Lokuttarakusalavaººan±

Eva½ tividhampi lokiyakusala½ niddisitv± id±ni lokuttarakusala½ niddisanto ±ha “itara½ pan±”ti-±di. Lujjanapalujjanaµµhena loko, so tividho– saªkh±raloko sattaloko bh±janalokoti. Tato ida½ uttarat²ti lokuttara½. Catt±ropi hi magg± up±d±nakkhandhasaªkh±tasaªkh±ralokato uttaranti an±savabh±vena. Sattalokesu ca sot±pattimaggo anariyalokato uttarati, sakad±g±mimaggo sot±pannalokato, an±g±mimaggo sakad±g±milokato, arahattamaggo an±g±milokato uttarati. Bh±janalokesu pana paµhamamaggo ap±yalokato uttarati, sakad±g±mimaggo k±malokekadesato, an±g±mimaggo sakalak±malokato, arahattamaggo r³p±r³palokato uttarati. Iti catubbidhampi maggacitta½ tividhalokato uttarat²ti lokuttara½, kucchitasalan±dito pana kusala½, cintan±dito cittañc±ti lokuttarakusalacitta½. Phala½ pana lokato uttiººatt± lokuttara½, ubhayampi v± saha nibb±nena up±d±nakkhandhasaªkh±talokato uttara½ visiµµhataranti lokuttara½. Yath±ha “y±vat±, bhikkhave, dhamm± saªkhat± v± asaªkhat± v±, vir±go tesa½ dhamm±na½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti (a. ni. 4.34; itivu. 90).
Niyat±niyatavatthukabhedatoti sot±pattimaggassa paratoghosapaccayena vin± anuppajjanato ar³pabhave sambhavo natth²ti ta½ niyatavatthuka½, itara½ pana sattavidhampi paratoghosa½ vin±pi vipassan±baleneva nipphajjanato tatth±pi sambhavat²ti aniyatavatthuka½.
T²hi…pe… tividhanti lokuttaravimokkh±na½ dv±rabh±vato vimokkhamukhasaªkh±t±hi suññat±nupassan±d²hi t²hi vuµµh±nag±minivipassan±hi pattabbato ida½ lokuttarakusala½ tividha½ suññata½ animitta½ appaºihitanti. Katame pana te lokuttaravimokkh±ti? Nava lokuttaradhamm±. Yath±ha “catt±ro ca ariyamagg± catt±ri ca s±maññaphal±ni nibb±nañca, aya½ an±savo vimokkho”ti (paµi. ma. 1.213). Im±ni hi sa½kilesadhammehi suµµhu vimuttatt± vimokkh± n±ma. T±ni pana pacceka½ suññato vimokkho, animitto vimokkho, appaºihito vimokkhoti tividh±ni. Yath±ha “tayome, bhikkhave, vimokkh±– suññato vimokkho, animitto vimokkho, appaºihito vimokkho”ti (paµi. ma. 1.209). Idha pana kusal±dhik±ratt± catumaggasaªkh±t±yeva lokuttaradhamm± adhippet±.
Suññat±din±mal±bho ca nesa½ ±gamanato, saguºato, ±rammaºato ca veditabbo. Tath± hi ±gacchati maggo, phalañca eten±ti ±gamana½. Tañhi duvidha½ magg±gamana½, phal±gamanañca. Tesu vuµµh±nag±minivipassan± magg±gamana½, ariyamaggo phal±gamana½. Tattha maggassa ±gataµµh±ne magg±gamana½ gahetabba½, phalassa ±gataµµh±ne phal±gamana½. Idha pana maggassa ±gatatt± magg±gamana½ gahitanti. Tato ±gamanato. Saguºatoti sabh±vato. ¾rammaºatoti ±rammaºadhammato.
Yo hi sabbasaªkh±r±na½ anattalakkhaºapaµivedhavasappavatt±ya anatt±nupassan±ya vasena magga½ paµilabhati, tassa s± anupassan± asuññattakar±na½ att±bhinivesapaccay±na½ diµµhekaµµhakiles±na½ vikkhambhitabh±vena tebh³makadhamm±na½ attasuññat±ya y±th±vato gahaºato suññat±nupassan± n±ma hoti. T±ya pana paµiladdhamaggo suññat±ya ±gatatt± suññato n±ma. Ten±ha “anattato manasikaronto suññatavimokkhena vimuccat²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.227).
Yo pana sabbasaªkh±r±na½ aniccalakkhaºapaµivedhavasappavatt±ya anicc±nupassan±ya magga½ paµilabhati, tassa s± anupassan± niccanimitt±dig±hakar±na½ kiles±na½ vikkhambhitatt± dhuvabh±v³paµµh±nasaªkh±taniccanimitt±dino aggahaºato animitt±nupassan± n±ma. T±ya pana laddhamaggo animitt±ya ±gatatt± animitto n±ma. Ten±ha “aniccato manasikaronto animittavimokkhena vimuccat²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.227).
