Pucch±v±ro

1. Paccay±nulomavaŗŗan±

Ekeka½ tika½ dukańc±ti kusalattik±d²su b±v²satiy± tikesu hetuduk±d²su sata½ dukesu ekeka½ tika½ dukańca. Na tikadukanti tulyayog²na½ na tikadukanti attho. Tikavisiµµha½ pana duka½, dukavisiµµhańca tika½, tikavisiµµhatikadukavisiµµhadukesu viya niss±ya upari desan± pavatt± ev±ti.
Ye kusal±didhamme paµicc±ti vutt± “kusala½ dhamma½ paµicca kusalo dhammo uppajjati hetupaccay±”ti-±d²su, te kusal±didhamm± paµiccattha½ pharant± hetu-±dipaccayaµµha½ s±dhent± kusal±dipaccay± cev±ti attho. Tenev±h±ti yasm± paccayadhamm±na½ paccayuppannesu paµiccatthapharaŗa½ ubhayesa½ tesa½ sahabh±ve sati, n±ńńath±. Teneva k±raŗen±ha “te ca kho sahaj±t±v±”ti. Teti hetu-±dipaccay±. Tesu hi hetusahaj±ta-ańńamańńanissay±dayo sahaj±t±, anantarasamanantar±dayo asahaj±t± paccay± hont²ti. Etehi dv²hi v±rehi itaretaratthabodhanavasena pavatt±ya desan±ya ki½ s±dhita½ hot²ti ±ha “evańca niruttikosalla½ janita½ hot²”ti.
Te te pańhe uddharitv±ti “siy± kusalo dhammo kusalassa dhammassa hetupaccayena paccayo”ti-±dayo ye ye pańh± vissajjana½ labhanti, te te pańhe uddharitv±. Pam±dalekh± es±ti ida½ “kusalo hetu hetusampayuttak±na½ dhamm±nan”ti likhita½ sandh±ya vutta½. Paµiccasahaj±tav±resu sahaj±tapaccayo, paccayanissayav±resu nissayapaccayo, sa½saµµhasampayuttav±resu sampayuttapaccayo ekantikoti katv± vuttoti ±ha “purimav±resu…pe… niyametv±”ti. Tatth±ti tesu purimav±resu chasu. Na vińń±yanti sar³pato anuddhaµatt±. Evam±d²hi pańhehi. Het±dipaccayapaccayuppannes³ti hetu-±d²su paccayadhammesu sampayuttakkhandh±dibhedesu tesa½ paccayuppannesu. Niddh±raŗe ceta½ bhumma½. Het±dipaccay±na½ nicchay±bh±vatoti “ime n±ma te hetu-±dayo paccayadhamm±”ti nicchay±bh±vato sar³pato aniddh±ritatt±. Yath± hi n±ma n±n±jaµ±jaµita½ gumbantaragatańca ta½sadisa½ sar³pato adissam±na½ ida½ tanti na vinicchin²yati, eva½ ń±tu½ icchitopi attho sar³pato aniddh±rito nijjaµo nigumbo ca n±ma na hoti nicchay±bh±vato, sar³pato pana tasmi½ niddh±rite tabbisayassa nicchayassa vasena puggalassa asambuddhabh±v±ppattiy± so pańho nijjaµo nigumbo ca n±ma hot²ti ±ha “nicchay±bh±vato te pańh± nijjaµ± nigumb± ca katv± na vibhatt±”ti, “na koci pucch±saŖgahito…pe… vibhatt±”ti ca. Tanti pańh±vissajjana½ sandh±ya nijjaµat± na vutt±, atha kho nicchayupp±dananti adhipp±yo.
Żhapana½ n±ma idha vineyyasant±ne patiµµhapana½, ta½ pana tassa atthassa d²pana½ jotananti ±ha “pak±sitatt±”ti. Pak±reh²ti hetu-±dipaccayappak±rehi, kusal±dipaccayapaccayuppannappak±rehi v±.
