1. Kusalattika½

1. Paµiccav±ravaŗŗan±

1. Paccay±nuloma½

(1) VibhaŖgav±ro

53. kusalattike labhanti, na t±yeva vedan±ttik±d²s³ti tikapadan±nattamattena vin± m³l±vas±navasena sadisata½ sandh±ya “na t±yev±”ti vutta½, na ca kevala½ tikantareyeva, kusalattikepi pana y± paµiccav±re labhanti, na t±yeva paccayav±r±d²s³ti sabbapucch±sam±haraŗa½ idha kattabbameva. Dhamm±nulomapaccan²ye ca tikapaµµh±ne vitakkattikap²tittik±na½ vissajjane sabb±pet± vissajjana½ labhant²ti ettha p²tittikaggahaŗa½ na k±tabba½. Na hi tattha ek³napańń±sa pucch± vissajjana½ labhant²ti.
Tena saddhinti tena sahaj±tapaccayabh³tena saddhinti attho daµµhabbo. “Y±va nirodhagaman± uddha½ pajjat²”ti ca “upp±d±dayo v± p±puŗ±t²”ti ca vacanehi khaŗattayasamaŖg² uppajjat²ti vuccat²ti anuńń±ta½ viya hoti, upp±dakkhaŗasamaŖg²yeva pana eva½ vuttoti daµµhabbo.
Yasm± pana eko khandho ekass±ti-±di idha kusalavacanena gahite khandhe sandh±ya vutta½. Vedan±ttik±d²su pana eka½ khandha½ paµicca dvinna½, dve paµicca ekassapi, hetuduk±d²su ca saŖkh±rakkhandhekadesa½ paµicca saŖkh±rakkhandhekadesassapi uppatti vutt±ti saha uppajjam±n±na½ sabbesa½ dhamm±na½ paccayo honto ekekassapi dukatik±dibhed±nańca paccayo n±ma hotiyeva, tath± duk±dibhed±nańc±ti.
“R³pena saddhi½ anuppattito ±ruppavip±kańca na gahetabban”ti vutta½, ta½ pana na sabbasmi½ etasmi½ vacane gahetabba½, atha kho “cittasamuµµh±nańca r³pan”ti ettheva. Na kevalańca ±ruppavip±kova, atha kho lokuttaravip±kakiriy±by±katampi ±ruppe uppajjam±na½ ettha na gahetabba½. “Vip±k±by±kata½ kiriy±by±kata½ eka½ khandha½ paµicca tayo khandh±”ti ettha pana na kińci r³pena vin± saha v± uppajjam±na½ sahetuka½ vip±kakiriy±by±kata½ aggahita½ n±ma atthi. Tattha pana ya½ r³pena saha uppajjati, tassa paccayuppannavisesa½ dassetu½ “cittasamuµµh±nańca r³pan”ti vutta½.
“Vatthu½ paµicca khandh±”ti ettake vattabbe paccayabh³tassa vatthussa “kaµatt± ca r³pan”ti etasmi½ s±mańńavacane paccayuppannabh±vena aggahitat±patti½ niv±retu½ “khandhe paµicca vatth³”ti vutta½. Khandhe paµicca vatthu, vatthu½ paµicca khandh±ti v± vatthukhandh±na½ ańńamańńapaccayabh³t±na½ paccayabh±vavisesadassanattha½ ańńamańń±pekkha½ vacanadvaya½ vutta½ s±mańńena gahitampi visu½ uddhaµa½.
Mah±bh³tepi paµicca uppattidassanattanti ya½ cittasamuµµh±nar³pa½ kaµatt±r³pańca up±d±r³pa½ up±d±r³paggahaŗena vin± “khandhe paµicca uppajjat²”ti vutta½, tassa mah±bh³tepi paµicca uppattidassanatthanti attho. Etasmi½ pana dassane khandhapaccayasahit±sahitańca sabba½ up±d±r³pa½ ito paresu sahaj±tapaccay±d²su saŖgahitanti imamattha½ sandh±ya “kaµatt±r³pa½ paµisandhiyamp²”ti pi-saddo vuttoti daµµhabbo.
Mah±bh³te paµicca up±d±r³panti vuttanayen±ti “mah±bh³te paµicca cittasamuµµh±na½ r³pa½ kaµatt±r³pa½ up±d±r³pan”ti ettha atthato aya½ nayo vuttoti sandh±y±ha.
54. R³pamissak± pah±y±ti y±su pucch±su r³pena vin± paccayuppanna½ na labbhati, atha kho r³pamissakameva labbhati, t± pah±y±ti adhipp±yo.