Yo pana sabbasaªkh±r±na½ dukkhalakkhaºapaµivedhavasappavatt±ya dukkh±nupassan±ya vasena magga½ paµilabhati, tassa s± anupassan± taºh±paºidh±nassa vikkhambhanena paºidhivirahitatt± appaºihit±nupassan± n±ma. T±ya pana laddhamaggo appaºihit±ya ±gatatt± appaºihito n±ma. Ten±ha “dukkhato manasikaronto appaºihitavimokkhena vimuccat²”ti. Aya½ t±vassa ±gamanavasena n±mal±bho.
Attano pana r±g±d²hi suññatatt±, niccanimitt±divirahitatt±, taºh±paºidhi-abh±vato ca saguºato, r±g±disuññasseva, niccanimitt±divirahitassa, paºidhivippamuttassa ca nibb±nassa ±rammaºakaraºato ±rammaºato ca suññat±divimokkho n±ma hot²ti evamassa saguº±rammaºehi n±mal±bho daµµhabbo. So ca kho suttantapariy±yeneva, no abhidhammapariy±yena. Suttantakath± hi pariy±yadesan±, itar± nippariy±yadesan±, tasm± saguº±rammaºato n±massa sabbas±dh±raºabh±vena avavatth±nakaratt± pariy±yabh±vato suttantapariy±yeneva l±bho, ±gamanato pana abhidhammapariy±yenapi vavatth±nakarabh±vena nippariy±yatt±. Teneva hi ±cariyena “t²hi vimokkhamukhehi pattabbato tividhan”ti vimokkhamukhameva dhura½ katv± vutta½, na “suññat±din±mato tividhan”ti. Animittan±ma½ panettha ±gamanatopi suttantapariy±yeneva labbhati abhidhamme magga½ pati animittan±massa anuddhatatt±. Anuddhaµatta½ pana na anuddharitabbat±mattena, atha kho nippariy±yato tassa magge alabbhanato. Kiñc±pi hi aya½ vipassan± niccanimitta½ uggh±µent² pavattati, saªkh±ranimittassa pana anissajjanato na nippariy±yato animittan±ma½ labhati. Ya½ paneta½ sutte–
“Animittañca bh±vehi, m±n±nusayamujjaha;
tato m±n±bhisamay±, upasanto carissas²”ti. (Su. ni. 344)–
Maggassa animittabh±vavacana½, ta½ yath±vuttapariy±yavasena labbham±na½ gahetv± vutta½. Abhidhamme pana y± sayampi nippariy±yato animittan±ma½ na labhati, s± katha½ maggassa ta½ dadeyy±ti maggassa animittan±ma½ na uddhaµa½. Yadi eva½ suññatan±menapi ida½ sam±na½. Anatt±nupassan±pi hi kiñc±pi puggalasuññata½ gaºh±ti, dhammasuññata½ pana na gaºh±t²ti saya½ nippariy±yena suññat±nupassan± n±ma na hot²ti suññatan±mampi maggassa na dadeyya. Atha puggalasuññat±ggahaºamattena saya½ suññat±nupassan± hutv± maggassa ta½ dadeyya, anicc±nupassan±pi saªkh±ranimittassa gahaºepi niccanimitt±di-uggh±µanato saya½ animitt±nupassan± hutv± maggassa animittan±ma½ dadeyy±ti? Na idameva½, nicc±dinimittuggh±µanena animittabh±vassa nippariy±yena magge alabbhanato nicc±dinimittuggh±µanassapi pariy±yabh±vato. Nanu idampi sabbattha sam±na½. Suññata-appaºihitabh±vopi hi nippariy±yena amagge na labbhati puggalasuññataggahaºassa, paºidhisosanassa ca ujuka½ maggeneva nipphajjanato, tasm± suññat±nupassan±pi appaºihit±nupassan±pi pariy±yeneva ta½ ta½ n±ma½ labhant²ti maggassa nippariy±yato n±ma½ na dent²ti? Na, tato laddha-ariyamaggassa nippariy±yato sampayuttadhammavaseneva suññata-appaºihitan±masambhavato. Katha½? Ýhapetv± buddhupp±da½ sarabhaªgasatth±r±dik±lepi dubbij±n²yabh±vena sukhumassa anattalakkhaºassa paññ±ya eva gocarabh±vato anatt±nupassan±ya anupassanato maggakkhaºe paññindriya½ adhimatta½ hoti. Yath±ha– “anattato manasikaroto paññindriya½ adhimatta½ hot²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.221).