25-34. Parikappana½ vidahananti katv± ±ha “parikappapucch±ti vidhipucch±”ti. Siy±ti bhaveyy±ti attho. Eso vidhi ki½ atth²ti etena “siy±”ti vidhimhi kiriy±pada½. Pucch± pana v±kyatthasiddh± veditabb±. Tameva hi v±kyatthasiddha½ puccha½ dassetu½ aµµhakath±yampi “ki½ so kusala½ dhamma½ paµicca siy±”ti vutta½. Sa½pucchana½ parikappapucch±ti tasmi½ pakkhe hi kiriy±ya padeneva pucch± vibh±v²yat²ti vutta½ hot²ti. “Siy± kusala½ dhamma½ paµicca kusalo dhammo uppajjeyya hetupaccay±”ti ettha “kusala½ dhamma½ paµicca hetupaccay±”ti ubhayamida½ paccayavacana½, “kusalo dhammo uppajjeyy±”ti paccayuppannavacana½. Tesu paccayadhammassa paccayabh±ve vibh±vite paccayuppannassa uppatti atthato vibh±vit±yeva hot²ti paccayadhammova pucchitabbo. Tattha ca paccayadhammavisiµµho paµiccattho v± pucchitabbo siy± paccayavisiµµho v±ti duvidh± pucchitabb±yeva atthavikapp± aµµhakath±ya½ vutt±. Tesu paµhamasmi½ pucch± sados±ti dassento “yo kusalo dhammo uppajjeyy±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha sabbapucch±na½ pavattitoti kusalam³l±d²na½ sattasattapucch±na½ pavattanato, uppajjam±na½ kusala½. Tehi paccayeh²ti pacch±j±tavip±kapaccayehi uppatti anuńń±t±ti ±pajjati, na ca ta½ yuttanti adhipp±yo. Ta½ta½paccay±ti tato tato yonisomanasik±r±dipaccayato. Bhavanamatthit± ettha na ca pucchit±ti “ki½ siy±”ti vuttayojan±ya dosam±ha. Evańca katv±ti uppattiy± eva pucchitatt±.
Tatth±ti “atha v±”ti-±din± vutte atthantare. Uppajjeyy±ti uppatti½ anuj±nitv±ti “uppajjeyy±”ti ettha vutta½ kusalapaccaya½ uppatti½ anuj±nitv±. Tass±ti uppattiy±. Bhavanapucchananti hetupaccay± bhavanapucchana½ na yuttanti sambandho. Puna tass±ti hetupaccay± uppattiy±. Bhavanapucchananti kevala½ bhavanapucchana½. Tasm±ti yasm± vuttanayena ubhayatth±pi uppatti-anuj±nanamukhena bhavanapucchana½ ayutta½, tasm±. Anuj±nanańca aµµhakath±ya½ vutte atthavikappadvaye atthato ±panna½, ta½ ananuj±nanto ±ha “ananuj±nitv±v±”ti-±di. Sa½pucchanamev±ti imin± sa½pucchane “uppajjeyy±”ti ida½ kiriy±padanti dasseti. Yadi eva½ “siy±”ti ida½ kathanti ±ha “siy±ti…pe… pucchat²”ti. Aya½ nayoti “siy±”ti-±din± anantaravutto atthanayo. Na vińń±yati an±maµµhavisesatt±. Dvepi pucch±ti sambhavanapucch± tabbisesapucch± c±ti duvidh±pi pucch± ek±yeva pucch± sa½pucchanabh±vato ek±dhikaraŗabh±vato ca.
