Mah±vaggo

1. Puggalakath±

1. Suddhasaccikaµµho

1. Anulomapaccan²kavaŗŗan±

1. Sambar±d²hi pakappitavijj±, tath±bhisaŖkhat±ni osadh±ni ca “m±y±”ti vuccanti, idha pana m±y±ya ±hitavises± abh³tańńeyy±k±r± adhippet±ti dassento “m±y±ya amaŗi-±dayo maŗi-±di-±k±rena dissam±n± m±y±ti vutt±”ti ±ha. Saccańńeva saccika½, so eva attho avipar²tassa ń±ŗassa visayabh±vaµµhen±ti saccikaµµho. Ten±ha “bh³taµµho”ti. Avipar²tabh±vato eva paramo padh±no atthoti paramattho, ń±ŗassa paccakkhabh³to dhamm±na½ aniddisitabbasabh±vo. Tena vutta½ “uttamattho”ti.
Atth²ti vacanas±mańńen±ti “atthi puggalo attahit±ya paµipanno”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 4.96; kath±. 22) “atth²”ti pavattavacanas±mańńena. Atthavikappupapattiy± vacanavigh±to chalanti vadanti. Patiµµha½ pacchindantoti hetu½ d³sento, ahetu½ karontoti attho. Hetu hi paµińń±ya patiµµh±panato patiµµh±, ta½ pana hetu½ atthamattato dassento “yadi saccikaµµhen±”ti-±dim±ha. Payogato pana d³sanena saddhi½ parato ±vi bhavissati. Ok±sa½ adadam±noti yath±nur³pa½ yutti½ vattu½ avasara½ adento. Atha v± patiµµha½ pacchindanto, paµińńa½ eva parivattentoti attho. Upalabbhati puggaloti hi sakav±di½ uddissa parav±dino paµińń±va na yutt± appasiddhatt± visesitabbassa. Tenev±ha “anupalabbhaneyyato na tava v±do tiµµhat²ti nivattento”ti. R³pańca upalabbhati…pe… dasset²ti etena parav±din± adhippetahetuno vipar²tatthas±dhakatta½ dasseti.
Upalabbham±na½ n±ma hot²ti ±k±rato ta½±k±ravant±na½ anańńatt±ti adhipp±yo. Ańńath±ti ±k±ra, ±k±ravant±na½ bhede. Etiss±ti “tato so puggalo upalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamaµµhen±”ti eva½ vutt±ya dutiyapucch±ya. Esa visesoti yo yath±vutto dvinna½ pucch±na½ visayassa sabh±v±k±rabhedo, esa dvinna½ pucch±na½ viseso. Sabh±vadhamm±na½ s±mańńalakkhaŗena abhinn±nampi salakkhaŗato bhedoyev±ti ańńadhammassa ańńen±k±rena na kad±cipi upalabbho bhaveyya. Yadi siy±, ańńattameva na siy±ti ruppan±disapaccay±di-±k±rena anupalabbham±nopi puggalo attano bh³tasabh±vaµµhena upalabbhatev±ti vadanta½ parav±dina½ pati “yo saccikaµµho”ti-±di codan± anok±s±ti dassento ±ha “yath± pana…pe… niggaho ca na k±tabbo”ti. Tattha niggahoti “±j±n±hi niggahan”ti eva½ vuttaniggaho, par±jay±ropanena parav±dino niggaŗhananti attho.
Sv±ya½ pana yasm± tassa v±d±par±dhahetuko, tasm± ta½ dassetu½ aµµhakath±ya½ dos±par±dhapariy±yehi vibh±vito. Avaj±nanańhettha niggahaµµh±na½. Tath± hi paµińń±h±ni, paµińń±ntara½, paµińń±virodho, paµińń±sańń±so, hetvantara½, atthantara½, niratthaka½, avińń±tattha½, asambandhattha½, appattak±la½, ³na½, adhika½, punarutta½, ananubh±sana½, avińń±ta½, appaµibh±, vikkhepo, mat±nuńń±, anuyuńjitabbassa upekkhana½, ananuyuńjitabbassa anuyogo, apasiddhantara½, hetv±bh±s± c±ti dv±v²sati niggahaµµh±n±ni ń±yav±dino vadanti.
