Dukaniddeso

Up±d±bh±jan²yavaººan±

596. Samantato sabbaso dassanaµµhena cakkhu samantacakkh³ti imamattha½ dassetu½ “sabbasaªkhat±saªkhatadassanan”ti vutta½. Evam±din±ti ettha ±di-saddo “dukkha½ pariññeyya½ pariññ±tan”ti t²supi padesu pacceka½ yojetabbo. “Ida½ dukkhanti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhu½ udap±di, ñ±ºa½ udap±d²”ti-±din± (mah±va. 15; paµi. ma. 2.30) hi p±¼i pavatt±ti. ¾k±ren±ti dv±dasavidhena ±k±rena. Tampi k±m±vacara½ vipassan±paccavekkhaºañ±ºabh±vato. “ѱºacakkhu saha-ariyamagga½ vipassan±ñ±ºantipi yujjat²”ti vadanti. Aggamaggena pana saha vipassan± paccavekkhaºañ±ºanti yutta½ viya dissati.
Yath±vutte ma½sapiº¹e sasambh±re cakkhuvoh±ro sant±navasena pavattam±ne catusamuµµh±nikar³padhamme up±d±ya pavattoti “catu…pe… sambh±r±”ti vutta½. Saºµh±nanti vaºº±yatanamev±ti tena tena ±k±rena sanniviµµhesu mah±bh³tesu ta½ta½saºµh±navasena vaºº±yatanassa viññ±yam±natt± vutta½, na vaºº±yatanasseva saºµh±napaññattiy± up±d±natt±. Tath± hi andhak±re phusitv±pi saºµh±na½ viññ±yat²ti. Tath± ca vakkhati “d²gh±d²ni phusitv±pi sakk± j±nitun”ti, (dha. sa. aµµa. 616) “d²gh±disannivesa½ bh³tasamud±ya½ niss±y±”ti (dha. sa. m³laµ². 616) ca. Tesa½ sambhavasaºµh±n±na½ ±podh±tuvaºº±yatanehi anatthantarabh±vepi tehi visu½ vacana½ tath±bh³t±na½ sambhavabh³t±na½ saºµh±nabh³t±nañca. Etena ±podh±tuvaºº±yatan±na½ vasena vattam±na-avatth±viseso sambhavo saºµh±nañc±ti ayamattho dassito hoti. Tattha sambhavo catusamuµµh±niko so¼asavassak±le uppajjati. Tassa r±gavasena µh±n± vacana½ hot²ti vadanti. Atath±bh³t±na½ tato aññath±bh³t±na½. Yath±vutte sambh±ravatthusaªkh±te. Vijjam±natt±ti bhiyyovuttivasena vutta½. Tath± hi kh²º±sav±na½ brahm±nañca sambhavo natth²ti. ¾podh±tuvisesatt± sambhavo ±podh±tusambandh² ±podh±tutannissayanissitopi hot²ti tassa catudh±tunissitat±ya avirodho vutto.
Utucitt±h±rehi upatthambhiyam±nanti ettha “kal±pantaragat± utu-±h±r± adhippet±”ti vadanti. Anekakal±pagatabh±va½ cakkhussa dasseti yato upaddutapaµale nir±karaºepi cakkhu vijjat²ti Paµighaµµana½ visay±bhimukhabh±vo nigha½sapaccayatt±. Nigha½so nissayabh±v±patti. Yato cakkh±dinissit± saññ± “paµighasaññ±”ti vuccati.
