Chahi padehi tikesu, cat³hi dukesu yath±kkama½ cha catt±ro atth± vutt±. Chakkabh±vo na bhavissat²ti etena catukkabh±v±bh±vo dassitanayatt± coditoyev±ti daµµhabba½. Atthabhedo upapajjat²ti kasm± eva½ vutta½, nanu t²hi dhammasaddehi vuccam±no sabh±vadh±raº±di-atthena abhinno eva so atthoti? Na, j±ti-±dibhedena bhedasabbh±vato. Bhedak± hi j±ti-±dayo. M±sapadatthat±y±ti m±sa-sadd±bhidheyyabh±vena. Tabbacan²yabhinnatth±nanti tehi k±lasadd±d²hi vattabb±na½ visiµµhatth±na½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– “yath± k±lasadd±di-abhidheyy±na½ k±l±di-atth±na½ bhinnasabh±v±nampi m±sa-sadd±bhidheyyabh±vena abhedo, eva½ j±ti-±dibhedena bhinn±nampi tesa½ tiººa½ dvinnañca atth±na½ dhamma-sadd±bhidheyyabh±vena natthi bhedo”ti. Vini…pe… m±n±ti dhamma-saddassa r³p±bhedepi bhedak±raºam±ha. Bhinnaj±tiyatthavacan²yat±ya hi tassevatthabhedoti.
S±dhetunti bodhetu½. Hotu asambandho, k± no h±n²ti kad±ci vadeyy±ti ±saªk±ya ±ha “pubb±…pe… n±ma hont²”ti. So c±ti sabh±vadh±raºapaccayadhariyam±nat±saªkh±to attho na sakk± vattunti yath±vuttassa abh±vassa apekkh±vuttit±ya vutta½. Na hi apekkh±vuttino antarena apekkhitabba½ labhanti. Satipi sabh±vadh±raº±di-atthas±maññe kusalaj±ti-±divisiµµhasseva tassa idha adhippetatt± ekatthat± na anuññ±t±ti vutta½, vacanasilesavasena v±. Atha v±ti-±din± tiººa½ dhammasadd±na½ abh±vatta½ asampaµicchanto n±natthat±bh±vadosa½ pariharati.
ѱpakahetubh±vato upapatti idha k±raºanti vutt±ti ±ha “k±raºa½ n±ma yutt²”ti. Punarutt²ti-±din± nanu “kusal±d²nampi ekatta½ ±pajjat²”ti vuttatt± ekatt±pattipi vattabb±ti Sacca½ vattabb±, s± pana abh±v±pattiya½ eva antogadh± n±natt±bh±vacodan±s±maññena. Bhed±bhedanibandhanatt± visesanavisesitabbabh±vassa so accantamabhinnesu niyamena natth²ti visesanavisesitabb±bh±vena accant±bheda½ dasseti, na pana accanta½ abhinnesuyeva visesanavisesitabb±bh±va½. Atha v± accanta½ abhinnesu avivaµasaddatthavivaraºattha½ pavatt±. Kasm±? Visesanavisesitabb±bh±vatoti eva½ yojan± k±tabb±. Amitta½ abhibhavitu½ sakkuº±t²ti sakko, indat²ti indo, purime dad±t²ti purindadoti eva½ kiriy±guº±dipariggahavisesena.
Bhed±bhedavantes³ti visesas±maññavantesu. N²la-saddo hi uppalasaddasam±yogo rattuppalasetuppal±di-uppalaj±tis±maññato vinivattetv± n²laguºayuttameva uppalaj±tivisesa½ joteti. Uppala-saddopi n²la-saddasam±yutto bhamaraªg±rakokil±digatan²laguºas±maññato avacchinditv± uppalavatthugatameva n²laguºa½ pak±set²ti visesatthas±maññatthayuttat± padadvayassa daµµhabb±. Imin± nayena itaratr±pi bhed±bhedavantat± yojetabb±. T±ya t±ya anumatiy±ti tena tena saªketena. Te te voh±r±ti accanta½ abhinne atthe pariy±yabh±vena accanta½ bhinne yath±saka½ atthavivaraºabh±vena bhed±bhedavante visesanavisesitabbabh±vena t± t± samaññ± paññattiyo siddh±ti attho Sam±neti ekasmi½. Kusal±dibh±vanti kucchitasalan±dibh±va½. Abhidh±natthopi hi anavajjasukhavip±k±di-abhidheyyattho viya sabh±vadh±raº±dis±maññattha½ viseset²ti.
Etth±ha “ki½ pana k±raºa½ tik± eva paµhama½ vutt±, na duk±, tikesupi kusalattikova, na añño”ti? Vuccate– sukhaggahaºato appabhedato ca tik± eva paµhama½ vutt±. Yasm± tikehi bodhite kusal±dibhede tabbibh±gabhinn± hetu-±dayo vuccam±n± suviññeyy± honti. Tath± hi “tayo kusalahet³”ti-±din± kusal±dimukhena hetu-±dayo vibhatt±, katipayabhed± ca tik± dv±v²satiparim±ºatt±.