Tañca pana saya½ att±bhinivesasamuggh±µanato, ariyamaggapariy±pannatt± ca nippariy±yatova suññatan±ma½ labhati. Dukkh±nupassan±ya sam±dhivipaccan²kassa paºidhisaªkh±tar±gassa sosanato tass± vasena anupassantassa maggakkhaºe sam±dhindriya½ adhimatta½ hoti. Yath±ha– “dukkhato manasikaroto sam±dhindriya½ adhimatta½ hot²”ti. Tañca pana saya½ paºidhisosanato, ariyamaggapariy±pannatt± ca nippariy±yatova appaºihitan±ma½ labhati. Sabbasaªkh±r±na½ pana aniccabh±va½ ±gamanato sutv± pacch± saya½ paccakkhato passato “aniccameva vata so bhagav± ‘aniccan’ti ±h±”ti bhagavati saddh±b±hullapaµil±bhato anicc±nupassan±ya manasikaroto maggakkhaºe saddhindriya½ adhimatta½ hoti. Yath±ha– “aniccato manasikaroto saddhindriya½ adhimatta½ hot²”ti. Ta½ pana saya½ saªkh±ranimittato vuµµhahantampi ariyamaggapariy±panna½ na hot²ti nippariy±yato animittan±ma½ na labhati, tasm± yath± k±yakamm±dhika½ citta½ “k±yakamman”ti vuccati, eva½ suññatasaªkh±tapaññindriy±dhimatto maggo suññatan±ma½ labhati, appaºihitasaªkh±tasam±dhindriy±dhimatto appaºihitan±ma½, saddhindriy±dhimatto pana saddh±ya animittan±m±l±bhato sayampi ta½ na labhati. Yadi sampayuttadhammavasena suññat±din±m±l±bho, atha katha½ “±gamanato”ti vutta½? Sacca½, ±gamanato adhimattassa pana indriyassa vasena laddhan±mampi ±gamanatova laddha½ hoti.
Atha v± abhidhammapariy±yenapi suññatabh±vo n±ma puggalasuññat±yev±ti puggalasuññatagg±hit±ya anatt±nupassan±ya suññatan±ma½ nippariy±yatova labbhati. Paºidhi n±ma r±g±dik± ev±ti r±g±disosit±ya dukkh±nupassan±ya appaºihitan±mampi nippariy±yatova labbhati.
Nimittanti pana µhapetv± suttantapariy±ya½ abhidhammapariy±yena saªkh±ranimitta½ hot²ti saªkh±ranimittagg±hit±ya anicc±nupassan±ya animittan±ma½ nippariy±yato na labbhati, tasm± nippariy±yato suññata-appaºihitan±mik±na½ anattadukkh±nupassan±na½ vasena paµiladdhamaggo ±gamanato suññata-appaºihitan±ma½ labhati, animittan±ma½ pana pariy±yatova labhati. Tena vutta½ “animittan±ma½ panettha ±gamanatopi suttantapariy±yeneva labbhati abhidhamme magga½ pati animittan±massa anuddhaµatt±”ti. Iti imesa½ tiººa½ vimokkh±na½ pavesanadv±rabh±vato suññat±nupassan±din±mik± anatt±nupassan±dik± tisso anukkamena balavabh±va½ patv± vuµµh±nag±minivipassan±bh³t± t²ºi vimokkhamukh±n²ti veditabb±ni. Vuttañheta½–
“T²ºi kho panim±ni vimokkhamukh±ni lokaniyy±n±ya sa½vattanti, sabbasaªkh±re paricchedaparivaµumato samanupassanat±ya animitt±ya ca dh±tuy± cittasampakkhandanat±ya, sabbasaªkh±resu manosamuttejanat±ya appaºihit±ya ca dh±tuy± cittasampakkhandanat±ya, sabbadhamme parato samanupassanat±ya suññat±ya ca dh±tuy± cittasampakkhandanat±ya, im±ni t²ºi vimokkhamukh±ni lokaniyy±n±ya sa½vattant²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.219).
Ettha hi paricchedaparivaµumatoti udayabbayavasena paricchedato ceva parivaµumato ca. Anicc±nupassan± hi “udayato pubbe saªkh±r± natth²”ti paricchinditv± tesa½ gati½ samannesam±n± vayato para½ na gacchanti, ettheva antaradh±yant²ti parivaµumato pariyantato samanupassati. Samanupassanat±y±ti sammadeva anupassanat±ya sa½vattant²ti sambandho. Manosamuttejanat±y±ti cittasa½vejanat±ya. Dukkh±nupassanena hi saªkh±resu citta½ sa½vijjati. Parato samanupassanat±y±ti “n±ha½, na maman”ti eva½ anattato samanupassanat±ya. Iti im±ni t²ºi pad±ni anicc±nupassan±d²na½ tiººa½ vasena vutt±n²ti veditabb±ni. Teneva ca tadanantare pañh±vissajjane–
“Aniccato manasikaroto khayato saªkh±r± upaµµhahanti, dukkhato manasikaroto bhayato saªkh±r± upaµµhahanti, anattato manasikaroto suññato saªkh±r± upaµµhahant²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.219)–