Saªkh±rapadaniddesavaººan±

Pun±t²ti sodheti apuññaphalato dukkhasa½kilesato ca, hitasukhajjh±sayena puñña½ karot²ti ta½nipph±danena k±rakassajjh±saya½ p³ret²ti puñño, p³rako pujjanibbattako ca niruttilakkhaºena “puñño”ti veditabbo. Sam±dhipaccan²k±na½ atid³rat±ya na iñjati na calat²ti attho. K±yass±ti dv±rassa s±mibh±vena niddeso kato.
Puññupaganti bhavasampattupaga½. Tatth±ti vibhaªgasutte (sa½. ni. 2.2). Tañhi padh±nabh±vena gahitanti. Samm±diµµhisutte (ma. ni. 1.102) pana “tayome, ±vuso, saªkh±r±”ti ±gatanti. Sabbaññujinabh±sito pana aya½, na paccekajinabh±sito, imassatthassa d²panattha½ etesa½ sutt±na½ vasena te gahit±. Katha½ panetena gahaºen±yamattho d²pito hot²ti ta½dassanattham±ha “abhidhammepi hi suttepi ekasadis±va tanti niddiµµh±”ti. Sabbaññubh±sitoti p±kaµena suttantena sadisatt± ayampi sabbaññubh±sitoti ñ±yat²ti vutta½ hot²ti.
“Teras±p²”ti vutta½, tattha ñ±ºavippayutt±na½ na bh±van±mayat± p±kaµ±ti “yath± h²”ti-±dim±ha Pathav² pathav²ti-±dibh±van± ca kasiºaparikammakaraºa½ maº¹alakaraºañca bh±vana½ bhaj±penti.
D±navasena pavatt± cittacetasik± dhamm± d±na½. Tattha by±p±rabh³t± ±y³hanacetan± d±na½ ±rabbha d±na½ adhikicca uppajjat²ti vuccati, eva½ itaresu. Somanassacitten±ti anumodan±pavattinidassanamattameta½ daµµhabba½. Upekkh±sahagatenapi hi anussarati ev±ti.
Asarikkhakampi sarikkhakena catutthajjh±navip±kena vehapphal±d²su vin±pi asaññesu kaµatt±r³pa½. R³pameva saphandanatt± “sa-iñjanan”ti vutta½ iñjanakaran²varaº±d²na½ avikkhambhanato, r³pataºh±saªkh±tassa iñjanakassa k±raºatt± v±. Teneva r³p±rammaºa½ nimitt±rammaºañca sabbampi catutthajjh±na½ nippariy±yena “aniñjanan”ti na vuccat²ti. Mah±tul±ya dh±rayam±no n±¼iy± minam±no ca samud±yameva dh±reti minati ca, na ekeka½ guñja½, ekeka½ taº¹ula½ v±, eva½ bhagav±pi aparim±º± paµhamakusalacetan±yo samud±yavaseneva gahetv± ekaj±tikatt± ekameva katv± dasseti. Eva½ dutiy±dayop²ti.
“K±yadv±re pavatt±”ti avatv± “±d±naggahaºacopana½ p±payam±n± uppann±”tipi vattu½ vaµµat²ti vacanavisesamattameva dasseti. K±yadv±re pavatti eva hi ±d±n±dip±pan±ti. Purimena v± dv±rassa upalakkhaºabh±vo vutto, pacchimena cetan±ya saviññattir³pasamuµµh±pana½. Tattha ±ka¹¹hitv± gahaºa½ ±d±na½, sampayuttassa gahaºa½ gahaºa½, phandana½ copana½.