Tesu pana sabbasaªgaha-asaªkara-±dikaly±ºabh±vena paµhama½ kusalattika½ vutta½. Niravases± hi r³p±r³padhamm± kusalattikena saªgahit±, na tath± vedan±ttik±d²hi. Nanu vip±kattik±d²hipi niravases± dhamm± saªgahit±ti? Saccameta½, tesu pana anavajjas±vajjadhamm± na asaªkarato vutt± yath± kusalattike. Nanu ca sa½kiliµµhasa½kilesikattik±d²supi te asaªkarato vutt±ti? Evameta½, te pana akaly±ºabh³te p±padhamme ±di½ katv± vutt±, na evamaya½. Aya½ pana kaly±ºabh³te pujjabhavaparinibbutinipph±dake puññadhamme ±di½ katv± vutto. Iti bhagav± saºhasukhuma½ r³p±r³padesana½ ±rabhanto sabbasaªgaha-asaªkara-±dikaly±ºaguºayogato paµhama½ kusalattika½ deseti, kiñca tadaññattik±na½ sukhaggahaºato. Tath± hi kusalattikamukhena “k±m±vacarakusalato catt±ro somanassasahagatacittupp±d±”ti-±din± vedan±ttik±dayo vibhatt±ti.
Kusalattikepi ca padh±nap±sa½sa-ubhayahitabh±vato kusal± dhamm± paµhama½ vutt±. Kusal± hi dhamm± sukhavip±katt± sabbasaªkhatadhamm±na½ uttam± avajjavidhamanato viññuppasatth± idhalokaparalokesu atth±vah± nissaraº±vah± ca, tasm± padh±n±dibh±vena paµhama½ vutt±, tappaµipakkhatt± tadanantara½ akusal±, tadubhayavipar²tasabh±v± tadanantara½ aby±kat± vutt±. Kusalavasena v± ass±do, akusalavasena ±d²navo, aby±katadhammesu nibb±navasena nissaraºanti imin± ass±d±dikkamena, kusalesu patiµµh±ya paº¹it± akusale pajahant± aby±katadhammabh³tamaggaphala½ nibb±nañca sacchikaront²ti imin± v± paµipattikkamena ayamanupubb² µhapit±ti veditabb±.
Kasm± panettha sekkhattik±d²su viya sar³pato purimapadadvayapaµikkhepavasena tatiyapada½ na vutta½ “nevakusal± n±kusal±”ti? Visesad²panattha½. Yath± hi sekkh±sekkhasabh±vesu dhammesu kocipi dhammo tadubhayasabh±vena kenacipi pariy±yena kad±ci aby±karaº²yo n±ma natth²ti sekkhattike padadvayapaµikkhepavasena “nevasekkh± n±sekkh±”tveva vutta½, na eva½ idha. Idha pana kusalasabh±v± eva dhamm± aggaphaluppattiy± tath± na by±karaº²y± hont²ti imassa visesassa d²panattha½ “aby±kat±”ti vutta½. Vacanamatte eva v± ida½ n±n±karaºa½ “aby±kat± nevakusal± n±kusal±”ti by±kata-saddena kusal±kusal±na½ bodhitatt±ti.
Ettha ca akusalesu taºh±ya sabb±kusalehi, tebh³makakusal±kusalehi v± samudayasacca½, ta½ta½avasiµµhatebh³makadhammehi dukkhasacca½, lokuttarakusalena maggasacca½, avasiµµha-aby±katavisesena nirodhasacca½ dassita½ hoti. Tattha samudayena ass±do, dukkhena ±d²navo, magganirodhehi nissaraºa½. Kiñc±pi n±mar³paparicchedabh±vato sabh±vadhammaniddh±raºapadh±n± abhidhammakath±, tesa½ pana kusal±divisese niddh±rite tassa upasamp±detabbat±dipi atthato vuttameva hoti. Akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ pah±n±ya kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ upasampad±ya “sabbap±passa akaraºa½, kusalassa upasampad±”ti (dha. pa. 183; d². ni. 2.90) evam±divacanato hi kusal±d²na½ upasamp±dan±didassanapara½ bhagavato s±sana½, tasm± kusal±na½ upasamp±dana½ akusal±na½ pah±nañca up±yo, aby±katavisesassa sacchikiriy± phala½, kusal±d²na½ upasamp±dan±di-atth± desan± ±ºatt²ti aya½ desan±h±ro.
¾rogyaµµhena anavajjaµµhena kosalyasambh³taµµhena ca kusal±, tappaµipakkhato akusal±, tadubhayavipar²tato aby±kat±, sabh±vadh±raº±di-atthena dhamm±ti anupadavicinana½ vicayo h±ro.
Pujjabhavaphalaparinibbutinipphatti kusaleh²ti yujjati sukhavip±katt±, ap±yadukkhasa½s±radukkhuppatti akusaleh²ti yujjati aniµµhaphalatt±, tadubhayaphal±na½ anuppatti aby±kateh²ti yujjati avip±kadhammatt±ti aya½ yutti h±ro.
Kusal± dhamm± sukhavip±kassa padaµµh±na½, akusal± dukkhavip±kassa, aby±kat± kusal±kusal±by±katadhamm±nanti aya½ padaµµh±no h±ro.
