24. Catuv²satimo paricchedo

Paccayaniddesavaŗŗan±

1395. Id±ni nesa½ paccayavidhi½ dassetu½ “yesan”ti-±di ±raddha½.
Paµicca ena½ phalameti pavattati, tiµµhati, uppajjati v±ti paccayo, hinoti patiµµh±ti etth±ti hetu, anekatthatt± dh±tusadd±na½ hi-saddo m³la-saddo viya patiµµhattho veditabbo, hinoti v± etena kammanid±nabh³tena uddha½ oja½ atiharantena m³lena viya p±dapo tappaccaya½ phala½ gacchati viru¼hi½ ±pajjat²ti hetu, hetu ca so m³laµµhena, paccayo ca upak±rakaµµhen±ti hetupaccayo, hetu hutv± paccayo hetubh±vena paccayoti attho.
Eva½ ±rammaŗapaccay±d²su daµµhabba½. Sv±ya½ paµisandhiya½ kammasamuµµh±n±na½, pavattiya½ cittasamuµµh±n±na½ r³p±na½, ubhayattha sahaj±tan±madhamm±nańca paccayo. Sabbalokiyalokuttaranti imin± pańńattiy±pi loke viditabh±vena lokiyapadena saŖgahitatt± r³p±dibhedesu chabbidhesu saŖkhat±saŖkhatapańńattidhammesu na koci dhammo ±rammaŗapaccayo na hot²ti dasseti. Teneva “ya½ ya½ dhamma½ ±rabbh±”ti aniyato katoti. Nanu ca “ya½ ya½ dhamman”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.2-3) vuttatt± pańńattiy± gahaŗa½ na hot²ti? N±ya½ doso dhammasaddassa ńeyyavacanatt±. ¾rabbh±ti ±lambitv±, gahetv±ti attho. Uppajjant²ti ida½ nidassanamatta½. Te pana ta½ ±rabbha uppajjanti ceva tiµµhanti ca. Yath± hi dubbalo puriso daŗ¹a½ v± rajju½ v± ±lambitv± uµµhahati ceva tiµµhati ca, eva½ cittacetasik± dhamm± r³p±di-±rammaŗa½ ±lambitv± uppajjanti ceva tiµµhanti c±ti.
Jeµµhakaµµhena upak±rako dhammo adhipatipaccayo. Jeµµhakaµµhen±ti ca pamukhabh±vena. Att±dh²n±nańhi patibh³to dhammo adhipat²ti so tesa½ pamukhabh±vena pavattati. “Chand±dhipati chandasampayuttak±na½ dhamm±na½ ta½samuµµh±n±nańca r³p±na½ adhipatipaccayena paccayo”ti-±divacanato chand±dayo catt±ro dhamm± sahaj±tan±mar³p±na½ sahaj±t±dhipat²ti dassento ±ha “tattha sahaj±t±dhipat²”ti-±di. “Chandavato ki½ n±ma kamma½ na sijjhat²”ti-±dika½ purim±bhisaŖkh±r³panissaya½ labhitv± uppajjam±ne cittupp±de chand±dayo dhurabh³t± jeµµhakabh³t± sampayuttadhamme, ta½samuµµh±nar³pe ca s±dhayam±n± vase vattayam±n± hutv± pavattanti, te ca tesa½ vasena vattanti h²n±dibh±vena tadanuvattanato. Tena te adhipatipaccay± honti, no ca kho ekato. Yad± hi chanda½ dhura½ chanda½ jeµµhaka½ katv± citta½ pavattati, tad± chandova adhipati, na itare. Esa nayo sesesupi. Adhipatibh±vopi hi nesa½ attano pavattiniv±rake abhibhuyya pavattanato hoti. Avasesanti yath±vutt±na½ tesa½ garuk±tabbat±bh±vato, garukatasseva ca ±rammaŗ±dhipatibh±vavacanato. Vuttańheta½ “ya½ ya½ dhamma½ garu½ katv± ye ye dhamm± uppajjanti cittacetasik± dhamm±, te te dhamm± tesa½ tesa½ dhamm±na½ adhipatipaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.3). Tattha garu½ katv±ti garuk±racitt²k±ravasena v± ass±danavasena v± garu½ bh±rika½ laddhabba½ anavańń±ta½ katv±. Garuk±tabbańhi ±rammaŗa½ tanninnapoŗapabbh±r±na½ ass±danapaccavekkhaŗamaggaphal±na½ attano vase vattayam±na½ viya paccayo hoti, tasm± aya½ att±dh²n±na½ patibh±vena upak±rakatt± adhipatipaccayo daµµhabbo.