Etth±ti k±yavac²saªkh±raggahaºe, k±yavac²sañcetan±gahaºe v±. Aµµhakath±ya½ abhiññ±cetan± na gahit± viññ±ºassa paccayo na hot²ti. Kasm± pana na hoti, nanu s±pi kusal± vip±kadhamm± c±ti? Sacca½, anupacchinnataºh±vijj±m±ne pana sant±ne saby±p±rappavattiy± tass± kusalat± vip±kadhammat± ca vutt±, na vip±kupp±danena, s± pana vip±ka½ upp±dayant² r³p±vacarameva upp±deyya. Na hi aññabh³mika½ kamma½ aññabh³mika½ vip±ka½ upp±det²ti. Attan± sadis±rammaºañca tiµµh±nika½ ta½ upp±deyya cittupp±dakaº¹e r³p±vacaravip±kassa kammasadis±rammaºasseva vuttatt±, na ca r³p±vacaravip±ko paritt±di-±rammaºo atthi, abhiññ±cetan± ca paritt±di-±rammaº±va hoti, tasm± vip±ka½ na upp±det²ti viññ±yati. Kasiºesu ca upp±ditassa catutthajjh±nasam±dhissa ±nisa½sabh³t± abhiññ±. Yath±ha “so eva½ sam±hite citte”ti-±di (d². ni. 1.244-245; ma. ni. 1.384-386). Tasm± sam±dhiphalasadis± s±, na ca phala½ det²ti d±nas²l±nisa½so tasmi½ bhave paccayal±bho viya s±pi vip±ka½ na upp±deti. Yath± ca abhiññ±cetan±, eva½ uddhaccacetan±pi na hot²ti ida½ uddhaccasahagate dhamme visu½ uddharitv± “tesa½ vip±ke ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±”ti (vibha. 725) vuttatt± vic±retabba½.
Aya½ panettha amataggapath±nugato vinicchayo– dassanabh±van±na½ abh±vepi yesa½ puthujjan±na½ sekkh±nañca dassanabh±van±hi bhavitabba½, tesa½ taduppattik±le tehi pah±tu½ sakkuºeyy± akusal± “dassanena pah±tabb± bh±van±ya pah±tabb±”ti ca vuccanti, puthujjan±na½ pana bh±van±ya abh±v± bh±van±ya pah±tabbacint± natthi. Tena tesa½ pavattam±n± te dassanena pah±tu½ asakkuºeyy±pi “bh±van±ya pah±tabb±”ti na vuccanti. Yadi vucceyyu½, dassanena pah±tabb± bh±van±ya pah±tabb±na½ kesañci keci kad±ci ±rammaº±rammaº±dhipati-upanissayapaccayehi paccayo bhaveyyu½, na ca paµµh±ne “dassanena pah±tabb± bh±van±ya pah±tabb±na½ kesañci kenaci paccayena paccayo”ti vutt±. Sekkh±na½ pana vijjam±n± bh±van±ya pah±tu½ sakkuºeyy± bh±van±ya pah±tabb±. Teneva sekkh±na½ dassanena pah±tabb± cattatt± vantatt± muttatt± pah²natt± paµinissaµµhatt± ukkheµitatt± samukkheµitatt± ass±ditabb± abhinanditabb± ca na honti, pah²nat±ya eva somanassahetubh³t± avikkhepahetubh³t± ca na domanassa½ uddhaccañca upp±dent²ti na te tesa½ ±rammaº±rammaº±dhipatibh±va½ pakat³panissayabh±vañca gacchanti. Na hi pah²ne upaniss±ya ariyo r±g±dikilese upp±deti.
