11. Id±ni kusala-saddassa atthuddh±radassanattham±ha “cheke kusala-saddoyan”ti-±di. Tattha “kusalo tva½ rathassa aŖgapaccaŖg±na½ (ma. ni. 2.87), kusal±naccag²tassa, sikkhit± c±turitthiyo”ti-±d²su (j±. 2.22.94) cheke diµµho, chekapariy±yo pav²ŗatthoti attho. “Kacci nu bhoto kusala½, kacci bhoto an±mayan”ti-±d²su (j±. 1.15.146; 2.20.129) ±rogye. “Katamo pana, bhante, k±yasam±c±ro kusalo? Yo kho, mah±r±ja, k±yasam±c±ro anavajjo”ti (ma. ni. 2.361) ca “apara½ pana, bhante, etad±nuttariya½, yath± bhagav± dhamma½ deseti kusalesu dhammes³”ti (d². ni. 3.145) ca evam±d²su anavajje. “Kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±d±nahetu evamida½ puńńa½ va¹¹hati (d². ni. 3.80), kusalassa kammassa katatt± upacitatt±”ti (dha. sa. 431) ca ±d²su iµµhavip±ke. Anavajj±diketi anavajja-iµµhavip±ke, “anavajj±dike”ti ca attan± vakkham±nalakkhaŗassa anur³patt± vutta½, na pana ±rogyatthassa asambhavato. Kilesarogassa hi abh±vato kusala½ ±rogya½ hoti.
Vajj± r±g±dayo, te yassa na santi, ta½ anavajja½, iµµho vip±ko catukkhandhasaŖkh±to yassa, ta½ iµµhavip±ka½, iµµhavip±kat± cassa ta½sabh±vavantat±ya daµµhabb±, na tassa avassa½ iµµhavip±kasambhavatoyeva, lakkh²yati anen±ti lakkhaŗa½, anavajjańca ta½ iµµhavip±kańc±ti anavajja-iµµhavip±ka½. Ta½ lakkhaŗamass±ti anavajja-iµµhavip±kalakkhaŗa½.
Nanu ca kusalameva anavajja-iµµhavip±ka½, vuttaniy±mena pana anavajja-iµµhavip±kato ańńa½ kusala½ siy±. Na hi sayameva attano lakkhaŗanti sakk± vattunti? N±ya½ doso parińń±t±parińń±tavacanatthabh±vabhede ekass±pi lakkhitabbalakkhaŗabh±vaparikappanato. “Anavajja-iµµhavip±kan”ti hi parińń±tavacanattha½. “Kusalan”ti aparińń±tavacanattha½. Evańca yena sabh±vena parińń±tavacanatthassa saddassa attho hoti, yena ca aparińń±tavacanatthassa, tesa½ parińń±t±parińń±tavacanatthasabh±v±na½ bhedena ta½samaŖgissa kusalassa ekass±pi bhedo parikapp²yati yath± “pure bhava½ paµu ±si, paµutaro etarah²”ti guŗabhedena, vatthubhedena ca parikapp²yati, tasm± parińń±tavacanatthabh±vena lakkhaŗa½, aparińń±tavacanatthabh±vena lakkhitabbanti eva½ parikappitabhede pariggayham±ne na koci doso ±pajjati.