Antarayat²ti antara½, byavadh±yakanti attho, n±ssa antara½ vijjat²ti anantaro, soyeva paccayoti anantarapaccayo, anantarabh±vena upak±rako dhammoti adhipp±yo. Anantaraniruddh±ti attano nirodh±nantara½ anur³pacittupp±dassa uppattipaccayabh±vena tassa uppattiy± purimabh±ge anantara½ hutv± niruddh±, r³padhamm± pana anantarapaccay± natthi.
Samanantarabh±vena upak±rako dhammo samanantarapaccayo, tath± samanantarapaccayop²ti µhapetv± upasaggamatta½ na ettha koci viseso. Yo hi anantarapaccayo, sova samanantarapaccayoti. Purimapacchim±nańhi anantarupp±dabh±vato nirantarupp±danasamatthat± anantarapaccayat±, r³pakal±p±na½ viya saŗµh±n±bh±vato paccayapaccayuppann±na½ sahaµµh±n±bh±vato ca “idamito uddha½ heµµh± tiriyan”ti vibh±g±bh±v± attano ekattamiva upanetv± suµµhu anantarabh±vena upp±detu½ samatthat± samanantarapaccayat±, tasm± dhammato avisesepi vineyyavasena byańjanatthamattato visesa½ gahetv± tesa½ visu½ desan± kat±. Yampi “atth±nantarat±ya anantarapaccayo, k±l±nantarat±ya samanantarapaccayo”ti ±cariy±na½ mata½, ta½ “nirodh± vuµµhahantassa nevasańń±n±sańń±yatana½ kusala½ phalasam±pattiy± samanantarapaccayena paccayo”ti-±d²hi (paµµh±. 1.1.418) virujjhat²ti-±din± paµikkhitta½.
Uppajjam±nova sahupp±danavasena upak±rako dhammo sahaj±tapaccayo pak±sassa pad²po viya, so pan±ya½ “cittacetasik± dhamm± ańńamańńa½, sahaj±tar³p±nańca, mah±bh³t± ańńamańńa½, up±d±r³p±nańca, paµisandhikkhaŗe vatthuvip±k± ańńamańńan”ti ca tividho hoti, tasm± vutta½ “cittacetasik±”ti-±di. Yampi hi p±¼iya½ ar³pakkhandh±divasenassa chabbidhata½ vutta½, tampi ettheva saŖgahita½. Yo panettha sesar³padhamm±na½, ubhayattha vatthuno ca pavattiy± ar³padhamm±na½, up±d±r³p±nańca ańńamańńa½ mah±bh³t±na½ sahaj±tapaccayatt±bh±vo, so paccayabh±vas±matthiyavises±yogatoti daµµhabba½.
Ańńamańńa½ upp±danupatthambhanabh±vena attano upak±rakassa upak±rako dhammo ańńamańńapaccayo. Ańńamańńupatthambhakatidaŗ¹aka½ viya upak±rakat± ca ańńamańńat±vaseneva daµµhabb±, na sahaj±t±divasena. Sahaj±t±dipaccayo hontoyeva hi koci kassaci ańńamańńapaccayo na hoti cittacetasik±na½ cittajar³pe sati, mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±r³pe sati ańńamańńapaccayatt±bh±vato. Yath±ha “catt±ro khandh± ar³pino ańńamańńapaccayena paccayo, catt±ro mah±bh³t±…pe… okkantikkhaŗe n±mar³pa½ ańńamańńapaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.7). ¾cariyena pana paccayuppannadhamme apar±masitv± vuccam±natt± avisesena vutta½ “tath± ańńamańńapaccayo”ti.
Taru-±d²na½ pathav² viya adhiµµh±n±k±rena, cittakamm±d²na½ paµ±dayo viya ca nissay±k±rena upak±rako dhammo nissayapaccayo. Vatthur³p±n²ti sattanna½ vińń±ŗadh±t³na½ adhiµµh±n±k±rena nissayapaccayabh³t±ni vatthur³p±ni. Mah±bh³t± cittacetasik± c±ti ańńamańńa½, up±d±r³p±nańca tatheva nissayabh³t±ni mah±bh³t±ni ańńamańńa½, sahaj±tar³p±nańca nissay±k±rena paccay±ni cittacetasik±ni, tadadh²navuttit±ya attano phalena nissito na paµikkhittoti nissayo.
