“Kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ gatiy± n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati apad± dvipad± catuppad± bahuppad± r³pino ar³pino saññino asaññino nevasaññ²n±saññino, kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ upapattiy± n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati uccan²cat± h²napaº²tat± sugataduggatat±, kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ attabh±ve n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati suvaººadubbaººat± suj±tadujj±tat± susaºµhitadussaºµhitat±, kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ lokadhamme n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati l±bh±l±bhe yas±yase nind±pasa½s±ya½ sukhadukkhe”ti (dha. sa. aµµha. 1).
Tasm± kammabhedanibbattatt± gati-±d²na½ cittat±. Kammanti ca cetasikadhammabh³t± cetan±, abhijjh±dayo ca vuccanti, na cittanti. Katha½ cittassa vicittagati-±dikaraºanti? Vuccate kammassa cittasannissitatt± tannipph±ditampi citteneva kata½ hoti, yath± r±jayodhena par±jito satturaññ± jitoti vuccati. Vicitta½ karaºamass±ti v± vicittakaraºa½. Tato ekaµµh±nikavajjitañhi citta½ pacceka½ paµisandh±divicittakiriyavantat±ya, sabbameva v± citta½ ±vajjan±di-aññamaññavisadisakiriyavantat±ya vicittakaraºa½ yuttanti. Sabbavikappesupi “r³pabhavo r³pan”ti-±d²su viya uttarapadalopo cittapariy±yena ca vicitta-saddena v± viggaho vi-saddalopo v± daµµhabbo. Atha v± “vicittakaraº±”ti ida½ cittavicittabh±vassa ñ±pakahetunidassana½. Tena yasm± ida½ vicittakaraºa½, tasm± tassa vicittassa nipph±daka½ sayampi tatheva vicittanti viññ±tabbanti eva½ karaºavicittat±ya vicittatt± cittanti attho. Ýhapetv± ta½ karaºavicittat±ya vicittabh±va½ attano eva j±tibh³misampayog±divasena vicittat±ya cittanti dassento ±ha “attano cittat±ya v±”ti. Tattha yasm± aññadeva kusala½, añña½ akusala½, añña½ aby±kata½, añña½ k±m±vacara½, añña½ r³p±vacar±dibheda½, añña½ sar±ga½, añña½ v²tar±ga½, añña½ sadosa½, añña½ v²tadosa½, añña½ samoha½, añña½ v²tamoha½, añña½ r³p±rammaºa½, añña½ sadd±di-±rammaºa½, r³p±rammaºesu ca añña½ n²l±rammaºa½, añña½ p²t±di-±rammaºa½. Eva½ sadd±rammaº±d²supi yath±sambhava½. Sabbesu ceva tesu añña½ h²na½, añña½ majjhima½, añña½ paº²ta½, h²n±d²su ca añña½ chand±dhipateyya½, añña½ citt±dhipateyya½, añña½ v²riy±dhipateyya½, añña½ v²ma½s±dhipateyyanti evam±din± j±tibh³misampayutta-±rammaºah²namajjhimapaº²ta-adhipati-±d²na½ vasena vicittamanekappak±ra½, tasm± im±ya attavicittat±ya v± cittanti vuccat²ti.
K±mañcettha ekameva citta½ eva½ vicitta½ n±ma na hoti, vicitt±na½ pana antogadhatt± etesu ya½ kiñci ekampi vicittat±ya cittanti vattu½ vaµµati samud±yavoh±rena avayavass±pi vohariyam±natt± yath± pabbatanad²samudd±d²namekades± diµµh± pabbat±dayo diµµh±ti, yath± ca ekekacittasampayutt±pi vedan±dayo r±saµµhena khandhavoh±rena “vedan±kkhandho saññ±kkhandho”ti-±din± vuccanti. Apicettha vip±kaviññ±ºa½ kammakilesehi citanti citta½, ta½ kilesasah±yena kammun± phalabh±vena nibbattita½ tehi cita½ n±ma hoti. Hotu t±vida½ lokiyavip±ka½ sandh±ya, lokuttara½ pana patv± kathanti? Vuccate– “katame dhamm± kusal±, yasmi½ samaye lokuttara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti…pe… tasmi½ samaye avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti-±din± ariyamaggacetan±yapi avijj³panissayabh±vassa pak±sitatt± lokuttarakusalass±pi anusay± upanissay± hont²ti tannibbattitassa vip±kassa kammakilesasañcitat±pariy±yo labbhat²ti. Cita½ t±yat²ti v± citta½. Kamm±disañcitopi hi attabh±vo viññ±º³parame matoti vuccati. Yath±ha–
“¾yu usm± ca viññ±ºa½, yad± k±ya½ jahantima½;
appaviddho tad± seti, nirattha½va kaliªgaran”ti. (Sa½. ni. 3.95).