Gamanussukkavacananti gamanassa ussukkavacana½. Gamanakiriy±ya yath± attano katt± upari kattabbakiriy±ya yogyar³po hoti, evameva µh±na½ gamanussukkana½ tassa bodhana½ vacana½. Eva½bh³t± ca kiriy± yasm± atthato kiriyantar±pekkh± n±ma hoti, tasm± vutta½ “gamanassa…pe… attho”ti. Katha½ panetasmi½ sahaj±tapaccayapaµµh±ne paµiccav±re paµiccasaddassa pacchimak±lakiriy±pekkhat±ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha “yadip²”ti-±di. Teneta½ dasseti “asatipi paµi-ayanuppajjan±na½ k±labhede ańńatra hetuphalesu dissam±na½ purimapacchimak±lata½ hetuphalat±s±mańńato idh±pi sam±ropetv± ru¼h²vasena purimapacchimak±lavoh±ro kato”ti. Ten±ha “gahaŗappavatti-±k±ravasena…pe… daµµhabbo”ti. Tattha attapaµil±bho upp±doti attho.
Gamananti “paµicc±”ti ettha labbham±na½ ayanakiriya½ pariy±yantaren±ha. S± panatthato pavatti, pavatti ca dhamm±na½ yath±paccaya½ uppattiyeva. Sabh±vadhamm±nańhi uppattiya½ loke sabbo kiriy±k±rakavoh±ro, tasm± “paµicc±”ti ettha labbham±na½ ya½ paµi-ayana½ paµigamana½ atthato paµi-uppajjam±na½, tańca gacchant±di-apekkh±ya hot²ti ±ha “gacchantassa paµigamana½, uppajjantassa paµi-uppajjanan”ti. Tayida½ gamanapaµigamana½, uppajjanapaµi-uppajjana½ sam±nakiriy±. Katha½? Yasm± paµikaraŗa½ paµisaddattho. Tasm±ti yasm± sahaj±tapaccayabh³tassa uppajjantassa paµi-uppajjana½ “paµicca uppajjat²”ti ettha attho, tasm±. Tad±yattuppattiy±ti sahayoge karaŗavacana½, karaŗatthe, hetutthe v±, tasmi½ uppajjam±ne kusaladhamme ±yatt±ya paµibaddh±ya uppattiy± saheva paµigantv±ti attho. Tena paµi-ayanattal±bh±na½ sam±nak±lata½ dasseti. Tenev±ha “sahaj±tapaccaya½ katv±ti vutta½ hot²”ti-±di. Nanu ca sam±nak±lakiriy±ya½ ²diso saddappayogo natthi, purimak±lakiriy±yameva ca atth²ti? N±yamekanto sam±nak±lakiriy±yampi kehici icchitatt±. Tath± hi–
“Nihantv± timira½ loke, udito satara½sami;
lokekacakkhubh³toya-matthameti div±karo.
“Sir²vil±sar³pena, sabbasobh±vibh±vin±;
obh±setv±dito buddho, satara½si yath± paro”ti.–

Ca payog± dissanti.

35-38. T±s³ti dukam³lakanaye het±rammaŗaduke ek³napańń±sapucch±, t±su. Het±rammaŗaduketi “hetupaccay± ±rammaŗapaccay±”ti eva½ hetupaccaya-±rammaŗapaccay±na½ vasena ±gate paccayaduke. Dvinna½ pucch±na½ dassitatt±ti yasmi½ v±can±magge kusalapadam³l± kusalapad±vas±n± kusal±dipadattayam³l± kusal±dipadattay±vas±n± ca ek³napańń±s±ya pucch±na½ ±dipariyos±nabh³t± dve eva pucch± dassit±, ta½ sandh±ya vutta½. Etth±ti etasmi½ paŗŗattiv±re pucch±na½ vutto na paccay±nanti attho. Pucch±ya hi vasena hetupaccaye hetupaccayasaŖkh±ta½ ekam³la½ etass±ti ekam³lako, nayasadd±pekkh±ya c±ya½ pulliŖganiddeso. Eva½ ±rammaŗapaccayam³lak±d²su. Tath± hetu-±rammaŗapaccayasaŖkh±t±ni dve m³l±ni etass±ti dvim³lakoti-±din± yojetabb±. Paccay±na½ pana vuccam±ne paµhamanayassa ekam³lakat± na siy±. Na hi tattha paccayantara½ atthi, ya½ m³labh±vena vattabba½ siy±. Ten±ha “paccay±na½ pana vasen±”ti-±di. Het±rammaŗaduk±d²nanti avayave s±mivacana½, adhipati-±d²nanti sambandho. Tato para½ m³lassa abh±vato sabbam³laka½ anavases±na½ paccay±na½ m³labh±vena gahitatt±. Na hi m³lavantabh±vena gahit± paccay± m³labh±vena gayhanti. Paccayagamana½ p±¼igamananti vińń±yati abhidheyy±nur³pa½ liŖgavacan±d²ti katv±. Idh±ti anulome. Ca-saddo upacayattho. So tev²satim³lassa sabbam³labh±va½ upacayena vuccam±na½ joteti.