Vuttañca “sot±pattimaggena ye kiles± pah²n±, te kilese na puneti na pacceti na pacc±gacchati…pe… arahattamaggena…pe… na pacc±gacchat²”ti (mah±ni. 80; c³¼ani. mettag³m±ºavapucch±niddesa 27), na ca puthujjan±na½ dassanena pah±tu½ sakkuºeyy± itaresa½ na kenaci paccayena paccayo hont²ti sakk± vattu½ “diµµhi½ ass±deti abhinandati, ta½ ±rabbha r±go uppajjati, diµµhi vicikicch± uddhacca½ uppajjati. Vicikiccha½ ±rabbha vicikicch± diµµhi uddhacca½ uppajjat²”ti diµµhivicikicch±na½ uddhacc±rammaºapaccayabh±vassa vuttatt±. Ettha hi uddhaccanti uddhaccasahagata½ cittupp±da½ sandh±ya vutta½. Evañca katv± adhipatipaccayaniddese “diµµhi½ garu½ katv± ass±deti abhinandati, ta½ garu½ katv± r±go uppajjati, diµµhi uppajjat²”ti (paµµh±. 1.1.409) ettakameva vutta½, na vutta½ “uddhacca½ uppajjat²”ti. Tasm± dassanabh±van±hi pah±tabb±na½ at²t±dibh±vena navattabbattepi y±dis±na½ t±hi anuppattidhammat± ±p±detabb±, tesu puthujjanesu vattam±n± dassana½ apekkhitv± tena pah±tu½ sakkuºeyy± dassanena pah±tabb±, sekkhesu vattam±n± bh±vana½ apekkhitv± t±ya pah±tu½ sakkuºeyy± bh±van±ya pah±tabb±. Tesu bh±van±ya pah±tabb± sah±yavirah± vip±ka½ na janayant²ti bh±van±ya pah±tabbacetan±ya n±n±kkhaºikakammapaccayabh±vo na vutto, apekkhitabbadassanabh±van±rahit±na½ pana puthujjanesu uppajjam±n±na½ sakabhaº¹e chandar±g±d²na½ uddhaccasahagatacittupp±dassa ca sa½yojanattayatadekaµµhakiles±na½ anupacchinnat±ya aparikkh²ºasah±y±na½ vip±kupp±dana½ na sakk± paµikkhipitunti uddhaccasahagatadhamm±na½ vip±ko vibhaªge vuttoti.
Yadi eva½, apekkhitabbadassanabh±van±rahit±na½ akusal±na½ nevadassanenanabh±van±yapah±tabbat± ±pajjat²ti? N±pajjati, appah±tabb±na½ “neva dassanena na bh±van±ya pah±tabb±”ti (dha. sa. tikam±tik± 8) vuttatt±, appah±tabbaviruddhasabh±vatt± ca akusal±na½. Evampi tesa½ imasmi½ tike navattabbat± ±pajjat²ti? N±pajjati cittupp±dakaº¹e dassit±na½ dv±dasa-akusalacittupp±d±na½ dv²hi padehi saªgahitatt±. Yath± hi dhammavasena saªkhatadhamm± sabbe saªgahit±ti uppannattike k±lavasena asaªgahit±pi at²t± navattabb±ti na vutt± cittupp±dar³pabh±vena gahitesu navattabbassa abh±v±, evamidh±pi cittupp±dabh±vena gahitesu navattabbassa abh±v± navattabbat± na vutt±ti veditabb±. Yattha hi cittupp±do koci niyogato navattabbo atthi, tattha tesa½ catuttho koµµh±so atth²ti yath±vuttapadesu viya tatth±pi bhinditv± bhaj±petabbe cittupp±de bhinditv± bhaj±peti “siy± navattabb± paritt±rammaº±”ti-±din±. Tadabh±v± uppannattike idha ca tath± na vutt±.
Atha v± yath± sappaµighehi sam±nasabh±vatt± r³padh±tuya½ tayo mah±bh³t± “sappaµigh±”ti vutt±. Yath±ha “asaññasatt±na½ anidassana½ sappaµigha½ eka½ mah±bh³ta½ paµicca dve mah±bh³t±, dve mah±bh³te paµicca eka½ mah±bh³tan”ti (paµµh±. 2.22.9). Eva½ puthujjan±na½ pavattam±n± bh±van±ya pah±tabbasam±nasabh±v± “bh±van±ya pah±tabb±”ti vucceyyunti natthi navattabbat±pasaªgo. Evañca sati puthujjan±na½ pavattam±n±pi bh±van±ya pah±tabb± sakabhaº¹e chandar±g±dayo parabhaº¹e chandar±g±d²na½ upanissayapaccayo, r±go ca r±gadiµµh²na½ adhipatipaccayoti ayamattho laddho hoti. Yath± pana aphoµµhabbatt± r³padh±tuya½ tayo mah±bh³t± na paramatthato sappaµigh±, eva½ apekkhitabbabh±van±rahit± puthujjanesu pavattam±n± sakabhaº¹e chandar±g±dayo na paramatthato bh±van±ya pah±tabb±ti bh±van±ya pah±tabb±na½ n±n±kkhaºikakammapaccayat± na vutt±, na ca “dassanena pah±tabb± bh±van±ya pah±tabb±na½ kenaci paccayena paccayo”ti vutt±. Ye hi dassanena pah±tabbapaccay± kiles±, na te dassanato uddha½ pavattanti, dassanena pah±tabbapaccayassapi pana uddhaccasahagatassa sah±yavekallamattameva dassanena kata½, na tassa koci bh±vo dassanena anuppattidhammata½ ±p±ditoti tassa ekantabh±van±ya pah±tabbat± vutt±. Tasm± tassa t±disasseva sati sah±ye vip±kupp±danavacana½, asati ca vip±k±nupp±danavacana½ na virujjhat²ti.
