2. ¾yatanavibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±

152. Visesatoti ±yatana-saddattho viya as±dh±raºato cakkh±disaddatthatoti attho. Ass±det²ti cakkhati-saddo “madhu½ cakkhati byañjana½ cakkhat²”ti rasas±yanattho atth²ti tassa vasena attha½ vadati. “Cakkhu½ kho, m±gaº¹iya, r³p±r±ma½ r³parata½ r³pasammuditan”ti (ma. ni. 2.209) vacanato cakkhu r³pa½ ass±deti. Satipi sot±d²na½ sadd±rammaº±diratibh±ve niru¼hatt± cakkhumhiyeva cakkhu-saddo pavattati padum±d²su paªkaj±disadd± viy±ti daµµhabba½. Vibh±veti c±ti saddalakkhaºasiddhassa cakkhati-saddassa vasena attha½ vadati. Cakkhat²ti hi ±cikkhati, abhibyatta½ vadat²ti attho. Nayanassa ca vadantassa viya samavisamavibh±vanameva ±cikkhananti katv± ±ha “vibh±veti c±ti attho”ti. Anekatthatt± v± dh±t³na½ vibh±vanatthat± cakkhu-saddassa daµµhabb±. Rattaduµµh±dik±lesu kakaºµakar³pa½ viya uddar³pa½ viya ca vaººavik±ra½ ±pajjam±na½ r³pa½ hadayaªgatabh±va½ r³payati r³pamiva pak±sa½ karoti, saviggahamiva katv± dasset²ti attho. Vitth±raºa½ v± r³pa-saddassa attho, vitth±raºañca pak±sanamev±ti ±ha “pak±set²”ti. Anekatthatt± v± dh±t³na½ pak±sanatthoyeva r³pa-saddo daµµhabbo, vaººav±cakassa r³pa-saddassa r³payat²ti nibbacana½, r³pav±cakassa ruppat²ti aya½ viseso.
Ud±har²yat²ti vuccat²ti-atthe vacanameva gahita½ siy±, na ca vacana-saddoyeva ettha saddo, atha kho sabbopi sotaviññeyyoti sappat²ti sakehi paccayehi sapp²yati sotaviññeyyabh±va½ gam²yat²ti attho. S³cayat²ti attano vatthu½ gandhavasena ap±kaµa½ “ida½ sugandha½ duggandhan”ti pak±seti, paµicchanna½ v± pupph±divatthu½ “ettha puppha½ atthi campak±di, phalamatthi amb±d²”ti pesuñña½ karonta½ viya hot²ti attho. Rasaggahaºam³lakatt± ±h±rajjhoharaºassa j²vitahetumhi ±h±rarase ninnat±ya j²vita½ avh±yat²ti jivh± vutt± niruttilakkhaºena. Kucchit±na½ s±savadhamm±na½ ±yoti visesena k±yo vutto anuttariyahetubh±va½ an±gacchantesu k±mar±ganid±nakammajanitesu k±mar±gassa ca visesapaccayesu gh±najivh±k±yesu k±yassa visesataras±savapaccayatt±. Tena hi phoµµhabba½ ass±dent± satt± methunampi sevanti. Uppattidesoti uppattik±raºanti attho. K±yindriyavatthuk± v± catt±ro khandh± balavak±m±sav±dihetubh±vato visesena “s±sav±”ti vutt±, tesa½ uppajjanaµµh±nanti attho. Attano lakkhaºa½ dh±rayant²ti ye visesalakkhaºena ±yatanasaddapar± vattabb±, te cakkh±dayo tath± vutt±ti aññe manogocarabh³t± dhamm± s±maññalakkhaºeneva ek±yatanatta½ upanetv± vutt±. O¼±rikavatth±rammaºamananasaªkh±tehi visayavisayibh±vehi purim±ni p±kaµ±n²ti tath± ap±kaµ± ca aññe manogocar± na attano sabh±va½ na dh±rent²ti imassatthassa d²panattho dhamma-saddoti.
V±yamant²ti attano kicca½ karonticceva attho. Imasmiñca atthe ±yatanti etth±ti ±yatananti adhikaraºattho ±yatana-saddo, dutiyatatiyesu kattu-attho. Te c±ti cittacetasikadhamme. Te hi ta½ta½dv±r±rammaºesu ±yanti ±gacchanti pavattant²ti ±y±ti. Vitth±rent²ti pubbe anuppannatt± l²n±ni ap±kaµ±ni pubbantato uddha½ pas±renti p±kaµ±ni karonti upp±dent²ti attho.
