasam±yogad²panato satthu dhammak±yasampattiy±pi sobhanat± dassit± hoti.
624. Bh³top±d±yabhedatoti ettha tadadh²navuttit±ya bhavati ettha up±d±r³panti bh³ta½. Atha v± mah±bh³t±yeva idha purimapadalopavasena bh³ta-saddena vutt±. Ten±ha “catubbidh± mah±bh³t±”ti. Bh³t±ni up±diyateva, na pana saya½ tehi aññehi v± up±diyat²ti up±d±ya½. Evañca katv± catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½ aññamañña½ niss±ya pavattam±n±nampi up±d±yar³pat±pasaªgo natthi. Na hi te kevala½ aññamañña½ up±diyanteva, atha kho saya½ up±d±yar³pehi up±diyanti, tasm± up±d±ya-saddaggahaºas±matthiyato na mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±yar³pat±pasaªgoti. Atha v± “catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±yar³pan”ti (dha. sa. 584) vacanato catumah±bh³tasannissitat±va up±d±yar³palakkhaºa½, na bh³tattay±disannissitat±p²ti na tesa½ up±d±yar³pat±ti. Bh³tañca up±d±yañca bh³top±d±ya½, tesa½ vasena bhedatoti bh³top±d±yabhedato. Bh³tasaddassa ubhayaliªgatt± ±ha “mah±bh³t±”ti. Up±d±ti up±d±yar³p±ni “paµisaªkh± yoniso”ti-±d²su viya ettha ya-k±ralopo daµµhabbo.
625. Katame pana catt±ro mah±bh³t±, kathañca te mah±bh³tasaññit±, k±ni ca up±d±yar³p±ni, kathañca t±ni “up±d±yar³p±n²”ti vuccant²ti ida½ codana½ hadaye katv± kamena sodhento ±ha “pathav²dh±t³”ti-±di. Catt±rometi catt±ro ime. Mah± ca so bh³to c±ti mah±bh³to, tena mah±bh³tena sadevake loke mahantabh±vena p±tubh³tena samm±sambuddhen±ti attho. Atha v±–
“K±lo ghasati bh³t±ni,
sabb±neva sahattan±;
yo ca k±laghaso bh³to,
sa bh³tapacani½ pac²”ti. (J±. 1.2.190)–

¾d²su viya bh³ta-saddassa sattesu, kh²º±savesu ca pavattanato mah±bh³ten±ti mahat± sattena, mah±kh²º±saven±ti v± attho. Kh²º±savopi hi parikkh²ºapaµisandhikatt± bh³toyeva na bhavati, na ca bhavissat²ti bh³toti vuccati.

626. Mahant± p±tubh³t±ti up±dinnakasant±nepi anup±dinnakasant±nepi sasambh±radh±tuvasena mahant± hutv± bh³t± j±t± nibbatt±ti attho. Tesa½ anup±dinnakasant±ne–
“Duve satasahass±ni, catt±ri nahut±ni ca;
ettaka½ bahalattena, saªkh±t±ya½ vasundhar±”ti. (Dha. sa. aµµha. 584)–

¾din± nayena mahantap±tubh³tat± vutt±. Up±dinnakasant±nepi anekayojanasatikamacchakacchapatig±vutappam±ºadevad±nav±disar²ravasena daµµhabb±. Vuttampi heta½ “santi, bhikkhave, mah±samudde yojanasatik±pi attabh±v±”ti-±di (a. ni. 8.20; c³¼ava. 385; ud±. 45).