39-40. Eva½ sat²ti “±rammaŗapaccay± hetupaccay±”ti ±rabhitv± “±rammaŗapaccay± avigatapaccay±, ±rammaŗapaccay± hetupaccay±”ti eva½ v±can±magge sati. Cakkabandhanavasena p±¼igati ±pajjatu, ko dosoti kad±ci vadeyy±ti ±ha “heµµhimasodhanavasena ca idha abhidhamme p±¼i gat±”ti. Tath± hi khandhavibhaŖg±d²supi p±¼i heµµhimasodhanavasena pavatt±. Gaŗanac±rena tamattha½ s±dhetu½ “evańca katv±”ti-±di vutta½. ¾rammaŗ±d²s³ti ±rammaŗam³lak±d²su nayesu. Tasmi½ tasminti tasmi½ tasmi½ ±rammaŗ±dipaccaye. Suddhikatoti suddhikanayato. Tasm±ti ±rammaŗam³lak±d²su suddhikanayassa alabbham±natt±. Ekam³lakanayo daµµhabbo ±rammaŗam³laketi adhipp±yo. “¾rammaŗapaccay±…pe… avigatapaccay±ti v±”ti-±di t±disa½ v±can±magga½ sandh±ya vutta½. Yattha “±rammaŗapaccay± hetupaccay±, ±rammaŗapaccay± adhipatipaccay±, ±rammaŗapaccay±…pe… avigatapaccay±”ti eva½ ±rammaŗam³lake anantarapaccayam³labh³t± ±rammaŗapaccayapariyos±nameva ekam³laka½ dassetv± upari avasiµµha-ekam³lakato paµµh±ya y±va sabbam³lake vigatapaccay±, t±va sa½khipitv± avigatapaccayova dassito. Ten±ha “ekam³lakes³”ti-±di. Ito paresupi edisesu µh±nesu eseva nayo. M³lameva dassetv±ti adhipatim³lake ekam³lakassa ±dimeva dassetv±. Na suddhikadassananti na suddhikanayadassana½. “Suddhikanayo hi vises±bh±vato ±rammaŗam³lak±d²su na labbhat²”ti hi vutta½. N±pi sabbam³lake katipayapaccayadassana½ upari sabbam³lake ekam³lakassa ±gatatt±.
41. Ekasmińc±ti avigatam³lak±dike ca naye. SaŖkhepantaragatoti saŖkhepassa saŖkhipitassa abbhantaragato, saŖkhipitabboti attho. Majjhim±na½ dassananti majjhim±na½ nayato dassana½, ańńath± saŖkhepo eva na siy±. Gatidassananti antadassana½ akatv± p±¼igatiy± dassana½, tańca ±dito paµµh±ya katipayadassanameva. Tena vigatapaccayuddh±raŗena os±nacatukka½ dasseti avigatam³lake vigatapaccayassa os±nabh±vato. Sabbam³lakassa avas±nena “vigatapaccay±”ti padena.