Anekatt±ti ida½ avacanassa k±raºa½, na hetukiriy±ya viññ±yam±nabh±vassa. So pana apekkh±siddhito eva veditabbo. Hetukiriy±pekkh± hi phalakiriy±ti. Cakkhu½ saªgaºh±t²ti cakkhuviññ±ºassa nissayabh±v±nupagamanepi ta½sabh±v±nativattanato tass± samaññ±ya tattha niru¼habh±va½ dasseti. Dassanapariº±yakaµµho cakkhussa indaµµhoyev±ti “yath± hi issaro”ti-±din± issaropam± vutt±. Cakkhuviññ±ºa½ dassanakicce pariº±yanta½ cakkhu ta½sahaj±te cakkhusamphass±dayopi tattha pariº±yat²ti vuccat²ti “te dhamme…pe… pariº±yat²”ti vutta½, na pana cakkhusamphass±d²na½ dassanakiccatt±. Atha v± cakkhusamphass±d²na½ indriyapaccayabh±vena upak±raka½ cakkhuviññ±ºa½ dassanakicce pariº±yanta½ cakkhu tattha cakkhusamphass±dayopi tadanuvattake pariº±yat²ti atth±ya½ pariy±yoti dassento ±ha “te dhamme…pe… º±yat²”ti. Anekatthatt± dh±t³na½ cakkhat²ti imassa “pariº±yati pak±set²”ti ca atth± vutt±. Saºµh±nampi r³p±yatanamev±ti “samavisam±ni r³p±ni cakkhat²ti cakkh³”ti vutta½. Ta½dv±rik±na½ phass±d²na½ upanissayapaccayabh±vo eva va¼añjanattho.
599. Ta½dv±rik±…pe… uppatti vutt±ti cakkhuviññ±ºe uppanne sampaµicchan±d²ni balav±rammaºe javana½ ekantena uppajjat²ti katv± vutta½. Tath± ceva hi antar± cakkhuviññ±ºe v± sampaµicchane v± sant²raºe v± µhatv± nivattissat²ti neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²ti nicchita½. Tena paccayen±ti ta½pak±rena paccayena. Ta½sadis±nanti garu½ katv± ass±dan±dippavattivisesarahitat±ya dassanasadis±na½ manodh±tusant²raºavoµµhabban±na½. Pañcadv±rikajavan±na½ ass±dan±dito aññath± garu½ katv± pavatti natthi r³padhammavisayatt±ti “ass±dan±bhinandanabh³t±n²”ti ettakameva vutta½. Manodv±rikajavanapiµµhivaµµak±nampi hi pañcadv±rikajavan±na½ ass±dan±bhinandanabh±vena r³pa½ garu½ katv± pavatti natth²ti na sakk± vattunti. R³pa½ ±rammaº±dhipati akusalasseva hoti. Tath± hi paµµh±ne “aby±kato dhammo akusalassa dhammassa adhipatipaccayena paccayo. ¾rammaº±dhipati cakkhu½ garu½ katv± ass±deti abhinandat²”ti-±din± (paµµh±. 1.1.416) r³padhammopi ±rammaº±dhipati vibhatto. “Aby±kato dhammo aby±katassa dhammassa aby±kato dhammo kusalass±”ti ettha pana phalanibb±n±neva ±rammaº±dhipatibh±vena vibhatt±n²ti. Gaºan±ya ca “±rammaºa-±rammaº±dhipati-upanissayapurej±ta-atthi-avigatanti ekan”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.445) vutta½. Yadi kusalassapi siy±, dveti vattabba½ siy±ti. T±n²ti yath±vuttajavan±ni paµiniddiµµh±ni. Ta½sampayutt±ni c±ti javanasampayutt±ni. Aññ±ni cakkhusamphass±d²ni. Yadi r³passa ±rammaºapaccayabh±vamatta½ adhippeta½, “ta½ r³p±rammaºeti eteneva sijjheyy±”ti ettakameva vadeyya. Yasm± pana r³pa½ ta½dv±rikajavan±na½ paccayavisesopi hoti, tasm± tassa visesassa d²panattha½ “±rabbh±”ti vacana½ vutta½ siy±ti ±ha “±rammaºapaccayato aññapaccayabh±vassapi d²pakan”ti.