Yath± pana bhuso ±y±so up±y±so, eva½ bhuso nissayo upanissayo, balavak±raŗanti attho, tasm± balavak±raŗabh±vena upak±rako dhammo upanissayapaccayoti veditabbo. So ±rammaŗ³panissayo anantar³panissayo pakat³panissayoti tividhoti ±ha “±rammaŗ±”ti-±di. Tattha–
“D±na½ datv± s²la½ sam±diyitv± uposathakamma½ katv± ta½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhati, pubbe suciŗŗ±ni garu½ katv± paccavekkhati, jh±n± vuµµhahitv± jh±na½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhati, sekh± gotrabhu½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhanti, vod±na½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhanti, sekh± magg± vuµµhahitv± magga½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhant²”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.423)–

Evam±din± nayena ±rammaŗ³panissayo t±va ±rammaŗ±dhipatin± saddhi½ n±natta½ akatv±va vibhatto. Ten±ha “±rammaŗ³panissayo ±rammaŗ±dhipatiyev±”ti. Kińc±pi n±natta½ akatv± vibhatto, tath±pi aya½ tesa½ viseso– ya½ ±rammaŗa½ garu½ katv± cittacetasik± uppajjanti, ta½ niyamato tesa½ ±rammaŗesu balav±rammaŗa½ hoti. Iti garuk±tabbamattaµµhena ±rammaŗ±dhipati, balavak±raŗaµµhena ±rammaŗ³panissayoti ca evametesa½ n±natta½ veditabba½.

Anantar³panissayopi “purim± purim± kusal± khandh± pacchim±na½ pacchim±na½ kusal±na½ khandh±na½ upanissayapaccayena paccayo”ti-±din± (paµµh±. 1.1.423) nayena anantarapaccayena saddhi½ n±natta½ akatv±va vibhattoti ±ha “anantar³panissayo pana anantarapaccayov±”ti. Eva½ santepi attano anantar± anur³pacittupp±davasena anantarapaccayo, balavak±raŗavasena anantar³panissayapaccayoti evametesa½ n±natta½ veditabba½.
Pakatiy± eva paccayantararahitena attano sabh±veneva upanissayo pakat³panissayo, ±rammaŗa-anantarehi amissova puthageva koci upanissayoti vutta½ hoti. Atha v± pakato upanissayo pakat³panissayo. Pakatoti cettha pa-k±ro upasaggo, so attano phalassa upp±danasamatthabh±vena sant±ne nipph±ditabh±va½, upasevitabh±vańca d²peti, tasm± attano sant±ne nipphanno v± k±yikasukhadukkhasaddh±s²l±di upasevito v± utubhojan±di pakat³panissayoti attho. Upasevanańcettha duvidha½ upayogopasevana½ ±rammaŗ³pasevanańca. Evańca katv± an±gatass±pi upanissayapaccayat± laddh± hoti. K±yikasukha…pe… yo c±ti ettha k±yikasukhadukkh±ni r±gasaddh±d²na½, utubhojan±dayo cittasam±dh±n±d²na½, saddh±s²l±dayo saddh±s²l±d²nańca upanissay± honti. ¾di-saddena ya½ ya½ upaniss±ya yassa yassa sambhavo, ta½ ta½ tassa tassa upanissayapaccayabh³ta½ saŖgaŗh±ti. Paccayamah±padeso hesa, yadida½ upanissayapaccayoti.
