1. Paµhamo paricchedo

Cittaniddeso

K±m±vacarakusalavaººan±

8. Eva½ t±va ratanattayappaº±m±dika½ dassetv± id±ni yath±raddhappakaraºassa atthasar²rabh³tamabhidhamma½ saªkhepato uddisanto ±ha “citta½ cetasikan”ti-±di. Tattha cittasaddassa t±va vacanattha½ sayameva anantara½ vipañceti. “Cetasikan”ti-±d²su pana avippayog²bh±vena cetasi citte niyutta½, tattha v± bhava½ tad±yattavuttit±y±ti cetasika½, vedan±dikkhandhattayasseta½ adhivacana½. Ruppati, r³p²yat²ti v± r³pa½, s²tuºh±d²hi vik±ram±pajjati, ±p±d²yat²ti attho, catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½, catuv²sati-up±d±r³p±nañca vasena aµµhav²satividhassa r³pakkhandhasseta½ adhivacana½. Bhav±bhava½ vinanato sa½sibbanato v±na½ vuccati taºh±, na vijjati s± ettha, tato v± nikkhanta½ etanti nibb±na½, amata½ asaªkhata½ vatthu. Iti-saddo nidassane. Natthi etassa uttaritaroti niruttaro. Atha v± catuves±rajjavih±ratt± natthi etassa uttara½ paccan²kavacananti niruttaro. ѱºappah±na-antar±yaniyy±nikesu hi sadevake loke na koci satthu sahadhammika½ uttara½ vacana½ kathetu½ samattho atth²ti. Tatra bhagav± utr±s±bh±vato vis±radova hoti. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
“‘Samm±sambuddhassa te paµij±nato ime dhamm± anabhisambuddh±ti tatra vata ma½ samaºo v± br±hmaºo v± devo v± m±ro v± brahm± v± koci v± lokasmi½ sahadhammena paµicodessat²ti nimittameta½, s±riputta, na samanupass±mi, etamaha½, s±riputta, nimitta½ asamanupassanto khemappatto abhayappatto ves±rajjappatto vihar±mi.
“Kh²º±savassa te paµij±nato ime ±sav± aparikkh²º±ti tatra vata ma½…pe… vihar±mi.
“Ye ca kho pana te antar±yik± dhamm± vutt±, te paµisevato n±la½ antar±y±y±ti tatra vata ma½…pe… vihar±mi.
“Yassa kho pana te atth±ya dhammo desito, so na niyy±ti takkarassa samm± dukkhakkhay±y±ti tatra vata ma½…pe… vihar±m²”ti (ma. ni. 1.150).
Catt±ri ariyasacc±ni pak±set²ti catusaccappak±sano. Dukkhasamudayanirodhamaggavasena hi catt±ri ariyasacc±ni. Yath±ha, “catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, ariyasacc±ni. Katam±ni catt±ri? Dukkha½ ariyasacca½, dukkhasamudaya½ ariyasacca½, dukkhanirodha½ ariyasacca½, dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad± ariyasaccan”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1083). Tattha tebh³mak± dhamm± anekupaddav±dhiµµh±nat±ya dhuvasubh±divirahena, kucchitatucchaµµhena ca dukkha½ n±ma. Kamm±divisesapaccayasamav±ye dukkhuppattik±raºabh±vena taºh± samudayo n±ma “samecca udeti dukkha½ imasm±”ti katv±. Dukkhassa anupp±danirodhapaccayatt± dukkhanirodho nibb±na½. Ta½ pana dukkhanirodha½ ±lambaºakaraºavasena gamanato p±puºanato, tadadhigam±ya paµipad±bh±vato c±ti “dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±”ti lokuttaramaggo vuccati. Saccaµµho pana tesa½ tacch±vipar²tabh³tabh±vato veditabbo. Vuttañhi “‘ida½ dukkhanti, bhikkhave, tathameta½ avitathameta½ anaññathametan”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1090) vitth±ro. Ettha pana catunna½ ariyaphal±na½, ariyamaggasampayutt±nañca saccavinissaµabh±vepi idha magganibb±nappak±sanat±vacaneneva tappak±sanatthampi vutta½ hoti, an±savabh±vena ekalakkhaºatt± ta½ta½hetukavisayabh±vato c±ti daµµhabba½.
Ettha ca “niruttaro catusaccappak±sano”ti imehi bhagavato citt±dicatubbidhadhammadesan±nuk³laguºavisesa½ dasseti atath±vidhassa ta½desan±s±matthiy±yogato. Atha v± “niruttaro”ti vacanena catubbidhadhammassa anaññathatta½ d²peti. “Catusaccappak±sano”ti pana imin± ye te dhamm± bhagavat± vineyyaparip±canattha½ desit±, na te idha adhippet±. Ye pana parip±citehi tehi abhisametabbavasena dukkh±dayo catubbidh± vutt±, teyeva uddisitabbatthena adhippet±ti dasseti.