Tattha visadis³d±haraŗadhamm±nuj±nana½ paµhamud±haraŗe paµińń±h±ni. Paµińń±tatthapaµisedhe tadańńatthaniddeso paµińń±ntara½. Paµińń±viruddhahetukittana½ paµińń±virodho. Paµińń±tatth±panayana½ paµińń±sańń±so. Avisesavutte hetumhi paµisiddhe visesahetukathana½ hetvantara½. Adhikatatth±nupayogi-atthakathana½ atthantara½. M±tik±p±µho viya atthah²na½ niratthaka½. Tikkhattu½ vuttampi sakkhipaµiv±d²hi avidita½ avińń±tattha½. Pubb±paravasena sambandharahita½ asambandhattha½. Avayavavipall±savacana½ appattak±la½. Avayavavikala½ ³na½. Adhikahet³d±haraŗa½ adhika½. Żhapetv± anuv±da½ saddatth±na½ punappuna½ vacana½ atth±pannavacanańca punarutta½. Paris±ya viditassa t²hi vuttassa apaccud±h±ro ananubh±sana½. Ya½ v±din± vutta½ paris±ya vińń±ta½ paµiv±din± duvińń±ta½, ta½ avińń±ta½. Ta½v±din± vattabbe vutte parav±dino paµivacanassa anupaµµh±na½ appaµibh±. KiccantarappasaŖgena kath±vicchindana½ vikkhepo. Attano dos±nuj±nanena parapakkhassa dosappasańjana½ paramat±nuj±nana½ mat±nuńń±. Niggahappattassa niggaŗhana½ anuyuńjitabbassa upekkhana½. Sampattaniggahassa aniggahaµµh±ne ca niggaŗhana½ anuyuńjitabbassa anuyogo. Eka½ siddhantamanuj±nitv± aniyamato tadańńasiddhantakath±ppasańjana½ apasiddhantara½. Asiddh± anekantik± viruddh± ca hetv±bh±s±, hetupatir³pak±ti attho. Tesańca kathana½ niggahaµµh±nanti.
Imesu dv±v²satiy± niggahaµµh±nesu ida½ paµińń±ya apanayanato sayameva paccakkh±nato paµińń±sańń±so n±ma niggahaµµh±na½. Tenev±ha “avaj±naneneva niggaha½ dasset²”ti. Asiddhatt±ti etena paccakkhato anum±nato ca puggalassa anupalabbham±ha. Na hi so paccakkhato upalabbhati. Yadi upalabbheyya, viv±do eva na siy±, anum±nampi t±disa½ natthi, yena puggala½ anumineyyu½. Tath± hi ta½ s±saniko puggalav±d² vadeyya “puggalo upalabbhati, atthi puggalo”ti bhagavat± vuttatt± r³pavedan±di viya. Yańhi bhagavat± “atth²”ti yadi vutta½, ta½ paramatthato atthi yath± ta½ r³pa½ vedan± sańń± saŖkh±r± vińń±ŗa½. Ya½ pana paramatthato natthi, na ta½ bhagavat± “atth²”ti vutta½ yath± ta½ pakativ±di-±d²na½ pakati-±d²ti, ta½ micch±. Ettha hi yadi voh±rato puggalassa atthibh±vo adhippeto, siddha½ s±dhana½, atha paramatthato, asiddho hetu tath± avuttatt±. Viruddho ca tassa aniccasaŖkhatapaµiccasamuppann±dibh±v±s±dhanato r³pavedan±d²su tath± diµµhatt±ti-±din± tassa ahetukabh±vasseva p±kaµabh±vato.
Ya½ pana b±hirak± puthu ańńatitthiy± vadanti. Attheva ca paramatthato att± ń±ŗ±bhidh±nassa pavattiy± nimittabh±vato r³p±di viya. Atha v± att±tirittapadatthantaro r³pakkhandho khandhasabh±vatt± yath± ta½ itarakkhandh±. Yańhettha padatthantara½, so puggaloti adhipp±yo.
Ettha ca purimassa hetuno pańńattiy± anekantikat± asiddhat± ca. Na hi asato sakav±dina½ pati paramatthato ń±ŗ±bhidh±nappavattiy± nimittabh±vo sijjhati. Voh±rato ce, tadasiddhas±dhanat± r³p±disabh±vavinimuttar³popi puggalo na hot²ti evam±diviruddhatthat±. Pacchimassa pana hetuno s±dhetabbatthas±mańńapariggahe siddhas±dhanat±, r³pakkhandhato padatthantarato paramatthantarabh³tavedan±disambhavassa icchitatt± ca. Tabbisesapariggahe ca sakav±dina½ pati ud±haraŗ±bh±vo paraparikappitaj²vapadatthavirahato. Itarakkhandh±na½ vedan±divinimutta-ubhayasiddhaj²vapadatthasahitopi r³pakkhandho na hoti itarakkhandh± viy±ti viruddhatthat± ca.
Ya½ pana k±ŗ±d± “sukh±d²na½ nissayabh±vato”ti anum±na½ vadanti, te ida½ vattabb±– ki½ sukh±d²na½ attani paµibaddha½ yato sukh±dinissayat±ya att± anum²yati. Yadi upp±do, eva½ sante sabbepi sukh±dayo ekato eva bhaveyyu½ k±raŗassa sannihitabh±vato ańńanirapekkhato ca. Atha ańńampi kińci indriy±dik±raŗantaramapekkhitabba½, tadeva hotu k±raŗa½, kimańńena adiµµhas±matthiyena parikappitena payojana½. Atha pana tesa½ att±dh²n± vutt²ti vadeyyu½, evampi na sijjhati ud±haraŗ±bh±vato. Na hi r³p±divinimutto t±diso koci sabh±vadhammo sukh±disannissayabh³to atthi, yato attano attatthasiddhiy± ud±haraŗa½ apadiseyyu½. Imin± nayena asam±sapad±bhidheyyatt±ti-±d²nampi ayuttatt± niv±retabb±. Tath± “ańńassa saccikaµµhassa asiddhatt±”ti imin± ca pakati-aŗu-±d²nampi b±hiraparikappit±na½ asiddhat± vutt±v±ti veditabb±. Katha½ pana tesa½ asiddh²ti? Pam±ŗena anupalabbhanato. Na hi paccakkhato pakati siddh± kapilassapi isino tassa apaccakkhabh±vassa k±pilehi anuńń±yam±natt±.