Mah±bh³tasam±ti anekabbhutavisesadassanena, anekabh³tadassanena ca mahant± bh³t±, mahant±ni abbhut±ni v± etes³ti mah±bh³t±, m±y±k±r±, yakkh±dayo v± j±tivaseneva mahant± bh³t±ti mah±bh³t±, tehi ete sam±ti mah±bh³tasam±. Ete hi yath± m±y±k±r± amaºi½ eva udaka½ maºi½ katv± dassenti, asuvaººa½yeva le¹¹u-±dika½ suvaººa½ katv± dassenti, yath± ca saya½ neva yakkh± na pakkhino sam±n± yakkh±dibh±vampi dassenti, evameva½ saya½ an²l±neva hutv± n²la½ up±d±yar³pa½ dassenti, saya½ ap²t±yeva…pe… saya½ anod±t±yeva hutv± od±ta½ up±d±yar³pa½ dassent²ti m±y±k±ramah±bh³tas±maññato mah±bh³t±.
Yath± ca yakkh± mah±bh³t± ya½ gaºhanti, nevassa antosar²re µh±na½ upalabbhati, na sar²rato bahi, na ca tassa aªgamaªga½ niss±ya na tiµµhanti. Yadi hi sar²rassa anto µhit±, sakalasar²re by±pana½ na siy±. Atha bahi µhit±, yakkhaggahitakena katakusal±kusala½ yakkhassa na siy±. Yadi cassa aªgamaªga½ niss±ya na µhit±, yakkhaggahitake pahaµe yakkhassa dukkhavedanuppatti na siy±, na ca sar²re r±ji-uµµh±na½ bhaveyya. Yasm± paneta½ sabba½ atthi, tasm± te aniddisitabbaµµh±n±, evametepi na aññamaññassa anto na bahi µhit± upalabbhanti, na ca aññamañña½ niss±ya na tiµµhanti. Yadi hi te aññamaññassa anto µhit±, na sakasakakiccakar± siyu½ aññamañña½ anupavesanato. Atha aññamaññato bahi µhit±, vinibbhutt± siyu½, tath± ca sati avinibbhuttav±do parih±yeyya, tasm± aniddisitabbaµµh±n±ti. Yakkhamah±bh³tasam±nat±ya mah±bh³tasam±. Aniddisitabbaµµh±n±pi cete patiµµh±n±din± yath±sakakiccavisesena ses±na½ tiººa½ upak±rak± hont± sahaj±t±din± paccayena paccayo hutv± aññamañña½ niss±yeva tiµµhanti.
Vañcakatt± abh³ten±ti yakkhin²-±dayo viya abh³tena atacchena man±pavaººasaºµh±n±din± satt±na½ vañcakatt± mahant±ni abh³t±ni etes³ti mah±bh³t±ti sammat± Yath± hi yakkhin²-±dayo man±pehi k±¼as±m±divaººehi, puthulap²varakis±disaºµh±nehi, hatthabhamu-±divikkhepehi ca attano bhay±nakabh±va½ paµicch±detv± satte vañcenti, attano vasa½ nenti, evametepi itthipuris±d²su man±pena chavivaººena, man±pena aªgapaccaªgasaºµh±nena, man±pena ca hatthap±da-aªgulibhamukavikkhepena attano kakkha¼att±disar²ralakkhaºa½ paµicch±detv± b±lajana½ vañcenti, attano sabh±va½ daµµhu½ na dent± ta½ attano vasa½ nenti.
627-30. Cakkhusotanti-±d²su r³pameva r³pat±. Hadayañca ta½ vatthu ca manodh±tumanoviññ±ºadh±t³nanti hadayavatthu, hadayassa v± viññ±ºassa vatth³ti hadayavatthu, purimapadalopena pana “vatthun”ti vutta½. Kaba¼²k±ro ±h±royeva ±h±rat±. Kiñc±pi dhammasaªgaºiya½ r³paniddese kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro os±ne uddiµµho, idha pana nipphannar³p±na½ ekaµµh±ne dassanattha½ hadayavatthu-anantara½ uddiµµhoti. Lahut± ±di y±sa½ mudut±kammaññat±nanti lahut±dayo, t±sa½ taya½ lahut±dittaya½, tattha lahubh±vo lahut±, tath± mudut±pi. Kammani s±dhu kammañña½, tassa bh±vo kammaññat±. Lahut±d²na½ saya½ anipphannatt± nipphannar³pavik±rabh±va½ dassetu½ “r³pass±”ti visesana½ kata½. Catuv²sat²ti gaºanaparicchedo, balavar³p±d²na½ nisedhanattho. Tattha ya½ vattabba½, ta½ parato ±vi bhavissati Niss±y±ti niss±ya eva, na pana nissayavasenapi. Cat³hi up±d±nehi nimuttat±ya nikkhanta½ up±d±nato m±nasa½ etass±ti nirup±d±nam±naso.
631-2. Patthaµatt±ti puthutt±, tena puthubh±vato puthav², puthav² eva pathav²ti niruttinayena saddasiddhi d²pit± hoti. Aya½ pana sambh±rapathaviy± vasena yujjati. S± hi puthubh³t± patthaµ±ti. Lakkhaºapathaviy± vasena pana pathanaµµhena pathav², sahajar³p±na½ patiµµh±bh±vena pakkh±yati upaµµh±t²ti attho. Purimopi v± attho lakkhaºapathaviy± vasena labbhati. V±yanatoti samud²raºato, desantaruppattihetubh±vena bh³tasaªgh±µassa p±panatoti attho. Tejeti parip±ceti, niseti v±, tikkhabh±vena sesabh³tattaya½ usm±pet²ti attho. G±th±bandhavasena cettha iti-saddalopato “tejeti”cceva vutta½. Eva½ “±pet²”ti etth±pi. Tasm± tejet²ti tejo, ±pet²ti ±poti vutta½ hoti. ¾peti p±lan±ti anup±letabbar³papariyos±na½ ±peti pattharati. Tath± heta½ “±bandhanakiccan”ti vuccati. ¾p²yat²ti ±po. Sos²yati piv²yat²ti atthoti keci. Aya½ panattho sasambh±r±pe yujjat²ti vadanti, lakkhaº±pepi yujjateva. Sopi hi pharusap±canavisosan±k±rena sesabh³tattayena p²yam±no viya pavattat²ti. ¾p±yat²ti v± ±po, br³heti va¹¹het²ti attho. Tath± hesa paribr³hanaraso. Tesanti yath±vutt±na½ bh³top±d±yabhed±na½ r³p±na½. Vakkh±m²ti kathess±mi. Ki½ k±raº±ti ±ha “lakkhaº±d²s³”ti-±di. Hi-saddo hetu-attho. Yasm± lakkhaº±d²su ñ±tesu dhamm± ±vi bhavissanti, tasm± tesa½ parato ±vibh±vahet³ti attho.