So pan±ya½ citta-saddo kiñc±pi anekatthesu dissati. Tath± hesa “citto ca gahapat²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 2.133; 4.176) paññattiya½ ±gato. “Sabbo loko paracittena acitto”ti-±d²su viññ±ºe. “N±ha½, bhikkhave, añña½ ekanik±yampi samanupass±mi, eva½ cittan”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.100) vicitte, n±nappak±reti attho. “Caraºa½ n±ma cittan”ti-±d²su cittakammake. Idha pana catubbidhadhamme niddesato pakaraºavasena yath±vuttavacanatthayutto viññ±ºavacanova daµµhabboti imamattha½ dassento ±ha “paññattiyamp²”ti-±di Paññ±p²yati et±y±ti paññatti, tassa½ n±mapaññattiyanti attho. Cittoti hi ekassa gahapatino n±ma½. Pi-saddo vakkham±nasampiº¹anattho. Viññ±ºeti savip±k±vip±kabhede citte. Tañhi vij±nanaµµhena “viññ±ºan”ti vuccati. Yath±ha– “vij±n±t²ti kho, bhikkhave, viññ±ºa½, tasm± viññ±ºanti vuccat²”ti. Cittasammut²ti cittavoh±ro. Daµµhabb±ti viññ±tabb±. Idh±ti imasmi½ catubbidhadhammaniddesaµµh±ne. Viññun±ti vij±nat±, ±bhidhammiken±ti attho.
Vibh±gavant±na½ dhamm±na½ sabh±vavibh±vana½ vibh±gena vin± na hot²ti cittassa vibh±ga½ dassetu½ “s±rammaºato”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha ±lambanti ta½ niss±ya pavattant²ti ±rammaºa½, paccayo, gocaro ca. Tath± hi “labhati m±ro ±rammaºa½, labhati m±ro ot±ran”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 3.80) paccayo “±rammaºan”ti vuccati. “Nimitta½ ass±sapass±s±, an±rammaºamekacittass±”ti-±d²su (paµi. ma. 1.159) gocaro. Idha pana ubhayampi vaµµati sabbasseva cittassa sappaccayasagocaratt±. Saha ±rammaºena vattati tadavin±bh±vatoti s±rammaºa½. Bh±vappadh±naniddesavasena cettha s±rammaºabh±vo s±rammaºa-saddena vutto yath± “idampi buddhe ratana½ paº²ta½ (khu. p±. 6.3). Cakkhu suñña½ attena v± attaniyena v±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.85) ratana-attattaniy±dibh±vo ratan±d²hi saddeh²ti, tato s±rammaºabh±vatoti attho. Evamaññatth±pi yath±nur³pa½ daµµhabba½. Ekavidhanti ekappak±ra½, ekakoµµh±santi attho.
Savip±k±vip±katoti vip±kupp±danasabh±vassa vijjam±n±vijjam±nabh±vato. Vip±ka-saddo hi dv²su atthesu pavattati. Katthaci vipakkabh±vam±pannesu ar³padhammesu, katthaci vip±kupp±danasabh±ve Tath± hesa “vip±k± dhamm±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. tikam±tik± 3) vipakkabh±vam±pannesu ar³padhammesu pavattati. “Vip±kadhammadhamm±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. tikam±tik± 3) vip±kupp±danasabh±ve. Idha pana vip±kupp±danasabh±vo daµµhabbo. Itarath± hi abhiññ±kusal±d²na½ savip±ka-pade asaªgahitabh±v±patti siy±. Tath± hi yadi vipakkabh±vam±pann± eva dhamm± idha gahit± siyu½, te yassa santi, ta½ savip±kamitaramavip±kanti abhiññ±kusalassa ceva kad±ci avip±kassa diµµhadhammavedan²y±dikammassa bh±van±yapah±tabb±kusalassa ca vip±kuppattiy± abh±vato avip±ka-padasaªgaho siy±, evañca sati “avip±ka½ aby±katan”ti vakkham±natt± nesa½ aby±katabh±vo ±pajjati, na cetamiµµha½ kusal±kusalaniddeseyeva tesa½ niddesato. Vip±kupp±danasabh±ve pana gahite ta½sabh±vo n±ma anupacchinn±vijjam±nataºh±nusayasmi½ sant±ne saby±p±rappavatti ev±ti tass± tesupi atthit±ya asatipi vip±kupp±dane savip±ka-padasaªgaho siddhoti na koci iµµhavigh±to ±pajjati. Yena pana k±raºena abhiññ±kusal±dikamavip±ka½, yo cettha vattabbo vinicchayo, ta½ sabba½ tassa tassa ±gataµµh±neyeva dassayiss±ma.
