Tikam±tik±padavaººan±

1. Ten±ti vedan±saddena. Sabbapadeh²ti t²hi padehi laddhan±mo hoti avayavadhammen±pi samud±yassa apadisitabbato yath± “sama½ cuººan”ti. Codako yath±dhippetamattha½ appaµipajjam±no vibhatti-antasseva padabh±va½ sallakkhetv± “nanu sukh±y±”ti-±din± codeti. Itaro “adhippetappak±ratthagamakass±”ti-±din± attano adhipp±ya½ vivarati. Tena “v±kya½ idha padanti vuttan”ti dasseti. Hetupadasahetukapad±d²h²ti ±di-saddena nahetupada-ahetukapadahetusampayuttapad±ni hetuvippayuttapadampi v± saªgaºh±ti.
Ubhayekapadavasen±ti ubhayapadavasena hetudukasambandho, ekapadavasena sahetukadukasambandho. Tath±ti ubhayekapadavasena. Ettha ca sahetukahetusampayuttaduk±ti-±din± yath± hetugocchake paµhamadukasambandh± dutiyatatiyaduk±, paµhamadukadutiyadukasambandh± catutthachaµµhaduk±, paµhamadukatatiyadukasambandho pañcamo duko, eva½ ±savagocchak±d²sup²ti naya½ dasseti. Sakk± hi imin±va nayena tesupi dukantarasambandho viññ±tu½, kevala½ pana ±savagocchak±d²su dutiyadukatatiyadukasambandho os±naduko, kilesagocchake ca dutiyacatutthadukasambandhoti. Dhamm±na½ s±vasesaniravasesabh±vena tikaduk±na½ sappadesanippadesat± vutt±ti yehi tikaduk± s±vases±ti padissanti apadissanti, te asaªgahitadhamm±padeso. Eva½ sati “asaªgahito”ti visesana½ kimatthiyanti? Etassevatthassa p±kaµakaraºattha½ daµµhabba½. Atha v± padissati etena samud±yoti padeso, avayavo. “S±maññajotan± visese avatiµµhat²”ti yath±dhippeta½ visesa½ dassento “asaªgahito”ti ±ha.
Anavajjattho avajjavirahattho. N±ma½ saññ±, kiriy± karaºa½, payojana½ ratharathaªgavibh±vanena tesa½ pak±rato yojana½. Kusena ñ±ºena l±tabb±ti kusal±ti ayamattho ñ±ºasampayutt±na½ t±va hotu, ñ±ºavippayutt±na½ kathanti ±ha “ñ±ºavippayutt±namp²”ti-±di. ѱºavippayutt±pi hi ñ±ºeneva pavattiyanti hitasukhahetubh³t±ya pavattiy± paññavant±na½ paµipattibh±vato. Na hi antarena yonisomanasik±ra½ kusaluppatti atth²ti. “Yadi kusalassa ubhayabh±gagata½ sa½kilesalavana½ p±kaµa½ siy±, kus± viya lunant²ti kusal±ti ayamattho yutto siy±”ti koci vadeyy±ti ±saªk±ya ±ha “sammappadh±nadvaya½ viy±”ti.
Na c±ti-±din± “sabh±va½ dh±rent²”ti ettha paramatthato kattukammassa ca bhedo natthi, kappan±siddho eva pana bhedoti dasseti. Tattha n±mavasena viññ±t±viññ±teti yesa½ “dhamm±”ti imin± pariy±yena aviññ±t± sabh±v±, “sabh±va½ dh±rent²”ti imin± ca pariy±yena viññ±t±, tesa½ vasena eva½ vutta½. Ettha ca paµhamo attho saªkhat±saªkhatadhammavasena vutto, dutiyo saªkhatavasena, tatiyo saªkhat±saªkhatapaññattidhammavasen±ti daµµhabba½.