600. Sotaviññ±ºappavattiya½ savanakiriy±voh±roti sotassa savanakiriy±ya kattubh±vo sotaviññ±ºassa paccayabh±ven±ti vutta½ “sotaviññ±ºassa nissayabh±vena suº±t²”ti. J²vitanimittam±h±raraso j²vita½, tasmi½ ninnat±ya ta½ avh±yat²ti jivh±ti eva½ siddhena jivh±-saddena pak±siyam±n± ras±vh±yanasaªkh±t± s±yanakiriy± labbhat²ti katv± vutta½ “jivh±saddena viññ±yam±n± kiriy±s±yanan”ti. Tath± ca vakkhati “j²vitamavh±yat²ti jivh±”ti (vibha. aµµha. 154). ¾yoti uppattideso. Pas±dak±yassa k±yik±na½ dukkhasukh±na½ nissayabh±vato itaresa½ upanissayabh±vato “dukkhadukkhavipariº±madukkh±na½ ±yo”ti vutta½. By±pit±y±ti by±pibh±ve, by±pibh±vena v±. K±yappas±dabh±voti k±yappas±dasabbh±vo. Anuviddhatt±ti anuyuttabh±vato, sa½saµµhabh±vatoti attho. Tasm±ti yasm± y±vat± imasmi½ k±ye up±dinnakapavatta½ n±ma atthi, sabbattha k±y±yatana½ kapp±sapaµale sneho viy±ti vutta½, tasm±. Paº¹arasabh±v± pas±d± ±p±thagata½ visaya½ viññ±ºuppattihetubh±vena pak±sent± viya hont²ti tesa½ visay±vabh±sanakiccat± vutt±. Sam±nanissay±nanti ekanissay±na½. Avinibbhuttesu hi r³paras±d²su ya½nissaya½ r³pa½, ta½nissayo eva ras±d²ti. Aññamaññasabh±v±nupagamen±ti lakkhaºasaªkar±bh±vam±ha.
Yasm± paccayantarasahitoyeva cakkhuppas±do r³p±bhihananavasena pavattati, na paccayantararahito, tasm± r³p±bhigh±to hotu v± m± v± hotu, eva½sabh±vo so r³padhammoti dassetu½ “r³p±bhigh±t±raho”ti vutta½ yath± “vip±k±rahasabh±v± kusal±kusal±”ti. Visayavisay²na½ aññamañña½ abhimukhabh±vo abhigh±to viy±ti abhigh±to, so r³pe cakkhussa cakkhumhi v± r³passa hot²ti vutta½ “r³pe, r³passa v± abhigh±to”ti. Tenev±ha “yamhi cakkhumhi anidassanamhi sappaµighamhi r³pa½ sanidassana½ sappaµigha½ paµihaññi v±”ti (dha. sa. 597), “cakkhu anidassana½ sappaµigha½ r³pamhi sanidassanamhi sappaµighamhi paµihaññi v±”ti (dha. sa. 598) ca ±di. Ettha ca ta½ta½bhavapatthan±vasena cakkh±d²su avigatar±gassa attabh±vanipph±dakas±dh±raºakammavasena purima½ cakkhulakkhaºa½ vutta½, sud³rasukhum±dibhedassapi r³passa gahaºasamatthameva cakkhu hot³ti eva½ nibbattita-±veºikakammavasena dutiya½. Esa nayo sesesupi. Atha v± satipi pañcanna½ pas±dabh±vas±maññe savisay±vabh±sanasaªkh±tassa pas±daby±p±rassa dassanavasena purima½ vutta½, pas±dak±raºassa satipi kammabh±vas±maññe attano k±raºabhedena bhedadassanavasena dutiya½.
K±mataºh±ti k±mabhave taºh±. Tath± r³pataºh± daµµhabb±. Tassa tassa bhavassa m³lak±raºabh³t± taºh± tasmi½ tasmi½ bhave uppajjan±rah±yatanavisay±pi n±ma hot²ti k±mataºh±d²na½ daµµhuk±mat±divoh±r±rahat± vutt±. Daµµhuk±mat±ti hi daµµhumicch± r³pataºh±ti attho. Tath± ses±sup²ti. Ettha ca daµµhuk±mat±d²na½ ta½ta½attabh±vanibbattakakamm±y³hanakkhaºato sati purimanibbattiya½ vattabba½ natthi. Asatipi tassa maggena asamuggh±titabh±veneva k±raºanti daµµhabba½. Yato maggena asamucchinna½ k±raºal±bhe sati uppajjitv± attano phalassa k±raºabh±v³pagamanato vijjam±namev±ti uppanna-atthit±pariy±yehi vuccati “ariya½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½ bh±vento ariya½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½ bahul²karonto uppannuppanne p±pake akusale dhamme antar±yeva antaradh±peti” (sa½. ni. 5.157), “santa½ v± ajjhatta½ k±macchanda½ atthi me ajjhatta½ k±macchandoti paj±n±t²”ti (d². ni. 2.382; ma. ni. 1.115) ca evam±d²su.