Atha v± lakkh²yat²ti lakkhaŗa½, anavajja-iµµhavip±kańca ta½ lakkhaŗańc±ti anavajja-iµµhavip±kalakkhaŗa½, ya½ anavajja-iµµhavip±ka½ hutv± lakkh²yati, ta½ kusalanti attho. Atha v± anavajja-saddena anavajjabh±vo vutto, iµµhavip±kasaddena iµµhavip±kabh±vo, tasm± anavajjo ca iµµhavip±ko ca anavajja-iµµhavip±ka½, ta½ lakkhaŗametass±ti karaŗatthe, kammatthe v± lakkhaŗa-saddena anavajja-iµµhavip±kalakkhaŗanti anavajja-iµµhavip±kasabh±vavanta½, anavajja-iµµhavip±kabh±vena lakkhitabba½ v±ti attho. Ki½ panettha k±raŗa½ padadvayapariggahena, nanu ekeneva padena adhippetatthasiddhi siy±. Kińc±pi hi “anavajjalakkhaŗan”ti vutte “apara½ pana, bhante, etad±nuttariya½, yath± bhagav± dhamma½ deseti kusalesu dhammes³”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 3.145) viya vajjarahitatt± aby±katass±pi pasaŖgo siy±ti iµµhavip±ka-pada½ vattabbameva, “iµµhavip±kalakkhaŗan”ti pana vutte itara½ na vattabba½ aby±katassa vip±k±rahabh±vena iµµhavip±kat±pasaŖgabh±vato? Saccameta½, anavajja-padena kusalassa pavattisukhata½, iµµhavip±ka-padena ca vip±kasukhata½ dassetu½ padadvaya½ vutta½. Anavajjapadańhi attano pavattisabh±vavasena lakkhaŗavacana½, itara½ k±lantare vip±kupp±danasamatthat±vasen±ti. Atha v± kusalassa atthavisuddhi½ dassetu½ purimapada½ vutta½, parisuddhavip±kata½ dassetu½ pacchima½. Purima½ v± kusalassa akusalasabh±vato nivattana½, pacchima½ aby±katasabh±vatoti alamatipapańcena. Ettha ca “anavajja…pe… lakkhaŗan”ti vacanena kusalassa s±mańńalakkhaŗa½ vutta½ anavajja-iµµhavip±kasabh±vassa kusalaj±tiy± s±dh±raŗatt±. Akusal±d²namas±dh±raŗabh±vena sabh±valakkhaŗa½ v±ti daµµhabba½.
Akusalaviddha½sanarasanti yath±nur³pa½ akusalappajahanakicca½. Kusalańhi parittamahaggatalokuttarabhedabhinna½ yath±kkama½ tadaŖgavikkhambhanasamucchedappah±navasena akusalapakkha½ pajahati. Atha tadaŖg±dippah±n±na½ ki½ n±n±karaŗanti? Vuccate– d±n±dipuńńakiriyavatthugatena tena tena kusalaŖgena tassa tassa maccher±di-akusalaŖgassa pah±na½ tadaŖgappah±na½, ta½ d²p±lokena andhak±raviddha½sana½ viya daµµhabba½, k±m±vacarakusal±na½ paritt±nubh±vat±ya tehi attano µhitikkhaŗe viddha½sit±namakusal±na½ tadapagame sati puna ±gamena vottharaŗato. Tesa½ tesa½ n²varaŗadhamm±na½ vikkhambhanasaŖkh±ta½ pavattiniv±raŗavasena pah±na½ vikkhambhanappah±na½, ta½ ghaµappah±rena jalatale sev±laviy³hana½ viya daµµhabba½. Yath± hi balavat± ghaµappah±rena d³r²kata½ sev±la½ tasmi½ apan²tepi ta½pah±ravegena sahas± na ottharati, evameva upac±rappan±bhedena jh±nena vikkhambhit± k±macchand±dayo tadappavattik±lepi tassa balena sahas± na ottharant²ti. Anuppattidhammat±p±danasaŖkh±ta½ samm± ucchedavasena pah±na½ samucchedappah±na½, ta½ pana asanisamp±tena rukkh±d²na½ sam³laviddha½sana½ viya daµµhabba½. Na hi ariyamaggena samucchinnakiles± anusayamattaken±pi sant±ne pavattanti. Yath± pana ekav±rappavattenapi indaggin± saha m³lehi viddha½sit± rukkh±dayo na puna viruhanti, evameva½ ekacittakkhaŗikenapi tena attano upp±damatteneva anusayamattaµµh±yinopi kiles± sabbena sabba½ viddha½sit±yeva honti.
Vod±na½ visuddhi, sa½kilesamalavimutt²ti attho, tath± hutv± paccupaµµh±namass±ti vod±napaccupaµµh±na½, parisuddh±k±rena yogino ń±ŗassa upaµµh±t²ti vutta½ hoti.