Kusalapaµisedhana½ kusal±bh±vo eva. Abh±vo hi satt±paµisedhoti. Dhammoti sabh±vadhammo. Akusalavacanena na koci attho sabh±vadhammassa abodhakatt±ti adhipp±yo. Atha siy± akusalavacanena koci attho asabh±vadhammabodhakattepi “paññattidhamm±”ti-±d²su viya, eva½ sati “anaby±kat±”ti ca vattabba½ siy±, tato c±ya½ catukko ±pajjati, na tiko. Tasm±ti yasm± dukacatukkabh±vo anaby±katavoh±ro ca natthi, so ca vuttanayena abh±vamattavacane ±pajjati, tasm±. Sabh±vadh±raº±d²ti ±di-saddena “dh±r²yanti paccayeh²”ti ayamattho saªgahito. Ñeyyapariy±yena pana dhamma-sadden±ya½ dosoti nanu añeyyapariy±yepi dhamma-sadde na koci dosoti? Na, vuttados±nativattanato.
P±risesen±ti ettha nanu ayamak±ro na-atthattayasseva jotako, atha kho “ahetuk± dhamm±, abhikkhuko ±v±so”ti ta½yoganivattiy±, “appaccay± dhamm±”ti ta½sambandhibh±vanivattiy±. Paccayuppannañhi paccayasambandh²ti appaccayuppannatt± asambandhit± ettha jot²yati. “Anidassan± dhamm±”ti ta½sabh±vanivattiy±. Nidassanañhi daµµhabbat±. Atha cakkhuviññ±ºa½ nidassana½, taggayhabh±vanivattiy±, tath± “an±sav± dhamm±”ti. “Appaµigh± dhamm± an±rammaº± dhamm±”ti ta½kiccanivattiy±. “Ar³pino dhamm± acetasik± dhamm±”ti tabbh±vanivattiy±. Tadaññat± hi ettha pak±s²yati. “Amanusso”ti tabbh±vamattanivattiy±. Manussattamatta½ natthi añña½ sam±nanti sadisat± hettha s³ciyati. “Asamaºo samaºapaµiñño aputto”ti ta½sambh±vanaguºanivattiy±. Garah± hi ettha ñ±yati. “Kacci nu bhoto an±may±, anudar± kaññ±”ti tadappabh±vanivattiy±. “Anuppann± dhamm±”ti ta½sadisabh±vanivattiy±. At²t±nañhi uppannapubbatt± up±didhamm±nañca paccayekadesanipphattiy± ±raddhupp±dabh±vato k±lavinimuttassa ca vijjam±natt± uppann±nuk³lat±, pageva paccuppann±nanti tabbidhurabh±vo ettha viññ±yati. “Asekkh± dhamm±”ti tadapariyos±nanivattiy±. Ta½niµµh±nañhettha pak±s²yat²ti evamanekesa½ atth±na½ jotako, tattha ki½ vuccate atthadvayameva vatv± p±risesen±ti? Itaresa½ ettha suvid³rabh±vato. Na hi kusalavippayutt±d²na½ dhamm±na½ akusalabh±vo yujjati.
Akusalasaddassa ucc±raº±nantara½ vineyy±na½ kusalapaµipakkhabh³te atthe paµipattibh±vato tattha niru¼hat± daµµhabb±. “Viruddhasabh±vatt±”ti vutta½ kiccavirodh±d²nampi tadantogadhatt±, viruddhasabh±vattepi vin±sakavin±sitabbabh±vo kusal±kusalesu niyatoti dassetu½ “tappaheyyabh±vato”ti ±ha. Itarath± kusal±nampi akusalehi pah±tabbabh±ve accanta½ samucchinnakusalam³latt± ap±yap³rak± eva satt± siyu½. Ya½ pana “dhamm±pi vo, bhikkhave, pah±tabb±”ti (ma. ni. 1.240) vutta½, ta½ “r³pa½, bhikkhave, na tumh±ka½, ta½ pajahath±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.33) viya tad±rammaºasa½kilesappah±navasena pariy±yena vutta½. Yath±ha “na hi kusal± akusalehi pah±tabb±”ti (dha. sa. m³laµ² 1).