Eva½ saªkhepato catt±ro dhamme uddisitv± id±ni uddeso n±ma niddesatth±ya hot²ti yath±-uddiµµhadhamme niddisitu½ “tattha cittan”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu citt±d²su dhammesu. Visayavij±nana½ cittanti ya½ visayasaªkh±tassa ±rammaºassa vij±nana½ upaladdhi, ta½ cittanti attho. Imin± pana cittassa ±rammaºapaµibaddhavuttita½, aniccata½, ak±rakatañca d²peti. “Visayavij±nanan”ti hi ±rammaºena citta½ upalakkhento tassa tad±yattavuttita½, ta½d²panena ca tadabhimukhak±leyeva uppattid²panato aniccabh±vañca d²peti. Bh±vaniddesena pana vij±nanamattad²panato ak±rakabh±va½. Yath±paccayañhi pavattimattameveta½, yadida½ sabh±vadhammo n±m±ti. Evañca katv± sabbesampi cittacetasikadhamm±na½ bh±vas±dhanameva nippariy±yato labbhati. Ya½ pana “cintet²ti citta½, tena citta½ vicarat²ti vic±ro”ti-±din± kattukaraºavasena nibbacana½ vuccati, ta½ pariy±yakathananti veditabba½. Sakasakakiccesu hi dhamm±na½ attappadh±nat±sam±ropanena kattubh±vo, tadanuk³labh±vena ta½sampayuttadhammasam³he kattubh±vasam±ropanena karaºattañca pariy±yatova labbhat²ti. Tath± nidassana½ pana dhammasabh±vato aññassa katt±dino abh±vaparid²panatthanti veditabba½.
“Visayavij±nanan”ti ca etena cittassa ±rammaº³paladdhilakkhaºat± vutt±ti id±nissa ras±d²ni vuccanti. Pubbaªgamarasañhi citta½ sandh±napaccupaµµh±na½ n±mar³papadaµµh±na½. Dv±ra½ patv± tad±rammaºañhi vibh±vanaµµhena citta½ pubbaªgama½ purec±rika½. Tath± hi cakkhudv±rena daµµhabba½ r³p±rammaºa½ citteneva j±n±ti…pe… manodv±rena viññ±tabba½ dhamm±rammaºa½ citteneva j±n±ti. Yath± hi nagaraguttiko nagaramajjhe siªgh±µake nis²ditv± “aya½ nev±siko, aya½ ±gantuko”ti ±gat±gata½ jana½ upadh±reti, eva½ sampadamida½ daµµhabba½, tasm± dv±ra½ patv± tad±rammaºa½ vibh±vanaµµhena purec±rikanti pubbaªgamarasa½. Pacchima½ pacchima½ uppajjam±na½ purima½ purima½ nirantara½ katv± sandaham±namiva upaµµh±ti, gahaºabh±va½ gacchat²ti sandh±napaccupaµµh±na½. Pañcavok±re panassa niyamato n±mar³pa½, catuvok±rabhave n±mameva padaµµh±nanti n±mar³papadaµµh±nañca hoti. N±natta½ pana lakkhaº±d²na½ upari vakkham±nanayena veditabba½. Vakkhati hi r³paparicchede
“S±mañña½ v± sabh±vo v±, dhamm±na½ lakkhaºa½ mata½;
kicca½ v± tassa sampatti, rasoti parid²pito.
“Phala½ v± paccupaµµh±na½, upaµµh±nanayopi v±;
±sannak±raºa½ ya½ tu, ta½ padaµµh±nasaññitan”ti. (Abhidha. 633-634).
Yattha yattha pana lakkhaº±d²ni vuccanti, tattha tattha imin±va nayena tesa½ n±natta½ veditabba½.
Vacanatthavij±nanena viditacittas±maññassa uttari cittavibh±go vuccam±no sobheyy±ti vacanatthavij±nanameva t±va ±dimhi yuttataranti ta½ t±va kathetukamyat±ya pucchati “tassa pana ko vacanattho”ti. Pañcavidh± hi pucch±– (d². ni. aµµha. 1.7; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.449; sa½. ni. aµµha. 2.2.1; a. ni. aµµha. 1.1.170) adiµµhajotan±pucch± diµµhasa½sandan±pucch± vimaticchedan±pucch± anumatipucch± kathetukamyat±pucch±ti. Tattha ya½ aññ±ta½ adiµµha½, tassa ñ±º±ya dassan±ya pañh±karaºa½ adiµµhajotan±pucch± n±ma. Ya½ pana ñ±ta½ diµµha½, tassa aññehi paº¹itehi sa½sandanatth±ya pañh±karaºa½ diµµhasa½sandan±pucch± n±ma. Pakatiy± pana sa½sayapakkhandanassa attano sa½sayasamuggh±µanattha½ pañh±karaºa½ vimaticchedan±pucch± n±ma. “Ta½ ki½ maññatha, bhikkhave, r³pa½ nicca½ v± anicca½ v±ti? Anicca½, bhante. Ya½ pan±nicca½, dukkha½ v± ta½ sukha½ v±”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 3.79; mah±va. 21) anumatiggahaºattha½ pañh±karaºa½ anumatipucch± n±ma. “Catt±rome, bhikkhave, satipaµµh±n±. Katame catt±ro”ti-±din± (d². ni. 2.373; sa½. ni. 5.402-404) pana ta½ta½dhamm±na½ desan±dhipp±yena pañh±karaºa½ kathetukamyat±pucch± n±ma.