Kusalaggahaºena ye anavajjasukhavip±k± sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± adukkhamasukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± vip±kadhammadhamm± anup±dinnup±d±niy± anup±dinna-anup±d±niy±…pe… araº± dhamm±, te bodhit± bhavanti kusalalakkhaºena ekalakkhaºatt±. Tath± akusalaggahaºena ye s±vajjadukkhavip±k± sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dukkh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± adukkhamasukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± vip±kadhammadhamm± anup±dinnup±d±niy± sa½kiliµµhasa½kilesik±…pe… saraº± dhamm±, te bodhit± bhavanti akusalalakkhaºena ekalakkhaºatt±. Tath± aby±kataggahaºena ye avip±k±rah± sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dukkh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± adukkhamasukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± vip±k± dhamm± nevavip±kanavip±kadhammadhamm± up±dinnup±d±niy± anup±dinnup±d±niy± anup±dinna-anup±d±niy±…pe… araº± dhamm±, te bodhit± bhavanti aby±katalakkhaºena ekalakkhaºatt±ti aya½ lakkhaºo h±ro.
“Kucchite p±padhamme salayant²”ti-±din± nirutti veditabb±, kusal±dimukhena r³p±r³padhamme pariggahetv± visuddhiparampar±ya “katha½ nu kho satt± anup±disesanibb±nabh±gino bhaveyyun”ti ayamettha bhagavato adhipp±yo, nid±na½ as±dh±raºato kusal±dibhedena bujjhanakasatt±. S±dh±raºato pana p±kaµameva. Paµhama½ kusalattikassa desan± vic±rit±yev±ti aya½ catuby³ho h±ro.
Kusalaggahaºena kaly±ºamittapariggaho yonisomanasik±rapariggaho ca. Tattha paµhamena sakala½ brahmacariyam±vattati, dutiyena ca yonisomanasik±ram³lak± dhamm±. Akusalaggahaºena vuttavipariy±yena yojetabba½. Aby±kataggahaºena pana sakalasa½kilesavod±napakkho yath±raham±vattat²ti aya½ ±vatto h±ro.
Tattha kusal± bh³mito catudh± vibhatt±, sampayuttapavatti-±k±r±dito pana anekadh±. Akusal± bh³mito ekadh± vibhatt±, sampayutt±dito anekadh±. Aby±kat± pana vip±kakiriyar³panibb±navasena catudh± bh³misampayutt±dito anekadh± ca vibhatt±ti aya½ vibhatti h±ro.
Kusal± dhamm± akusal±na½ tadaªg±dippah±n±ya v²tikkam±dippah±n±ya ca sa½vattanti, akusal± dhamm± kusal±na½ anupasampajjan±ya, aby±katesu asaªkhatadh±tu sabbasaªkhatanissaraº±y±ti aya½ parivatto h±ro.
Kusal± anavajj± puññ±n²ti pariy±yavacana½, akusal± s±vajj± apuññ±n²ti pariy±ya vacana½, aby±kat± avip±k±rah± neva-±cayag±m² na-apacayag±m²noti pariy±yavacananti aya½ vevacano h±ro.
Kusal±dayo “yasmi½ samaye”ti-±din± pabhavabh³mivevacanapaññattivasena yath±sambhava½ pariññ±dipaññattivasena ca paññatt±ti aya½ paññatti h±ro.
Akusal±na½ kucchit±na½ p±padhamm±na½ salana½ kus±na½ viya kus±na½ v± r±g±d²na½ lavana½ eva½dhammat±ti aya½ paµiccasamupp±damukhena avataraºa½, tath± kusena l±tabb± kosallasambh³t± c±ti paccayapaµibaddhavuttit±ya paµiccasamupp±da…pe… avataraºa½, paccayapaµibaddhavuttit±ya v± ±di-antavant± aniccantik± c±ti aniccat±mukhena avataraºa½, aniccat± eva udayabbayapaµip²¼itat±ya dukkh±ti dukkhat±mukhena avataraºa½, nissattanijj²vaµµhena dhamm±ti aby±p±rato suññat±mukhena avataraºa½, eva½ kusal±ti catt±ro khandh± dv±yatan±ni dve dh±tuyoti-±din± khandh±yatanadh±t±dimukhenapi avataraºa½ veditabba½. Imin± nayena akusal±by±katesupi avataraºa½ dassetabbanti aya½ avataraºo h±ro.
Kusal±ti ±rambho, dhamm±ti padasuddhi, no ±rambhasuddhi. Tath± akusal± dhamm± aby±kat±ti, dhamm±ti pana padasuddhi ±rambhasuddhi c±ti aya½ sodhano h±ro.
Dhamm±ti s±maññato adhiµµh±na½, ta½ avikappetv± visesavacana½ kusal±kusal±by±kat±ti. Tath± kusal± dhamm±ti s±maññato adhiµµh±na½, ta½ avikappetv± k±m±vacara½ somanassasahagatanti-±di visesavacana½. Akusal± dhamm±ti-±d²supi eseva nayoti aya½ adhiµµh±no h±ro.