57. “Tiŗŗa½ sannip±t± gabbhassa avakkanti hot²”ti vacanatoti gabbhaseyyakapaµisandhiy± pańcakkhandhasabbh±vena t±ya sam±nalakkhaŗ± sabb±pi pańcavok±rapaµisandhi okkantin±mak±ti s±dheti. Paripuŗŗadhamm±na½ vissajjana½ ettha atth²ti paripuŗŗavissajjan±.
Ettha ca “eka½ mah±bh³ta½ paµicca tayo…pe… mah±bh³te paµicca cittasamuµµh±na½ r³pa½ kaµatt±r³pa½ up±d±r³pan”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.53) ett±vat± pańcavok±re sabba½ cittakammasamuµµh±nar³pa½ dassita½. Avasesa½ pana dassetu½ “b±hiran”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha b±hiranti etena anindriyabaddhar³pa½ dasseti, puna ±h±rasamuµµh±na½ utusamuµµh±nanti etehi sabba½ indriyabaddha½ ±h±ra-utusamuµµh±nar³pa½. Tattha “utusamuµµh±na½ ekan”ti-±din± asańńasatt±nampi utusamuµµh±na½ vuttamev±ti daµµhabba½. Na hi tattha tassa vajjane k±raŗa½ atth²ti. ¾dimhi pana “eka½ mah±bh³ta½ paµicc±”ti-±di avisesavacana½ sahaj±ta½ ar³pampi paccaya½ het±dike ca paccaye bahutare labhanta½ cittasamuµµh±nakaµatt±r³padvaya½ saha saŖgaŗhitv± vutta½, evańca katv± tassa pariyos±ne “mah±bh³te paµicca cittasamuµµh±nar³pa½ kaµatt±r³pa½ up±d±r³pan”ti vutta½, tasm± tattha kaµatt±r³pa½ cittasamuµµh±nasambandha½ ta½sam±nagatika½ pańcavok±re vattam±nameva gahitanti aggahita½ kaµatt±r³pa½ dassetu½ “asańńasatt±na½ eka½ mah±bh³ta½ paµicc±”ti-±di vutta½, tasm± up±d±r³pa½ idhapi kammapaccayavibhaŖge viya “mah±bh³te paµicca kaµatt±r³pa½ up±d±r³pan”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.63) kaµatt±r³pabh±vavisiµµha½ up±d±r³pa½ gahitanti daµµhabba½. Na hi vuttassa utusamuµµh±nassa punavacane payojana½ atth²ti.
Kasm± pana yath± b±hir±d²su “mah±bh³te paµicca up±d±r³pan”ti avisesetv± up±d±r³pa½ vutta½, eva½ avatv± cittakammaja-up±d±r³p±ni “cittasamuµµh±na½ r³pa½ kaµatt±r³pa½ up±d±r³pan”ti hetupaccay±d²su saha “cittasamuµµh±na½ r³pa½ up±d±r³pa½ asańńasatt±na½…pe… kaµatt±r³pa½ up±d±r³pan”ti adhipatipaccay±d²su visu½ cittasamuµµh±nar³pabh±vakaµatt±r³pabh±vehi visesetv±va vutt±n²ti? Tattha b±hiraggahaŗ±d²hi viya ettha mah±bh³t±na½ kenaci avisesitatt±. Apica iddhicittanibbatt±na½ kammapaccay±nańca iµµh±niµµh±na½ b±hirar³p±yatan±d²na½ citta½ kammańca het±d²su na koci paccayo, ±h±ra-utusamuµµh±n±na½ pana citta½ pacch±j±tabh±vena upatthambhakameva, na janaka½, mah±bh³t±neva pana tesa½ sahaj±t±dibh±vena janak±ni, tasm± satipi cittena kammena ca vin± abh±ve het±dipaccayabh³tehi ar³pehi uppajjam±n±ni cittasamuµµh±nar³pakaµatt±r³pabh³t±neva up±d±r³p±ni honti, na ańń±n²ti ima½ visesa½ dassetu½ cittakammajesveva up±d±r³pesu visesana½ kata½. Ańń±ni v± sam±naj±tikena r³pena samuµµh±n±ni p±kaµavisesan±nev±ti na visesana½ arahanti, et±ni pana asam±naj±tikehi ar³pehi samuµµhit±ni visesana½ arahant²ti visesit±n²ti veditabb±ni. Yath± v± cittakamm±ni cittakammasamuµµh±n±na½ savisesena paccayabh±vena paccay± honti sahaj±t±dipaccayabh±vato m³lakaraŗabh±vato ca, na eva½ utu-±h±r± ta½samuµµh±n±nanti cittakammaj±neva visu½ visesana½ arahanti. Itar±ni pana mah±bh³taviseseneva visesit±ni, idha up±d±r³pavisesanena mah±bh³t±ni viya. Na hi ańńataravisesana½ ubhayavisesana½ na hot²ti.