Ru¼h²vasena ±yatana-saddassattha½ vattu½ “apic±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Ta½ nissitatt±ti ettha mano manoviññ±º±d²na½ cittacetasik±na½ nissayapaccayo na hot²ti tassa nesa½ dv±rabh±vo nissayabh±voti daµµhabbo. Atthatoti vacanatthato, na vacan²yatthato. Vacanattho hettha vutto “cakkhat²”ti-±din±, na vacan²yattho “ya½ cakkhu catunna½ mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±ya pas±do”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 597) viy±ti.
T±vatvatoti an³n±dhikabh±va½ dasseti. Tattha dv±das±yatanavinimuttassa kassaci dhammassa abh±v± adhikabh±vato codan± natthi, salakkhaºadh±raºa½ pana sabbesa½ s±maññalakkhaºanti ³nacodan± sambhavat²ti dassento ±ha “cakkh±dayopi h²”ti-±di. As±dh±raºanti cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ as±dh±raºa½. Satipi as±dh±raº±rammaºabh±ve cakkh±d²na½ dv±rabh±vena gahitatt± dhamm±yatane aggahaºa½ daµµhabba½. Dv±r±rammaºabh±vehi v± as±dh±raºata½ sandh±ya “as±dh±raºan”ti vutta½.
Yebhuyyasahuppatti-±d²hi uppattikkam±di-ayutti yojetabb±. Ajjhattikesu h²ti etena ajjhattikabh±vena visayibh±vena ca ajjhattik±na½ paµhama½ desetabbata½ dasseti. Tesu hi paµhama½ desetabbesu p±kaµatt± paµhamatara½ cakkh±yatana½ desitanti. Tato gh±n±yatan±d²n²ti ettha bah³pak±ratt±bh±vena cakkhusotehi purimatara½ adesetabb±ni saha vattu½ asakkuºeyyatt± ekena kamena desetabb±n²ti gh±n±dikkamena desit±n²ti adhipp±yo. Aññath±pi hi desitesu na na sakk± codetu½, na ca sakk± sodhetabb±ni na desetunti. Gocaro visayo etass±ti gocaravisayo, mano. Kassa pana gocaro etassa visayoti? Cakkh±d²na½ pañcannampi. Viññ±ºuppattik±raºavavatth±natoti etena ca cakkh±di-anantara½ r³p±divacanassa k±raºam±ha.
Paccayabhedo kamm±dibhedo. Niray±diko apad±digatin±n±karaºañca gatibhedo. Hatthi-ass±diko khattiy±diko ca nik±yabhedo. Ta½ta½sattasant±nabhedo puggalabhedo. Y± ca cakkh±d²na½ vatth³na½ anantabhedat± vutt±, soyeva hadayavatthussa ca bhedo hoti. Tato man±yatanassa anantappabhedat± yojetabb± dukkh±paµipad±dito ±rammaº±dhipati-±dibhedato ca. Imasmi½ suttantabh±jan²ye vipassan± vutt±ti vipassanupagamanañca viññ±ºa½ gahetv± ek±s²tibhedat± man±yatanassa vutt± niddesavasena. N²la½ n²lasseva sabh±ga½, añña½ visabh±ga½, eva½ kusalasamuµµh±n±dibhedesu yojetabba½. Tebh³makadhamm±rammaºavasen±ti pubbe vutta½ cakkh±divajja½ dhamm±rammaºa½ sandh±ya vutta½.