S±pi viññ±ºapaccayabh±ve yadi apanetabb±, kasm± “samav²sati cetan±”ti vuttanti tassa k±raºa½ dassento ±ha “avijj±paccay± pana sabb±pet± hont²”ti. Yadi eva½, abhiññ±cetan±ya saha “ekav²sat²”ti vattabbanti? Na, avacanassa vuttak±raºatt±, ta½ pana itar±vacanassapi k±raºanti sam±nacetan±vacanak±raºavacanena ya½ k±raºa½ apekkhitv± ek± vutt±, tena k±raºena itar±yapi vattabbata½, yañca k±raºa½ apekkhitv± itar± na vutt±, tena k±raºena vutt±yapi avattabbata½ dasseti. ¾neñj±bhisaªkh±ro cittasaªkh±ro ev±ti bhed±bh±v± p±kaµoti na tassa sa½yogo dassito.
Sukhasaññ±ya gahetv±ti etena taºh±pavatti½ dasseti. Taºh±parikkh±reti taºh±ya pariv±re, taºh±ya “sukha½ subhan”ti-±din± saªkhate v± alaªkateti attho. Taºh± hi dukkhassa samudayoti aj±nanto “aho vat±ha½ k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± khattiyamah±s±l±na½ v± sahabyata½ upapajjeyyan”ti saªkh±re parikkharot²ti. Amaraºatth±ti gahit± dukkarakiriy± amaratapo, devabh±vattha½ tapo v±, dukkhatt± v± maro m±rako tapo amaratapo. Diµµhe adiµµha-saddo viya maresu amara-saddo daµµhabbo.
J±ti-±dipap±tadukkhajananato marupap±tasadisat± puññ±bhisaªkh±rassa vutt±. Ramaº²yabh±vena ca ass±dabh±vena ca gayham±na½ puññaphala½ d²pasikh±madhulittasatthadh±r±sadisa½, tadattho ca puññ±bhisaªkh±ro ta½nip±talehanasadiso.
“Sukho imiss± paribb±jik±ya taruº±ya muduk±ya lomas±ya b±h±ya samphasso”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.469) sukhasaññ±ya b±lo viya g³thak²¼ana½ kiles±bhibh³tat±ya kodh±rati-abhibh³to asavaso marituk±mo viya visakh±dana½ karaºaphalakkhaºesu jigucchan²ya½ dukkhañca apuññ±bhisaªkh±ra½ ±rabhati. Lobhasahagatassa v± g³thak²¼anasadisat±, dosasahagatassa visakh±danasadisat± yojetabb±. K±maguºasamiddhiy± sabhayassapi pis±canagarassa sukhavipall±sahetubh±vo viya ar³pavip±k±na½ nirantarat±ya anupalakkhiyam±na-upp±davay±na½, d²ghasant±nat±ya agayham±navipariº±m±na½, saªkh±ravipariº±madukkhabh³t±nampi nicc±divipall±sahetubh±voti tesa½ pis±canagarasadisat±, tadabhimukhagamanasadisat± ca ±neñj±bhisaªkh±rassa yojetabb±.