58. Ańńamańńapaccaye khandhe paµicca vatthu, vatthu½ paµicca khandh±ti khandhavatth³na½ ańńamańńapaccayat±dassanena pubbe visu½ paccayabh±vena dassit±na½ khandh±na½ ekato paccayabh±vo dassito hot²ti imin± adhipp±yen±ha “catunnampi khandh±na½ ekato vatthun± ańńamańńapaccayata½ dassetu½ vuttan”ti. “Khandhe paµicca vatth³”ti ida½ pana catunnampi khandh±na½ ekato paµiccatthapharaŗat±dassanattha½, “vatthu½ paµicca khandh±”ti vatthussa. Na kevalańca khandh±na½ idheva, hetupaccay±d²supi ayameva nayo. Tattha sabbesa½ khandh±na½ visu½ paµiccatthapharaŗata½ dassetv± puna “vatthu½ paµicca khandh±”ti vatthussapi dassit±ya “eka½ khandhańca vatthuńca paµicca tayo khandh±”ti-±din± khandhavatth³nańca dassit±yeva hot²ti daµµhabb±.
Kasm± panettha “kusala½ dhamma½ paµicca aby±kato dhammo uppajjati ańńamańńapaccay±, kusale khandhe paµicca cittasamuµµh±n± mah±bh³t±”ti evam±di na vutta½, nanu yadeva paµiccattha½ pharati, na teneva ańńamańńapaccayena bhavitabba½ hetupaccay±d²hi viya. Na hi ya½ “eka½ tayo dve ca khandhe paµicc±”ti vutta½, te hetupaccayabh³t± eva honti. Esa nayo ±rammaŗapaccay±d²supi. Paccayav±re ca “aby±kata½ dhamma½ paccay± kusalo dhammo uppajjati ańńamańńapaccay±”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.256) vutta½, na vatthu kusal±na½ ańńamańńapaccayo hoti, atha ca pana ta½paccay± khandh±na½ ańńamańńapaccay± uppatti vutt± eva. Yadipi kusal± khandh± mah±bh³t±na½ ańńamańńapaccay± na honti, tath±pi te paµicca tesa½ uppatti vattabb± siy±ti? Na vattabb± khandhasahaj±t±na½ mah±bh³t±na½ khandh±na½ paccayabh±v±bh±vato. Ańńamańńasaddo hi na het±disaddo viya nirapekkho, sahaj±t±disaddo viya v± ańńatar±pekkho, atha kho yath±vuttetaretar±pekkho. Paccayapaccayuppann± ca khandh± mah±bh³t± idha yath±vutt± bhaveyyu½, tesu ca mah±bh³t± khandh±na½ na koci paccayo. Yassa ca saya½ paccayo, tato tena tannissitena v± ańńamańńapaccayena uppajjam±na½ ańńamańńapaccay± uppajjat²ti vattabbata½ arahati, yath± khandhe paµicca khandh±, vatthu½ paccay± khandh±. Tasm± attano paccayassa paccayatt±bh±vato tadapekkhatt± ca ańńamańńasaddassa khandhe paµicca paccay± ca mah±bh³t±na½ ańńamańńapaccay± uppatti na vutt±, na ańńamańńapaccay± ca vutt±. Khandh± pana vatthu½ paccay± uppajjam±n± vatthussa pacch±j±tapaccay± honti, tannissitena ca ańńamańńapaccayena uppajjanti. Tasm± vatthu½ paccay± khandh±na½ kusal±d²na½ ańńamańńapaccay± uppatti vutt±ti.
59. Na s± gahit±ti cakkh±yatan±d²ni nissayabh³t±ni paµicc±ti na vuttanti adhipp±yo. Nissayapaccayabh±vena pana na cakkh±yatan±d²ni ±rammaŗapaccayabh±vena r³p±yatan±d²ni viya na gahit±n²ti.
60. Dv²su upanissayesu vattabbameva natthi, ±rammaŗ³panissayampi pana ye labhanti, tesa½ vasena ±rammaŗapaccayasadisanti eva½ vuttanti dassetu½ “tattha kińc±p²”ti ±ha. Tattha “na sabbe akusal± aby±kat± ±rammaŗ³panissaya½ labhant²”ti purimap±µho. Kusal±pi pana mahaggat± ekantena, k±m±vacar± ca kad±ci na labhant²ti “na sabbe kusal±kusal±by±kat±”ti paµhanti.