Etth±ha– cakkh±d²na½ indriy±na½ ki½ ekakammun± uppatti, ud±hu n±n±kammun±ti? Ubhayath±p²ti por±º±. Tattha n±n±kammun± t±va uppattiya½ cakkh±d²na½ visese vattabba½ natthi k±raºassa bhinnatt±. Ekakammun± pana uppattiya½ tesa½ katha½ visesoti? K±raºassa bhinnatt±yeva. Ta½ta½bhavapatthan±bh³t± hi taºh± ta½ta½bhavapariy±pann±yatan±bhil±sat±ya saya½ vicittar³p± upanissayabh±vena ta½ta½bhavanibbattakakammassa vicittabhedata½ vidahati. Yato tad±hitavisesa½ ta½ tath±r³pasamatthat±yogena anekar³p±panna½ viya aneka½ visiµµhasabh±va½ phala½ nibbatteti. Tath± ca vakkhati “kammameva nesa½ visesak±raºan”ti. Na cettha samatthat±bh±vato añña½ veditabba½ k±raºavisesen±hitavisesassa visiµµhaphalanipph±danayogyat±bh±vato. Tath± hi sati ekassapi kammassa anekindriyahetut±visesayoga½ ekampi kammanti-±din± yuttito ±gamatopi parato sayameva vakkhati. Tath± ca ekasseva kusalacittassa so¼as±divip±kacittanibbattihetubh±vo vuccati. Lokepi ekasseva s±lib²jassa paripuºº±paripuººataº¹ulaphalanibbattihetut± dissati. Ki½ v± et±ya yutticint±ya, na cintitabbameveta½. Yato kammavip±ko cakkh±d²ni kammavip±ko ca sabb±k±rato buddh±na½yeva kammavip±kañ±ºaphalayutt±na½ visayo, na aññesa½ atakk±vacarat±ya. Teneva ca bhagavat± “kammavip±ko acinteyyo na cintetabbo, yo cinteyya umm±dassa vigh±tassa bh±g² ass±”ti (a. ni. 4.77) ±d²nava½ dassetv± paµikkhitta½. ¾viñchana½ puggalassa viññ±ºassa v± ta½ninnabh±vappattiy± hetubh±vo.
Sabbesanti padassa pakaraºato p±risesato v± labbham±na½ atthavisesa½ aj±nanto yath±rutavaseneva attha½ gahetv± “ko ettha viseso”ti-±din± codeti. Itaro tej±d²na½ pacceka½ adhikabh±ve viya dvinna½ tiººa½ v± adhikabh±vepi yath±vutt±dhikabh±veneva ekak±divasena labbham±n±ya omattat±yapi k±yappas±do na hot²ti viññ±yam±natt± pakaraºato p±risesato v± catunnampi bh³t±na½ samabh±vena k±yo hot²ti ayamattho siddhoti sabba-saddo idha samabh±vad²pakoti dassetu½ “ida½ pan±”ti-±dim±ha. Imamattha½ d²pet²ti ca yath±vuttena ñ±yena “sabbesan”ti vacanato ayamattho labbhati, na tassa v±cakatt±ti dasseti. Tenev±ha “anuvatta…pe… vasena vuttatt±”ti. Ekades±dhikabh±vaniv±raºeneva hi ekadesomattat±niv±raºampi viññ±yat²ti. Ekadeso avayavo. Catudh±tusamud±yanissayassa hi pas±dassa tadekadh±tu-adhikat± avayav±dhikat± hot²ti.