T±v±ti vattabbantar±pekkho nip±to, tasm± avijj± saªkh±r±na½ paccayoti ida½ t±va siddha½, ida½ pana apara½ vattabbanti attho. Avijj±paccay± pana sabb±pet± hont²ti vuttanti abhiññ±cetan±na½ paccayabh±va½ dasseti. Cetopariyapubbeniv±sa-an±gata½sañ±ºehi paresa½ attano ca samohacittaj±nanak±leti yojetabb±.
Avijj±samm³¼hatt±ti bhav±d²navapaµicch±dik±ya avijj±ya samm³¼hatt±. R±g±d²nanti r±gadiµµhivicikicchuddhaccadomanass±na½ avijj±sampayuttar±g±di-ass±danak±lesu avijja½ ±rabbha uppatti veditabb±. Garu½ katv± ass±dana½ r±gadiµµhisampayutt±ya eva avijj±ya yojetabba½, ass±danañca r±go, tadavippayutt± ca diµµh²ti ass±danavacaneneva yath±vutta½ avijja½ garu½ karont² diµµhi ca vutt±ti veditabb±. R±g±d²hi ca p±¼iya½ sar³pena vuttehi ta½sampayuttasaªkh±rassa avijj±rammaº±dita½ dasseti. Anavijj±rammaºassa paµhamajavanassa ±rammaº±dhipati-anantar±dipaccayavacanesu avuttassa vuttassa ca sabbassa saªgaºhanattha½ “ya½ kiñc²”ti ±ha. Vuttanayen±ti samatikkamabhavapatthan±vasena vuttanayena.
Ekak±raºav±do ±pajjat²ti dosappasaªgo vutto. Aniµµho hi ekak±raºav±do sabbassa sabbak±le sambhav±pattito ekasadisasabh±v±pattito ca. Yasm± t²su pak±resu avijjam±nesu p±risesena catutthe eva ca vijjam±ne ekahetuphalad²pane attho atthi, tasm± na nupapajjati.
Yath±phassa½ vedan±vavatth±natoti “sukhavedan²ya½, bhikkhave, phassa½ paµicca uppajjati sukh± vedan±”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 2.62), “cakkhuñca paµicca…pe… tiººa½ saªgati phasso, phassapaccay± vedan±”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 2.43) ca sukhavedan²y±dicakkhusamphass±di-anur³pena sukhavedan±dicakkhusamphassaj±vedan±d²na½ vavatth±nato, sam±nesu cakkhur³p±d²su phassavasena sukh±divipariy±y±bh±vato, sam±nesu ca r³pamanasik±r±d²su cakkh±disaªghaµµanavasena cakkhusamphassaj±divipariy±y±bh±vato, aññapaccayas±maññepi phassavasena sukh±dicakkhusamphassaj±d²na½ o¼±rikasukhum±disaªkar±bh±vato c±ti attho. Sukh±d²na½ yath±vuttasamphassassa avipar²to paccayabh±vo eva yath±vedana½ phassavavatth±na½, k±raºaphalavisesena v± phalak±raºavisesanicchayo hot²ti ubhayatth±pi nicchayo vavatth±nanti vutto. Kamm±dayoti kamm±h±ra-utu-±dayo ap±kaµ± semhapaµik±rena rogav³pasamato.