Saparipphandakiriy±vasena ²hana½ ²h±. Cintanavasena by±p±rakaraºa½ by±p±ro. Tattha by±p±ra½ dassento ±ha “na hi cakkhu r³p±d²na½ eva½ hot²”ti. ¿ha½ dassento ±ha “na ca t±n²”ti-±di. Ubhayampi pana ²h± ca hoti by±p±ro c±ti uppaµip±µivacana½. Dhammat±v±ti sabh±vova, k±raºasamatthat± v±. ¿h±by±p±rarahit±na½ dv±r±dibh±vo dhammat±. Imasmiñca atthe yanti etassa yasm±ti attho. Purimasmi½ sambhavanavisesana½ ya½-saddo. “Suñño g±moti kho, bhikkhave, channeta½ ajjhattik±na½ ±yatan±na½ adhivacanan”ti (sa½. ni. 4.238) vacanato suññag±mo viya daµµhabb±ni. Annap±nasamohitanti gahite suññag±me yaññadeva bh±jana½ par±mas²yati, ta½ ta½ rittaka½yeva par±mas²yati, eva½ dhuv±dibh±vena gahit±ni upaparikkhiyam±n±ni rittak±neva et±ni dissant²ti. Cakkh±didv±resu abhijjh±domanassupp±dakabh±vena r³p±d²ni cakkh±d²na½ abhigh±tak±n²ti vutt±ni. Ahisusum±rapakkhikukkurasiªg±lamakkaµ± cha p±ºak±. Visamabil±k±sag±masus±navan±ni tesa½ gocar±. Tattha visam±di-ajjh±sayehi cakkh±d²hi visamabh±vabil±k±sag±masus±nasannissitasadisup±dinnadhammavanabh±vehi abhiramitatt± r³p±d²nampi visam±disadisat± yojetabb±.
Hutv± abh±vaµµhen±ti ida½ itaresa½ catunna½ ±k±r±na½ saªgahakatt± visu½ vutta½. Hutv± abh±v±k±ro eva hi upp±davayatt±k±r±dayoti. Tattha hutv±ti etena purimantavivittat±pubbaka½ majjhe vijjam±nata½ dasseti, ta½ vatv± abh±vavacanena majjhe vijjam±nat±pubbaka½, aparante avijjam±nata½, ubhayenapi sad± abh±vo aniccalakkhaºanti dasseti. Sabh±vavijahana½ vipariº±mo, jar±bhaªgehi v± parivattana½, sant±navik±r±patti v±. Sad± abh±vepi ciraµµh±na½ siy±ti ta½niv±raºattha½ “t±vak±likato”ti ±ha. Upp±davayaññathattarahita½ nicca½, na itarath±ti niccapaµikkhepato anicca½, niccapaµipakkhatoti adhipp±yo.
J±tidhammat±d²hi aniµµhat± paµip²¼ana½. Paµip²¼anaµµhen±ti ca yassa ta½ pavattati, ta½ puggala½ paµip²¼anato, saya½ v± jar±d²hi paµip²¼anatt±ti attho. Parittaµµhitikassapi attano vijjam±nakkhaºe upp±d±d²hi abhiºha½ sampaµip²¼anatt± “abhiºhasampaµip²¼anato”ti purima½ s±maññalakkhaºa½ visesetv± vadati, puggalassa p²¼anato dukkhama½. Sukhapaµipakkhabh±vato dukkha½ sukha½ paµikkhipati niv±reti, dukkhavacana½ v± atthato sukha½ paµikkhipat²ti ±ha “sukhapaµikkhepato”ti.
Natthi etassa vasavattanako, n±pi ida½ vasavattanakanti avasavattanaka½, attano parasmi½ parassa ca attani vasavattanabh±vo v± vasavattanaka½, ta½ etassa natth²ti avasavattanaka½, avasavattanakassa avasavattanako v± attho sabh±vo avasavattanakaµµho, idañca s±maññalakkhaºa½. Ten±ti parassa attani vasavattan±k±rena suñña½. Imasmiñca atthe suññatoti etasseva visesana½ “ass±mikato”ti. Atha v± “yasm± v± eta½…pe… m± p±puº±t³”ti eva½ cintayam±nassa kassaci t²su µh±nesu vasavattanabh±vo natthi, suñña½ ta½ tena attanoyeva vasavattan±k±ren±ti attho. Na ida½ kassaci k±mak±riya½, n±pi etassa kiñci k±mak±riya½ atth²ti ak±mak±riya½. Etena avasavattanattha½ visesetv± dasseti.
Vibhavagati vin±sagamana½. Santatiya½ bhavantaruppattiyeva bhavasaªkantigamana½. Santatiy± yath±pavatt±k±ravijahana½ pakatibh±vavijahana½. “Cakkhu aniccan”ti vutte cakkhu-anicca-sadd±na½ ekatthatt± anicc±na½ sesadhamm±nampi cakkhubh±vo ±pajjat²ti etiss± codan±ya niv±raºattha½ visesas±maññalakkhaºav±cak±nañca sadd±na½ ekadesasamud±yabodhanavisesa½ d²petu½ “apic±”ti-±dim±ha.