Katama½ panettha savip±ka½, katamamavip±kanti codana½ sandh±y±ha “tattha savip±kan”ti-±di. Aby±katanti vip±kakiriy±vasena duvidhamaby±kata½. Tesu vip±kacitta½ t±va ±d±satale mukhanimitta½ viya niruss±hatt± vip±kupp±dane asamattha½. Kiriyacittesu ca yadeta½ kh²º±savasant±neyeva niyatamaµµh±rasavidha½ viññ±ºa½, ta½ upacchinnabhavam³l±ya santatiya½ pavattat²ti samucchinnam³l±ya lat±ya puppha½ viya phalad±y² na hoti. ¾vajjanadvaya½ pana anupacchinnabhavam³lepi sant±ne pavattam±na½ an±sevanabh±vena dubbalatt± moghapupphamiva b²jabh±ve asamattha½ aphalameva. Iti sabbameta½ aby±kata½ vip±k±rahat±bh±vato avip±kanti vutta½ “avip±ka½ aby±katan”ti. J±yanti ettha asadis±pi sadis±k±r±ti j±ti, sam±n±k±ro, kusal±kusal±by±kat±na½ j±ti kusal±kusal±by±kataj±ti, tass± bhedato tividha½ kusala½ akusala½ aby±katanti. Vacanatthapucch±ya payojana½ vuttameva.
10. “Kucchit±nan”ti-±di vissajjana½. Tattha kucchit±nanti nindit±na½, asuci viya n±garikehi viññ³hi garahitabb±na½ p±padhamm±nanti attho. Salanatoti hi½sanato, apanayanato v±. Kusalañhi yath±nur³pa½ tadaªg±divasena akusaladhamme pajahanta½ te hi½sati, apanayat²ti v± vuccati. Atha v± salanato sa½varaºato, pidahanatoti attho. Kusaladhammavasena hi akusalappavattiniv±raºena, appavattidhammat±p±danena ca manacchaµµhesu dv±resu appavattiy± sa½vut± pihit± honti. Kus±nanti r±g±di-asucisampayogena n±n±vidhadukkhahetut±ya ca kucchiten±k±rena appah²nabh±vena sant±ne sayanti pavattant²ti kus±, p±padhamm±. Atha v± kucchit±na½ p±º±tip±t±d²na½ s±vajjadhamm±na½ s±nato nis±nato tejanato kus±, dosalobh±dayo. Dos±d²nañhi vasena cetan±ya tikkhabh±vappattiy± p±º±tip±t±d²na½ mah±s±vajjat±ti. Tesa½ lavanena chindanena yath±nur³pa½ pajahanen±ti attho. Kusen±ti kucchit±na½ s±nato tanukaraºato, os±nakaraºato v± “kus±”ti laddhan±mena ñ±ºena. L±tabbatt±ti ±d±tabbatt±, sahaj±ta-upanissayabh±vena sant±ne pavattetabbatt±. ѱºañhi tihetukakusala½ sahaj±tabh±vena ceva upanissayabh±vena ca, duhetukakusala½ upanissayabh±veneva sant±ne pavatteti. Evañca katv± kosallasambh³taµµho kusalaµµhoti sabbakusal±na½ s±dh±raºavasena attho vuccati. Atha v± kusen±ti j±tisaddat±ya ekavacananiddeso, kuseh²ti pana attho. Puññakiriy±vasena hi pavatt±ni saddh±d²ni indriy±ni yath±vuttanayena “kus±n²”ti vuccanti, tehi l±tabbatt± vuttanayena pavattetabbatt±. Apicettha–
“Kuso viya lun±t²ti, kus± viya lun±ti v±;
kusala½ ku½ salet²ti, lun±ti kusamiccap²”ti.
Tattha yath± kuso gahito ubhayabh±gagata½ hatthapadesa½ lun±ti, evamidampi uppann±nuppannavasena ubhayabh±gagata½ kilesapakkha½ lun±ti chindati, seyyath±pi– “anuppann±na½ p±pak±na½ akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ anupp±d±ya chanda½ janeti, v±yamati, uppann±na½…pe… pah±n±y±”ti ±gata½ sammappadh±na½. Tasm± kuso viya lun±t²ti kusala½. Kus± viya lun±t²ti ettha “ku”iti bh³mi vuccati, dhamm±na½ adhiµµh±nabh±vena ta½sadisat±ya idha r³p±r³pakkhandho vutto. Attano nissayabh³tassa tassa etarahi, ±yatiñca anudahanato vin±sanato ku½ s±yant²ti kus±, r±g±dayo, te viya attano nissaya½ lun±ti chindat²ti kusala½. Payogasamp±dit± hi kusaladhamm± accantameva r³p±r³padhamme appavattikaraºena samucchindanti anup±disesanibb±nadh±tup±panatoti. Vuttanayena pana “kun”ti laddhan±massa r³p±r³pakkhandhassa salanato apanayanato ku½ salet²ti kusala½. Kusa½ lun±t²ti pana kucchit± ettha sayant²ti kuso, k±yo, ta½ lun±ti yath±vuttavasenev±ti kusala½.