Eva½ kusalassa vajjarahita-iµµhavip±kasabh±vehi lakkhaŗa½, kicca-upaµµh±n±k±ravasena ca rasapaccupaµµh±n±ni vatv± puna vajjapaµipakkhabh±vavasena ca lakkhaŗa½, sampattiphalavasena ca ras±dika½ dassetu½ “vajjapaµipakkhatt±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha vajj±na½ paµipakkhabh±vo vajjapaµipakkhatta½, tato. Etena “anavajjalakkhaŗan”ti ettha a-k±ro paµipakkhatthoti dasseti, tena panassa aby±katato nivattana½ kata½. Itarath± hi n±ssa vajja½, vajjato ańńa½ v± anavajjanti aby±katass±pi ta½lakkhaŗat±pasaŖgo siy±. “Vajjapaµipakkhatt±”ti pana vutte yasm± kusal±kusal±nameva pah±yakappah±tabbabh±vena ±lokandhak±r±na½ viya ańńamańńa½ ujuvipaccan²kabh±vo, tasm± kusalameva vajjapaµipakkhatt± anavajjalakkhaŗa½, na ańńanti ayamattho siddho hoti. Vod±nabh±varasanti vod±nabh±vasampattika½, kilesamalehi asa½kiliµµhabh±vena sampajjanakanti attho. Paccupaµµh±p²yati upan²yati k±raŗena, attano v± k±raŗa½ paµicca, tappaµibaddhabh±vena paµimukha½ v± upaµµh±t²ti paccupaµµh±na½, iµµho vip±ko paccupaµµh±namass±ti iµµhavip±kapaccupaµµh±na½.
Asati yonisomanasik±re kusalassa anuppajjanato, sati ca tasmi½ uppajjanato tassa so ±sannak±raŗanti ±ha “yonisomanasik±rapadaµµh±nan”ti. Tattha yoniso pathena up±yena manasik±ro yonisomanasik±ro, atthato pana s±nusayasant±navato channa½ dv±r±nam±p±thagatesv±rammaŗesu patir³padesav±s±disampattiy± kusaladhamm±na½ paccayabh±vena bhavaŖga½ ±vaµµetv± uppannam±vajjana½ yonisomanasik±ro n±ma. Vuttapaµipakkhavasena ayonisomanasik±ropi daµµhabbo. Ya½ pana niranusayasant±nasamaŖgissa kiriyacitt±na½ paccayabh±vena uppanna½, ta½ µhapetv± niravajjadhamma½ s±vajjadhammassa kassaci paccayabh±v±nupagamanato yonisomanasik±rapakkha½ v± bhajeyya. Kh²ŗ±savasant±nagatatt± yoniso-ayonisobh±vamanapekkhitv± ±p±thagat±rammaŗesu uppattimatta½ vin± na kassaci kusal±kusalabh±vassa paccayo hot²ti tadubhayavasena navattabbatt± aby±katamanasik±roti v± saŖkha½ gaccheyy±ti.
S±vajj±niµµhavip±kalakkhaŗamakusalanti etth±pi “vajj± r±g±dayo, te yassa santi, ta½ s±vajja½, aniµµho vip±ko yassa, ta½ aniµµhavip±kan”ti-±din± vuttanay±nus±rena paµipakkhayojan± daµµhabb±. Ras±dito paneta½ anatthajananarasa½, sa½kilesapaccupaµµh±na½. Atha v± g±rayhabh±vato s±vajjalakkhaŗameva, sa½kilesabh±varasa½, aniµµhavip±kapaccupaµµh±na½, ayonisomanasik±rapadaµµh±na½. Vacanatthato pana na kusalanti akusala½, kusalapaµipakkhanti attho. Paµipakkhatthe hi aya½ ak±ro, na pana ańńatthe, n±pi abh±ve. Itarath± hi tika½ na siy±, duka½, catukka½ v± ±pajjeyya. Tath± hi yadi kusalato ańńamakusala½ siy± tad± aby±katass±pi tato ańńabh±vena akusala-saddasaŖgahoti kusal±kusalaj±tibhedato duvidhanti duka½ vattabba½. Yadi ca kusal±bh±vo akusala½, tena na k±ci j±ti gayhat²ti kusal±by±kataj±tibhedato dukameva vattabba½. Atha siy± “abh±vopi visu½ gahetabbo”ti, eva½ sati tassa j±tiy± abh±vato j±ti-saddena saha sambandho na siy±. Vijjam±nassa hi j±ti n±ma hoti. Yatheva v± kusalassa abh±vo, eva½ aby±katass±pi abh±vo atth²ti anaby±kataj±tipi vattabb±ti catukka½ ±pajjeyya. Na cetamiµµha½ kusal±divasena tividhaj±tiy± eva icchitatt±, p±¼iyańca “kusal± dhamm± akusal± dhamm± aby±kat± dhamm±”ti tikavaseneva vuttatt± “kusalapaµipakkhan”ti pana vuccam±ne mittapaµipakkho amitto viya, lobhapaµipakkho alobho viya ca ya½ dhammaj±ta½ kusalassa ujuvipaccan²kabh³ta½, ta½ akusalanti tassa vasena tika½ upapanna½ hoti, ujuvipaccan²kat± cassa s±vajj±niµµhavip±katt±, tena pah±tabbabh±vato ca veditabb±, na pana kusalavin±sanato. Na hi akusalena kusala½ pah²yati, mah±balatt± pana kusalameva ta½ pajahati. Kusalańhi mah±bala½, akusala½ dubbala½. Tenev±ha “abal± na½ bal²yanti, maddantena½ parissay±”ti (su. ni. 776), tasm± kusalameva yath±vuttanayena akusalassa pah±yaka½, n±kusala½ itarass±ti veditabba½.