Phass±divacanehi ta½niddesabh³tehi. Tabbacan²yabh±ven±ti tehi “sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dhamm±”ti-±divacanehi abhidheyyabh±vena. Yath± anavajjasukhavip±k±di-atth± kusal±divacanehi, eva½ avip±katth± aby±katavacanena bodhit± ev±ti ±ha “aby±katavacaneneva c±”ti. K±raºa½ avatv±ti idha vuttabh±vena anuvattam±natt±ti k±raºa½ avatv±. Aññ±…pe… niv±retabboti etena kusal±kusalasadd± viya kusal±kusalasabh±v±na½ tadubhayavipar²tasabh±v±na½ dhamm±na½ aby±katasaddo bodhakoti dasseti. Na hi avip±kavacana½ vutta½, akusalavacanañca avutta½. Yato avip±kavacanassa adhikatabh±vo akusalassa ca tabbacan²yabh±vena akathitabh±vo siy±, tasm± na akusal±na½ aby±katat±ti aya½ akusal±na½ anaby±katabh±ve yojan±.
Ta½ pariharitunti aby±katanivattanam±ha. Yadi eva½ “sukhavip±k±navajj±”ti vattabba½. Anavajj± hi byabhic±rit±ya visesitabb±ti? Na, sukhavip±kavacanassa visesanabh±vena aggahitatt±. Sukhavip±kavacanena hi kusalabh±ve samatto viññ±yati, anavajjavacana½ panettha kusal±na½ agarahitabbat±saªkh±ta½ kañci visesam±ha. Teneva ca tassa visesanabh±vena vuttassa pavattisukhat±didassanabh±va½ sayameva vakkhat²ti. Manosam±c±ravisesabh³t± phaladhamm± visesena paµippassaddh±vajj± n±ma hont²ti sam±c±rattayavasena tasmi½ sutte anavajjadhamm±na½ vuttatt± ca te anavasesato saªgahetv± dassetu½ “virahit±vajjamatt±”ti vutta½. Avajjavin±sanabh±vo dassito kaºhasukkadhamm±na½ vajjhagh±takabh±vassa niyatatt±. Savip±kat± vip±kadhammat±. Sukho vip±ko etesanti sukhavip±k±ti imin± sam±sena kusal±na½ sukhavip±kavantat± vutt±. S± ca nesa½ na ta½samaªgit±ya asahavattanatoti tadupp±danasamatthat±ti viññ±yat²ti vutta½ “sukhavip±kavipaccanasabh±va½ dasset²”ti. Yuttametanti paramatthato bhed±bh±vepi yath±vuttavacanavacan²yabh±vasaªkh±to bhedo tasmi½ abhidheyyatthabh³te vatthusmi½ upac±rena hot²ti yuttamettha lakkhaºalakkhitabbabh±vena bhedavacana½. Bhavati hi saddatthavisesamattenapi abhinne vatthusmi½ bhedavacana½ yath± “sil±puttakassa sar²ran”ti.
Vin±pi bh±v±bhidh±yin± saddena bh±vappadh±no niddeso hot²ti vutta½ “anavajjavacanena anavajjatta½ ±h±”ti. Evañcettha padaviggaho gahetabbo– na avajja½ anavajja½, avajjapaµipakkhat±ya agarahitabbasabh±vo. Sukho vip±ko ass±ti sukhavip±ka½, sukhavip±kavipaccanasamatthat±. Anavajjañca ta½ sukhavip±kañc±ti anavajjasukhavip±ka½, ta½ lakkhaºa½ etesanti anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaº±. Atha v± pubbe viya anavajja½, vipaccana½ vip±ko, sukhassa vip±ko sukhavip±ko, anavajjañca sukhavip±ko ca anavajjasukhavip±ka½ ekattavasena. Ta½ lakkhaºa½ etesanti anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaº±. Ki½ panettha k±raºa½ padadvayapariggahe, nanu ekeneva padena iµµhappasiddhi. Yadipi “avajjarahita½ anavajjan”ti imasmi½ pana pakkhe aby±katanivattanattha½ sukhavip±kaggahaºa½ kattabba½ siy±, sukhavip±kaggahaºe pana kate anavajjaggahaºa½ na kattabbameva. “Avajjapaµipakkh± anavajj±”ti etasmi½ pana pakkhe sukhavip±kaggahaºañc±ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha “tattha anavajjavacanen±”ti-±di. Tena pavattisukhasukhavip±kat±-attasuddhivisuddhavip±kat±-akusala-aby±katasabh±vanivattirasapaccupaµµh±napadaµµh±navisesad²panato eva½ vipulappayojanattho padadvayapariggahoti dasseti. Sukha-saddassa iµµhapariy±yat± viya “nibb±naparama½ sukha½ (dha. pa. 203-204), sukh± vir±gat± loke (ud±. 11), tesa½ v³pasamo sukho”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.221, 272) saªkh±radukkh³pasamapariy±yat±pi vijjati, ta½avip±kat±ya pana idha sukhavip±kabh±vo na sakk± vattunti dassento ±ha “saªkh±…pe… natth²”ti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– tebh³makakusal±nampi vivaµµasannissayabh±vena pavattisabh±vatt± kiñc±pi sabbe kusal± saªkh±radukkh³pasamasukhanipph±dak± sambhavanti, yath±vuttasukhassa pana avip±kabh±vato na etena padena kusal±na½ sukhavip±kat± sambhavat²ti. Vipakkabh±vam±pannesu ar³padhammesu niru¼hatt± vip±ka-saddassa “yadi pan±”ti s±saªka½ vadati.