Paccayuppannato paµhamatara½ uppajjitv± vattam±nabh±vena upak±rako dhammo purej±tapaccayo. So ca r³padhammova sam±no ar³padhammasseva hoti. Ten±ha “vatthupurej±to n±m±”ti-±di. Yath± cettha “vatthur³p±n²”ti hadayavatthunopi gahaŗa½, eva½ “r³p±d²n²”ti-±di-ggahaŗena dhamm±rammaŗass±pi gahaŗa½ daµµhabba½. Nanu ca pańc±rammaŗ±neva ±rammaŗapurej±tabh±vena ±gat±n²ti? Sacca½ ±gat±ni, pańh±v±re pana “sekh± v± puthujjan± v± cakkhu½ aniccato dukkhato anattato vipassant²”ti-±din± (paµµh±. 1.1.424) avisesena paccuppannacakkh±d²nampi gahitatt± dhamm±rammaŗassa ±rammaŗapurej±tabh±vo na sakk± paµib±hitu½. Atthatopi heta½ siddha½ “ya½ ya½ paccuppanna½ ±rammaŗa½ gahetv± manodv±re citta½ pavattati, ta½ tassa ±rammaŗapurej±ta½ hot²”ti. Ettha ca nissay±rammaŗ±k±r±d²hi visiµµh± purej±tabh±vena vin± upak±rabh±va½ agacchant±na½ vatth±rammaŗ±na½ purej±t±k±rena upak±rakat± purej±tapaccayat±ti ayamassa nissay±rammaŗapaccayat±hi viseso.
Gijjhapotakasar²r±na½ ±h±r±s± cetan± viya purej±t±na½ r³p±na½ upatthambhakabh±vena upak±rako dhammo pacch±j±tapaccayo. Manosańcetan±h±ravasena hi pacch±j±tacittacetasikehi vin± sant±naµµhitihetubh±va½ agacchant±na½ pacch±j±t±k±rena cittacetasik±na½ upak±rakat± vippayutt±k±r±d²hi visiµµh± pacch±j±tapaccayat±ti eva½ sabbapaccay±na½ paccayantar±k±ravisiµµh± upak±rakat± daµµhabb±. So pana “pacch±j±t± cittacetasik± dhamm± purej±tassa imassa k±yassa pacch±j±tapaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.11) ±gatatt± ekavidhoti ±ha “cittacetasik±v±”ti.
Purimapurimaparicitagantho viya uttaruttarassa ganthassa kusal±dibh±vena attasadisapaguŗabalavabh±vavisiµµha½ attasaj±tiyat±g±haka½ ±sevana½, tena paccay± saj±tiyadhamm±va ±sevanapaccayo. Bhinnaj±tik± hi bhinnaj±tik±na½ ±sevanaguŗena paguŗabalavabh±vavisiµµha½ kusal±dibh±vasaŖkh±ta½ attano gati½ g±h±petu½ na sakkonti, na ca saya½ tato gaŗhanti. Te pana anantar±t²t±ni lokiyakusal±kusal±ni ceva an±vajjanakiriy±javan±ni c±ti ±ha “µhapetv± ±vajjanadvayan”ti-±di. “Na maggapaccay± ±sevane ekan”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.221) vacanato ahetukakiriy±su hasitupp±dasseva ±sevanabh±vena, ±vajjanadvaya½ ±sevanapaccayo na hoti, lokuttarampi kusala½ bhinnaj±tikasseva phalassa purecaratt± na tena, ±sevanaguŗa½ gaŗh±peti, vip±k±by±katampi kammavasena Vip±kabh±vappatta½ kammapariŗ±mita½ kammavegakkhitta½ patita½ viya hutv± pavattam±na½ attano sabh±va½ g±hetv± paribh±vetv± neva ańńavip±ka½ pavatteti, na ca purimavip±k±nubh±va½ gahetv± uppajjati. Lokuttaravip±kampi hi kińc±pi javanavasena uppajjati, ±sevanaguŗa½ pana gaŗh±ti, na ca ańńa½ g±h±peti. Yampi “±sevanavinimutta½ javana½ natth²”ti ±cariyadhammap±lattherena vutta½, tampi “yebhuyyavasena vuttan”ti vińń±yati, itarath± pana ±cariyassa asamapekkhit±vidh±yakattappasaŖgato. Tath± hi vutta½ paµµh±naµµhakath±ya½ “lokuttaro pana ±sevanapaccayo n±ma natth²”ti (paµµh±. aµµha. 1.12). Maggo pana gotrabhuto ±sevana½ na gaŗh±t²ti natthi bh³mi-±divasena n±n±j±tikat±ya anadhippetatt±. Tath± hi vutta½ paµµh±ne “gotrabhu maggassa ±sevanapaccayena paccayo, vod±na½ maggassa ±sevanapaccayena paccayo”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.426).