Tadubhaya…pe… aby±katanti ya½ dhammaj±ta½ kusala½ viya na anavajja-iµµhavip±kalakkhaŗa½, n±pi akusala½ viya s±vajj±niµµhavip±kalakkhaŗa½, atha kho avip±katt± tadubhayavipar²talakkhaŗa½, ta½ aby±katanti attho. Nanu ca “tadubhayavipar²talakkhaŗan”ti vutte sukhadukkhavedan±na½ vipar²t± upekkh±vedan± viya iµµh±niµµhavip±k±na½ vipar²to ańńo koci vip±ko yassa atthi, ta½ aby±katanti ±pajjat²ti? N±pajjati tath± asambhavato. Yath± hi ±lokandhak±r±na½ vipar²to ańńo koci natthi, evamiµµh±niµµhavip±k±na½ vipar²to na koci vip±ko atth²ti. Atha v± ta½-saddo idha iµµh±niµµhavip±kanirapekkha½ kusal±kusalamattameva pacc±masat²ti kusal±kusal±na½ savip±katt± tadubhayavipar²talakkhaŗa½, ta½ avip±kalakkhaŗanti atthoti alamettha anuyogena. Kusal±kusalabh±vena na by±katanti aby±kata½. Kusal±kusalańhi vatv± aby±katassa vuttatt± kusal±kusalabh±veneva avuttatt±ti vińń±yati, na pak±rantarena. Tath± avacanańca tassa tadubhayavipar²talakkhaŗatt±yeva, na pana avattabbatt±matten±ti daµµhabba½. Atha v± vi-saddo virodhivacano. ¾-saddo abhimukhabh±vappak±sano, tasm± attano paccayehi ańńamańńa½ virodh±bhimukhata½ kata½ lakkhaŗavirodhato pah±yakappah±tabbabh±vato v±ti by±kata½, kusal±kusala½. Tato ańńa½ aby±kata½. Tańhi lakkhaŗato ańńamańńa½ kusal±kusala½ viya na tassa viruddha½. Na hi avip±kata½ aniµµhavip±kat± viya, iµµhavip±kat±ya iµµhavip±kat± viya ca aniµµhavip±kat±ya iµµh±niµµhavip±kat±hi virujjhati, na c±pi aby±kata½ kusal±kusalesu kińci pajahati, na ca kenaci pah±tabbanti. “Tadubhayavipar²talakkhaŗamaby±katan”ti vińń±yam±ne ahosi kamma½, n±hosi kammavip±ko, natthi kammavip±ko, na bhavissati kammavip±koti imin± tikena saŖgahitassa gati-upadhik±lappayogavipatt²hi avip±kassa diµµhadhammavedan²y±dikammassa bh±van±yapah±tabbassa akusalassa ca abhińń±kusalassa ca vip±kupp±dan±bh±vato “siy± nu kho aby±katabh±vo v±”ti kad±ci koci cinteyy±ti tanniv±raŗattham±ha “avip±k±raha½ v±”ti, vip±ka½ d±tu½ n±rahati tattha s±matthiy±bh±vatoti avip±k±raha½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– diµµhadhammavedan²y±dayo t±va paccayavekall±d²hi k±raŗehi avip±k±, sace panete tabbid³r± assu, tad± vip±kad±ne samatthat±ya vip±k±rah±yeva, ta½ pana na tath±, atha kho yena kenaci ±k±rena vip±kad±ne asamatthat±yeva vip±k±raha½ na hoti, ta½ aby±kata½ n±m±ti.