Yath±sambhavanti saha avajjen±ti s±vajj±, garahitabbabh±vayutt±. Tena nesa½ garahitabbasabh±va½ dasseti. Aññepi atthi dukkhabh±vena garahitabbasabh±v± akusalavip±k±ti s±vajjavacanamattena tesampi akusalat±pattidosa½ disv± ta½ pariharitu½ dukkhavip±kavacanam±ha. Avajja-saddo v± r±g±d²su ekant±kusalesu niru¼hoti ta½sahavattidhamm±na½ eva s±vajjabh±ve kusal±by±katehi akusal±na½ viseso s±vajjavacaneneva dassito. Aby±katehi pana visiµµha½ kusal±kusal±na½ s±dh±raºa½ savip±kat±lakkhaºanti tasmi½ lakkhaºe visesadassanattha½ dukkhavip±kalakkhaºa½ vutta½. Ito para½ “dukkho vip±ko etesanti dukkhavip±k±”ti-±din± sukhavip±ka-anavajjakusalapad±na½ µh±ne dukkhavip±kas±vajja-akusalapad±ni µhapetv± yath±vuttanayena attho veditabbo Yojan± ca s±vajjavacanena akusal±na½ pavattidukkhata½ dasseti, dukkhavip±kavacanena vip±kadukkhata½. Purimañhi attano pavattisabh±vavasena lakkhaºavacana½, pacchima½ k±lantare vip±kupp±danasamatthat±y±ti. Tath± purimena akusal±na½ avisuddhasabh±vata½ dasseti, pacchimena avisuddhavip±kata½. Purimena ca akusale kusalasabh±vato nivatteti, pacchimena aby±katasabh±vato savip±kattad²pakatt± pacchimassa. Purimena v± avajjavantat±dassanato kiccaµµhena rasena anatthajananarasata½ dasseti, pacchimena sampatti-atthena aniµµhavip±karasata½. Purimena ca upaµµh±n±k±raµµhena paccupaµµh±nena sa½kilesapaccupaµµh±nata½, pacchimena phalaµµhena dukkhavip±kapaccupaµµh±nata½. Purimena ca ayonisomanasik±ra½ akusal±na½ padaµµh±na½ pak±seti. Tato hi te s±vajj± j±t±ti. Pacchimena akusal±na½ aññesa½ padaµµh±nabh±va½ vibh±veti. Te hi dukkhavip±kassa k±raºa½ hot²ti. Ettha ca dukkha-saddo aniµµhapariy±yavacananti veditabba½. Aniµµhacatukkhandhavip±k± hi akusal±, na dukkhavedan±vip±k±va. Vip±ka-saddassa phalapariy±yabh±ve pana nissandavip±kena aniµµhar³penapi dukkhavip±kat± yojetabb±. Vip±kadhammat±paµisedhavasena aby±kat±na½ avip±kalakkhaº±ti lakkhaºa½ vuttanti tadattha½ dassento “avip±k±rahasabh±v±”ti ±ha. Eva½pak±r±nanti abhiññ±dike saªgaºh±ti.