Yath± hetu-±d²na½ paccay±na½ uddes±nupubbiy± dukatik±diyojan± kat±, eva½ tattha ±rammaŗ±dipaccaye laŖghitv±pi sakk± yojana½ k±tu½, tath± kasm± na kat±? Yadipi anavasesato paccay±na½ m³labh±vena gahitatt± kesańci kehici yojane atthaviseso natthi, ±rammaŗam³lak±d²su pana ±rammaŗ±dhipatiduk±d²na½ hetum³lake ca hetu-adhipati-anantaratik±d²na½ ta½ta½avasiµµhapaccayehi yojan±ya attheva viseso, eva½ santepi yasm± uppaµip±µiy± yojan± na sukhaggahaŗ±, sakk± ca ń±ŗuttarena puggalena yath±dassitena nayena yojitunti uppaµip±µiy± paccaye aggahetv± paµip±µiy±va te yojetv± dassit±ti imamattham±ha “ettha c±”ti-±din±.
Tańca gamana½ yuttanti ya½ sabbehi tikehi ekekassa dukassa yojan±vasena p±¼igamana½, ta½ yutta½ tikesu duk±na½ pakkhepabh±vato. Tatth±ti dukesu. Ekekasminti ekekasmi½ dukatike. Nay±ti anulomanay±dayo v±re v±re catt±ro nay±, pucch± pana sattav²sati. Yadi eva½ kasm± hetudukena sam±n±ti? Ta½ tikapadesu pacceka½ hetudukassa labbham±nassa hetudukabh±vas±mańńato vutta½.
Vuttanayen±ti “na h²”ti-±din± dukatike vuttanayena. Tattha hi na dukassa yojan± atthi, atha kho duk±na½ ekekena padena tikassa yojan±. Ten±ha “ekeko tiko dukasatena yojito”ti. Ekekasminti ekekasmi½ tikaduke.
Tik±dayo cha nay±ti “tikańca paµµh±navaran”ti-±din± g±th±ya½ vutt± tikapaµµh±n±dayo cha nay±. Sattavidhamp²ti v±rabhedena sattadh± bhinditv± vuttampi. Anulomanti paccay±nuloma½ anulomabh±vas±mańńena saha gahetv±. Tath± catubbidhampi tikapaµµh±na½ tikapaµµh±nat±s±mańńena, dukapaµµh±n±d²ni ca catt±ri catt±ri ta½s±mańńena saha gahetv±. Imamattha½ gahetv± “tikańca paµµh±navaran”ti g±th±ya adhipp±yavibh±vanavasena “anulomamh²”ti-±din± vutta½ imamattha½ gahetv±. Sattappabhedeti paµiccav±r±divasena sattappabhede. Chapi ete tik±dibhedena catucatuppabhed± dhamm±nulom±divasena cha uddharitabb±ti ida½ dasset²ti yojan±. Ayańhettha saŖkhepattho– dhamm±nulom±divibh±gabhinn±pi tik±dibh±vas±mańńena ekajjha½ katv± vutt± tikapaµµh±n±disaŖkh±t± tik±dayo cha dhammanay± paµiccav±r±divasena vibhajiyam±n± tattha tattha niddh±riyam±ne anulomat±s±mańńena anulomanti ekato gahite paccay±nulome suµµhu ativiya gambh²r±ti. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “idha pana aya½ g±th± tasmi½ dhamm±nulome paccay±nuloma½ sandh±ya vutt±”ti dhamm±nulomo paccay±nulomassa visesanabh±vena niyametv± vutto. Esa nayo paccan²yag±th±d²supi. Tikapaµµh±nassa dukapaµµh±nassa ca pubbe attho vuttoti ±ha “dukatikapaµµh±n±d²s³”ti. Tikehi paµµh±nanti tikehi n±nappak±rato paccayavibh±vana½, tikehi v± ń±ŗassa pavattanaµµh±na½. Dukasambandhi tikapaµµh±na½, dukavisiµµh±na½ v± tik±na½ paµµh±na½ dukatikapaµµh±nanti imamattha½ dassento “duk±nan”ti-±dim±ha. Duk±divisesitass±ti duk±dipadavisesitassa duk±dibh±vo daµµhabbo “hetu½ kusala½ dhamma½ paµicca, nahetu½ kusala½ dhamma½ paµicc±”ti-±divacanato.

Paccay±nulomavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.