“Ass±d±nupassino taºh± pava¹¹hat²”ti vacanatoti “sa½yojan²yesu, bhikkhave, dhammesu ass±d±nupassino viharato taºh± pava¹¹hati, taºh±paccay± up±d±na½, up±d±napaccay± bhavo”ti (sa½. ni. 2.53-54) imin± suttena taºh±ya saªkh±rak±raºabh±vassa vuttatt±ti attho. Puna tass±pi avijj± k±raºanti dassanattha½ “avijj±samuday± ±savasamudayoti vacanato”ti ±ha. Taºh± v± caturup±d±nabh³t± k±mabhavadiµµh±sav± ca saªkh±rassa k±raºanti p±kaµ±ti suttadvayenapi avijj±ya saªkh±rak±raºabh±vameva dasseti. Ass±d±nupassinoti hi vacanena ±d²navapaµicch±danakicc± avijj± taºh±ya k±raºanti dassit± hot²ti. Yasm± avidv±, tasm± puññ±bhisaªkh±r±dike abhisaªkharot²ti avijj±ya saªkh±rak±raºabh±vassa p±kaµatt± aviddasubh±vo saªkh±rak±raºabh±vena vutto kh²º±savassa saªkh±r±bh±vato as±dh±raºatt± ca. Puññ±bhisaªkh±r±d²na½ s±dh±raº±ni vatth±rammaº±d²n²ti puññabhav±di-±d²navapaµicch±dik± avijj± puññ±bhisaªkh±r±d²na½ as±dh±raºa½ k±raºanti v± attho daµµhabbo. Ýh±naviruddhoti atthit±viruddho. Keci pana “paµisandhi-±d²ni µh±n±n²”ti vadanti, eva½ sati purimacitta½ pacchimacittassa µh±naviruddho paccayoti na ida½ ekantika½ siy±. Bhavaªgampi hi bhavaªgassa anantarapaccayo, javana½ javanass±ti, na ca sipp±d²na½ paµisandhi-±diµh±na½ atth²ti na ta½ idha adhippeta½. Kamma½ r³passa namanaruppanavirodh± s±rammaº±n±rammaºavirodh± ca sabh±vaviruddho paccayo, kh²r±d²ni dadhi-±d²na½ madhurambilaras±disabh±vavirodh±. Avij±nanakicco ±loko vij±nanakiccassa viññ±ºassa, amadanakicc± ca gu¼±dayo madanakiccassa ±savassa.
Golom±vilom±ni dabb±ya paccayo, dadhi±d²ni bh³tiºakassa. Ettha ca av²ti ratt± e¼ak± vuccanti. Vip±k±yeva te ca na, tasm± dukkhavip±k±yapi avijj±ya tadavip±k±na½ puññ±neñj±bhisaªkh±r±na½ paccayatta½ na na yujjat²ti attho. Tadavip±kattepi s±vajjat±ya tadaviruddh±na½ ta½sadis±nañca apuññ±bhisaªkh±r±nameva paccayo, na itaresanti etassa pasaªgassa niv±raºattha½ “viruddho c±viruddho ca, sadis±sadiso tath±. Dhamm±na½ paccayo siddho”ti vutta½, tasm± tamattha½ p±kaµa½ karonto “iti aya½ avijj±”ti-±dim±ha.
Acchejjasutt±vut±bhejjamaº²na½ viya pubb±pariyavavatth±na½ niyati, niyatiy±, niyati eva v± saªgati sam±gamo niyatisaªgati, t±ya bh±vesu pariºat± manussadevavihaªg±dibh±va½ patt± niyatisaªgatibh±vapariºat±. Niyatiy± saªgatiy± bh±vena ca pariºat± n±nappak±rata½ patt± niyatisaªgatibh±vapariºat±ti ca attha½ vadanti. Etehi ca vikappanehi avijj± akusala½ citta½ katv± puññ±d²su yattha katthaci pavattat²ti imamattha½ dassento ±ha “so eva½ avijj±y±”ti-±di.
Apariº±yako b±loti arahattamaggasampaµip±dakakaly±ºamittarahitoti attho. Arahattamagg±vas±na½ v± ñ±ºa½ samavisama½ dassetv± nibb±na½ nayat²ti pariº±yakanti vutta½, tena rahito apariº±yako. Dhamma½ ñatv±ti sappuris³panissayena catusaccappak±sakasutt±didhamma½ ñatv±, maggañ±ºeneva v± sabbadhammapavara½ nibb±na½ ñatv±, ta½j±nan±yattatt± pana sesasacc±bhisamayassa sam±nak±lampi ta½ purimak±la½ viya katv± vutta½.

Saªkh±rapadaniddesavaººan± niµµhit±.