Ya½ pana “atthi padh±na½ bhed±na½ anvayadassanato sakalakal±pamatta½ viy±”ti te anum±na½ vadanti. Imin± hi bhed±na½ satv±d²na½ vijjam±napadh±nat± paµińń±t±. Ettha ca vuccate– sakal±d²na½ padh±na½ tabbibh±gehi ki½ ańńatta½, ud±hu anańńanti, kińcettha yadi ańńatta½, sabbo loko padh±namayoti samayavirodho siy±, saŗµh±nabhedena ańńattha paµij±nanato na dosoti ce? Ta½ na, valayakaµak±disaŗµh±nabhedepi kanak±bhedadassanato. Na hi saŗµh±na½ vatthubhedanimitta½ tassa anup±d±natt±. Ya½ yassa bhedanimitta½, na ta½ tassa anup±d±na½ yath± suvaŗŗamattik±dighaµ±d²na½ suvaŗŗaghaµo mattik±ghaµo koseyyapaµo kapp±sapaµoti ca s±dhetabbadhammarahitańca ud±haraŗa½. Na hi padh±nekak±raŗapubbakatta½ sakal±d²na½ pakativ±dino siddha½, n±pi k±pil±na½ kathańci ańńatt±nuj±nanato. Anańńatte pana ud±haraŗ±bh±vo. Na hi tadeva s±dhetabba½ tadeva ca ud±haraŗa½ yutta½, anvayadassanampi asiddha½. Na hi tadeva tena anvita½ yujjati. Padh±nena anvayadassanampi asiddha½ parav±dinoti guŗassa padh±nassa ananuj±nanato. Atha ya½ kińci k±raŗa½ padh±na½ “padh²yati ettha phalan”ti, evampi asiddhameva k±raŗe phalassa atthibh±v±nanuj±nanato, hetuno ca asiddhanissayat±par±bhimatabhed±nanuj±nanato. Atha visesena k±raŗ±yattavuttit± phalassa s±dh²yati, na kińci viruddha½ dhamm±na½ yath±saka½ paccayena paµiccasamuppattiy± icchitatt±ti.
Apica pakativ±dino “satvarajatamasaŖkh±t±na½ tiŗŗa½ guŗ±na½ samabh±vo pakati, s± ca nicc± satv±divisamasabh±vato aniccato mahat±divik±rato anańń±”ti paµij±nanti. S± tesa½ vuttappak±r± pakati na sijjhati tato viruddhasabh±vato vik±rato anańńatt±. Na hi assassa vis±ŗa½ d²gha½, tańca rassato govis±ŗato anańńanti vuccam±na½ sijjhati. Kińca bhiyyo? Tiŗŗa½ ekabh±v±bh±vato. Satv±diguŗattayato hi pakatiy± anańńatta½ icchant±na½ tesa½ satv±d²nampi pakatiy± anańńatta½ ±pajjati, na ca yutta½ tiŗŗa½ ekabh±voti. Evampi pakati na sijjhati. Katha½? Anekados±pattito. Yadi hi byattasabh±vato vik±rato abyattasabh±v± pakati anańń±, eva½ sante hetumantat± aniccat± aby±pit± sakiriyat± anekat± nissitat± liŖgat± s±vayavat± paratantrat±ti evam±dayo aneke dos± pakatiy± ±pajjanti, na j±tivik±rato anańń± paµij±nitabb±. Tath± ca sati samayavirodhoti kappan±matta½ pakat²ti asiddh± s±ti niµµhamettha gantabba½.
Pakatiy± ca asiddh±ya ta½nimittakabh±vena vuccam±n± mahat±dayopi asiddh± eva. Yath± ca pakati mahat±dayo ca, eva½ issarapaj±patipurisak±lasabh±vaniyatiyadicch±dayopi. Etesu hi issaro t±va na sijjhati upak±rassa adassanato. Satt±nańhi j±tiya½ m±t±pit³na½ b²jakhettabh±vena kammassa h²nat±divibh±gakaraŗena, tato parańca utu-±h±r±na½ br³hanupatthambhanena, indriy±na½ dassan±dikiccas±dhanena upak±ro dissati, na, evamissarassa. H²nat±divibh±gakaraŗamissarass±ti ce? Ta½ na, asiddhatt±. Yath±vutto upak±raviseso issaranimmito, na kammun±ti s±dhan²yameta½. Itaratr±pi sam±nametanti ce? Na, kammato phalaniyamasiddhatt± Sati hi kat³pacite kammasmi½ tattha ya½ akusala½, tato h²nat±, ya½ kusala½, tato paŗ²tat±ti siddhameta½. Issarav±din±pi hi na sakk± kamma½ paµikkhipitu½.