T±su purim± tisso ±cariy±na½ na sambhavanti. Na hi te ganthakaraºatth±ya ±rabhitv± id±ni adiµµha½ jotenti, diµµha½ sa½sandenti, sa½saya½ v± pakkhandanti tabbisodhanapubbakameva ganthakaraºe abhinivesanato. Itar± pana dve sambhavanti. T±su aya½ kathetukamyat±pucch±. Apica codana½ samuµµh±pent± ±cariy± añña½ codaka½ parikappetv± tassa vacanavasena samuµµh±pent²ti ta½vasenettha adiµµhajotan±vimaticchedan±pucch±pi labbhantev±ti daµµhabba½. Tass±ti tassa citta-saddassa. Citte hi adhigate tassa v±cako saddopi sahacariyato adhigatova hot²ti tassa idha ta-saddena pariggaho. Keci pana “tassa cittass±”ti attha½ vadanti, ta½ “tassa ko vacanattho”ti imin± na sameti. Na hi cittassa “ko vacanattho”ti pucch± sambhavat²ti.
Id±ni yath±pucchitamattha½ vissajjetu½ “vuccate”ti t±va paµiñña½ katv± “sabbasaªg±hakavasen±”ti-±din± vissajjanam±raddha½. Tattha sabbasaªg±hakavasen±ti heµµhimantato cakkhuviññ±º±dayo up±d±ya sabbesa½ ±rammaºavij±nanasabh±vatt± tesa½ sabbesameva saªg±hakavasena, na pana vakkham±nanibbacanesu viya yath±l±bhavasen±ti attho. Cintet²ti vij±n±ti. Cintenti tena gocaranti v± citta½. Sampayuttadhamm±na½ kattut±sam±ropanena hissa karaºabh±vo labbhati. Sabbasaªg±hakavasena t±va attha½ dassetv± id±ni yath±l±bhavasenapi dassetu½ “attasant±na½ v± cinot²tip²”ti-±di vutta½. Sabbacittas±dh±raºatt± hi citta-saddassa yattha yattha yath± yath± attho labbhati, tattha tattha tath± tath± gahetabbo. Yassa pana cittassa yath±vutta-atthaviseso na labbhati, ta½ ru¼h²vasena cittanti veditabba½. Yath± kilañj±d²hi katampi t±lapaººehi katasarikkhakat±ya ru¼h²saddena “t±lavaºµan”tveva vuccat²ti. Attasant±nanti sakasant±na½, javanasant±nanti attho. Atta-saddassa hi parapaccan²kavacanatt± attano sant±noti sadisavasena uppajjam±no javanasant±no vuccati. Ta½ cinoti r±si½ karot²ti ayamattho s±sevanak±na½ javanacitt±na½ vasena daµµhabbo. T±ni hi purej±t±ni pacch±j±t±na½ ±sevanapaccay± hutv± attano javanasant±nassa paguºabalavabh±vakaraºena ta½ cinanti n±ma. -saddo asabbasaªg±hakatthavikappane. Pi-saddo kiriy±sampiº¹anatthe. Atha v± “sabbasaªg±hakavasen±”ti imassa idh±pi sambandho hot²ti idampi sabbasaªg±hakavasena vuttanti gayham±ne attasant±nanti viññ±ºavacanassa atta-saddassa sakatthavuttitt±yeva ta½vasena cittasant±nanti attho. Anantar±dipaccayavasena hi cittasant±nassa abbocchinnappavattikaraºato sabbameva cittaj±ta½ cittasant±na½ cinoti n±ma. Imasmi½ panatthe -saddo kiriy±vikappanattho. Pi-saddo “cittan”ti imassa ±ka¹¹hanatthoti daµµhabba½. Purimapakkhe pana cittanti adhik±ratova gahetabba½.
9. Vicitta½ karoti, vicittassa v± karaºanti vicittakaraºa½, tato vicittakaraº±, vicittacittakamm±d²na½ karaºatoti attho. Lokasmiñhi ya½ kiñci cittakamm±dibheda½ vicitta½ sippaj±ta½, sabba½ ta½ citteneva cintetv± kar²yat²ti. Ten±ha bhagav±– “diµµha½ vo, bhikkhave caraºa½ n±ma cittanti? Eva½, bhante. Tampi kho, bhikkhave, caraºa½ n±ma citta½ citteneva cintitan”ti (sa½. ni. 3.100). Sv±yamattho saviññattik±na½ b±tti½sacitt±namupalabbhati. S±savakusal±kusala½ v± vicittagati-±dikaraºato v± vicittakaraºaµµhena citta½. Nanu ca vicittagati-±dayo kammavasena nipphajjanti. Yath±ha–