Ki½ dassitanti vipassan±c±ra½ kathentena ki½ lakkhaºa½ dassitanti adhipp±yo. “Katam± c±nanda, anattasaññ±? Idh±nanda, bhikkhu araññagato v± rukkham³lagato v± suññ±g±ragato v± iti paµisañcikkhati ‘cakkhu anatt±’ti…pe… ‘dhamm± anatt±’ti. Iti imesu chasu ajjhattikab±hiresu ±yatanesu anatt±nupass² viharat²”ti (a. ni. 10.60) avisesesu ±yatanesu anatt±nupassan± vutt±ti k±raºabh³t±na½ cakkh±d²na½, phalabh³t±nañca cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ k±raºaphalamattat±ya anattat±ya anattalakkhaºavibh±vanatth±ya ±yatanadesan±ti ±ha “dv±dasanna½…pe… anattalakkhaºan”ti. Yadipi aniccadukkhalakkhaº±ni ettha dassit±ni, tehi ca anattalakkhaºameva visesena dassitanti adhipp±yo. Veti c±ti ettha iti-saddo sam±panattho. Iccass±ti ettha iti-saddo yath±sam±pitassa ±ropetabbadosassa nidassanattho. Evanti “cakkhu att±”ti eva½ v±de sat²ti attho. Iccass±ti v± iti-saddo “iti vadantass±”ti parav±dissa dosalakkhaº±k±ranidassanattho. Evanti dosagamanappak±ranidassanattho. R³pe attani “eva½ me r³pa½ hot³”ti attaniye viya s±miniddes±patt²ti ce? Na, “mama att±”ti gahitatt±. “Mama att±”ti hi gahita½ r³pa½ vasavattit±ya “eva½ me hot³”ti icchiyam±nañca tatheva bhaveyya, icchatopi hi tassa r³pasaªkh±to att± avasavatti c±ti. ¾b±dh±y±ti eva½ dukkhena. Paññ±pananti paresa½ ñ±pana½. Anattalakkhaºapaññ±panassa aññesa½ avisayatt± anattalakkhaºad²pak±na½ aniccadukkhalakkhaº±nañca paññ±panassa avisayat± dassit± hoti.
Eva½ pana duppaññ±panat± etesa½ dur³paµµh±nat±ya hot²ti tesa½ anupaµµhahanak±raºa½ pucchanto ±ha “im±ni pan±”ti-±di. Ýh±n±d²su nirantara½ pavattam±nassa heµµh± vuttassa abhiºhasampaµip²¼anassa. Dh±tumattat±ya cakkh±d²na½ sam³hato vinibbhujjana½ n±n±dh±tuvinibbhogo. Ghanen±ti catt±ripi ghan±ni ghanabh±vena ekatta½ upanetv± vadati. Paññ±yeva santativikopan±ti daµµhabba½. Y±th±vasarasatoti avipar²tasabh±vato. Sabh±vo hi rasiyam±no aviraddhapaµivedhena ass±diyam±no “raso”ti vuccati. Anicc±d²hi aniccalakkhaº±d²na½ aññattha vacana½ ruppan±divasena pavattar³p±diggahaºato visiµµhassa anicc±diggahaºassa sabbh±v±. Na hi n±mar³paparicchedamattena kiccasiddhi hoti, anicc±dayo ca r³p±d²na½ ±k±r± daµµhabb±. Te pan±k±r± paramatthato avijjam±n± r³p±d²na½ ±k±ramatt±yev±ti katv± aµµhas±liniya½ (dha. sa. aµµha. 350) lakkhaº±rammaºikavipassan±ya khandh±rammaºat± vutt±ti adhipp±yamatte µh±tu½ yutta½, n±tidh±vitu½. “Aniccan”ti ca gaºhanto “dukkha½ anatt±”ti na gaºh±ti, tath± dukkh±diggahaºe itarass±gahaºa½. Anicc±diggahaº±ni ca niccasaññ±dinivattanak±ni saddh±sam±dhipaññindriy±dhik±ni tividhavimokkhamukhabh³t±ni. Tasm± etesa½ ±k±r±na½ pariggayham±n±na½ aññamañña½ viseso ca atth²ti t²ºi lakkhaº±ni vutt±ni.

Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan± niµµhit±.