61. Purej±tapaccaye yath± ańńattha paccaya½ aniddisitv±va desan± kat±, eva½ akatv± kasm± “vatthu½ purej±tapaccay±”ti vuttanti? Niyamasabbh±v±. Hetu-±d²su hi niyamo natthi. Na hi tehi uppajjam±n±na½ alobh±d²su kusal±d²su r³p±d²su ca ayameva paccayoti niyamo atthi, idha pana vatthu na vatthudhammesu purej±tapaccay± uppajjam±n±na½ dhamm±na½ niyamato chabbidha½ vatthu purej±tapaccayo hot²ti imamattha½ dassetu½ ida½ vutta½. ¾rammaŗapurej±tampi hi vatthupurej±te avijjam±ne na labbhati, evańca katv± paµisandhivip±kassa napurej±tapaccay± eva uppatti vutt±, paccuppann±rammaŗassapi tassa purej±tapaccayo na uddhaµo. “Nevavip±kanavip±kadhammadhamma½ paµicca vip±ko dhammo uppajjati purej±tapaccay±”ti etassapi al±bhato tattha “purej±te t²ŗ²”ti (paµµh±. 1.3.124) vuttanti.
63. Tath± paµisandhikkhaŗe mah±bh³t±nanti mah±bh³t±na½ ekakkhaŗikan±n±kkhaŗikakammapaccayavaseneva tadup±d±r³p±nampi vadat²ti ca daµµhabba½. Kaµatt±r³p±nanti pavattiya½ kaµatt±r³p±nanti adhipp±yo.
64. Yath±l±bhavasen±ti indriyar³pesu ya½ ya½ paµisandhiya½ labbhati, tassa tassa vasena.
69. Vippayuttapaccay± uppajjam±n±nampi kesańci niyamato vatthu vippayuttapaccayo, kesańci khandh±, na ca sam±navippayuttapaccay± eva kusal±dike paµicca uppajjam±n± uppajjanti, atha kho n±n±vippayuttapaccay±pi, tasm± ta½ visesa½ dassetu½ “vatthu½ vippayuttapaccay±, khandhe vippayuttapaccay±”ti tattha tattha vutta½. Tattha tad±yattavuttit±ya paccayuppanno paccaya½ paccaya½ karot²ti imassatthassa vasena upayogavacana½ daµµhabba½. Vatthu½ khandhe vippayuttapaccayakaraŗatoti ayańhettha attho. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana “vatthu½ paµicca vippayuttapaccay±, vatthun± vippayuttapaccayata½ s±dhenten±”ti attho vutto, tattha kusal±na½ khandh±na½ vatthu½ paµicca uppatti natth²ti “vatthu½ paµicc±”ti na sakk± vattunti, ida½ pana paµiccasaddena ayojetv± “paµicca uppajjanti vatthu½ vippayuttapaccay±”ti yojetv± tassattho “vatthun± vippayuttapaccayata½ s±dhenten±”ti vuttoti daµµhabbo. Ki½ pana paµicc±ti? Ya½ “eka½ khandhan”ti-±dika½ p±¼iya½ paµicc±ti vutta½. Tameva attha½ p±kaµa½ katv± “vatthu½ vippayuttapaccay±ti khandhe paµicca khandh±, vatthun± vippayuttapaccayata½ s±dhenten±”ti paµhanti. Anantaratt± p±kaµassa aby±katacittasamuµµh±nasseva gahaŗa½ m± hot³ti “aby±katacittasamuµµh±nampi kusal±kusalacittasamuµµh±namp²”ti ±ha. ¾sannampi d³rampi sabbanti vutta½ hot²ti.
71-72. “Ime v²sati paccay±ti sa½khipitv± dassit±na½ vaseneta½ vuttan”ti vutta½. Tattha yadi ekenapi desana½ sa½khitta½ sa½khittameva, ±dimhi pana tayo paccay± vippayuttapaccayo ekampi pada½ aparih±petv± vitth±rit±ti te catt±ro pacch±j±tańca vajjetv± “ime ek³nav²sati paccay±”ti vattabba½ siy±. Ettak± hi sa½khipitv± dassit±ti. Ye pana p±¼iya½ vitth±rita½ avitth±ritańca sabba½ saŖgahetv± vuttanti vadanti, tesa½ “ime tev²sati paccay±”ti p±µhena bhavitabba½. ¾dimhi pana tayo paccaye vitth±rite vajjetv± yato pabhuti saŖkhepo ±raddho, tato catutthato pabhuti sa½khitta½ vitth±ritańca saha gahetv± “ime tev²sati paccay±”ti vuttanti daµµhabba½.

VibhaŖgav±ravaŗŗan± niµµhit±.