1. Dukkhasaccaniddeso

J±tiniddesavaººan±

190. Tattha …pe… aya½ m±tik±ti niddesav±ra-±dimhi vutte j±ti-±diniddese tesa½ j±ti-±d²na½ niddesavasena dukkhassa ariyasaccassa kathanatth±ya, tesu v± j±ti-±d²su tesañca dukkhaµµhe veditabbe j±ti-±d²na½ niddesavasena dukkhassa ariyasaccassa kathanatth±ya dukkhadukkhanti-±dik± dukkham±tik± veditabb±ti attho. Atha v± tatth±ti tasmi½ niddesav±re. “J±tipi dukkh±…pe… sa½khittena pañcup±d±nakkhandh± dukkh±”ti aya½ dukkhassa ariyasaccassa kathanatth±ya m±tik±ti yath±dassitassa j±ti-±diniddesassa m±tik±bh±va½ d²peti. Ta½ d²petv± puna yasmi½ padadvaye µhatv± dukkha½ ariyasacca½ kathetabba½, tassa niddh±raºattha½ sabba½ dukkha½ saªka¹¹hento ±ha “idañhi dukkha½ n±m±”ti-±di.
Sabh±vatoti dukkhavedayitasabh±vato. N±matoti teneva sabh±vena laddhan±mato. Tena na aññena pariy±yena ida½ dukkha½ n±ma, atha kho dukkhatt±yev±ti sabh±vena n±ma½ viseseti. Atha v± n±matoti udayabbayavantat±ya laddhan±mato. Yath± aññe udayabbayavanto dhamm± na sabh±vato dukkh±, na eva½ ida½, atha kho sabh±vato dukkh±, bh³tameveda½ dukkhanti purimena dukkha-saddena pacchima½ viseseti. Vipariº±mavantat±ya sukha½ aniµµhameva hot²ti dukkha½ n±ma j±ta½. Tenev±ha “dukkhuppattihetuto”ti. Kaººas³l±d²hi abhibh³tassa nitthunan±d²hi dukkh±bhibh³tat±ya viññ±yam±n±yapi ki½ tava rujjat²ti pucchitv±va kaººas³l±didukkha½ j±nitabba½ hot²ti paµicchannadukkhat± tassa vutt±. Upakkamassa ca p±kaµabh±vatoti k±raº±vasena dukkhavisesassa p±kaµabh±va½ dasseti.
Sabh±va½ muñcitv± pak±rantarena dukkhanti vuccam±na½ pariy±yadukkha½. Kathetabbatt± paµiññ±ta½ yath± kathetabba½, ta½pak±radassanattha½ “ariyasaccañca n±metan”ti-±dim±ha. Saªkhepo s±mañña½, s±maññañca visese antokaritv± pavattat²ti tattha ubhayath±pi kathetu½ vaµµati. Vitth±ro pana viseso j±ti-±diko, viseso ca visesantaranivattakoti j±ti-±d²su jar±d²na½ saªkhipana½ na sakk± k±tunti tattha vitth±reneva kathetabba½.
191. “Aparassa aparass±”ti d²pana½ aparatthad²pana½. S±mi-atthepi hi aparattha-saddo sijjhat²ti. Tesa½ tesanti v± s±mivasena vutta½ attha½ bhummavasena vattuk±mat±ya ±ha “aparatthad²panan”ti, aparasmi½ aparasmi½ d²pananti attho. Aparassa aparassa v± j±tisaªkh±tassa atthassa d²pana½ aparatthad²pana½. Pañcagativasena ekek±yapi gatiy± khattiy±dibhummadev±dihatthi-±dij±tivasena c±ti gatij±tivasena.
Tiº±k±ro tiºaj±ti, so ca up±d±paññatt²ti “paññattiyan”ti ±ha. Tadup±d±y±ti ta½ paµhama½ viññ±ºa½ up±d±ya aya½ j±ti, n±ssa kutoci niggamana½ up±d±ya. Yasm± ca eva½, tasm± s±vassa j±ti paµhamaviññ±ºasaªkh±t±ti attho. Atha v± tadup±d±ya saj±toti vuccat²ti s±vassa j±ti paµhamaviññ±ºasaªkh±t±ti attho. Viññ±ºamukhena ca pañcapi khandh± vutt± hont²ti “paµisandhiyan”ti ±ha. Ariyabh±vakaraºatt± ariyas²lanti p±timokkhasa½varo vuccati. J±ti-±d²nipi lakkhaº±ni dhamm±na½ ±k±ravik±r±ti katv± sahupp±dak± sahavik±rak±ti vutt±. J±yanaµµhen±ti-±di ±yatanavasena yonivasena ca dv²hi dv²hi padehi sabbasatte pariy±diyitv± j±ti½ dassetu½ vutta½. Purimanaye pana ekekeneva padena sabbasatte pariy±diyitv± j±ti dassit±ti aya½ viseso. Keci pana “purimanaye kattuniddeso, pacchimanaye bh±vaniddeso kato”ti vadanti, “tesa½ tesa½ satt±na½ j±t²”ti pana kattari s±miniddesassa katatt± ubhayatth±pi bh±vaniddesova yutto. Sampuºº± j±ti sañj±ti. P±kaµ± nibbatti abhinibbatti. “Tesa½ tesa½ satt±na½…pe… abhinibbatt²”ti sattavasena pavattatt± sammutikath±.
Tatra tatr±ti ekacatuvok±rabhavesu dvinna½ dvinna½, sese r³padh±tuya½ paµisandhikkhaºe uppajjam±n±na½ pañcanna½, k±madh±tuya½ vikal±vikalindriy±na½ vasena sattanna½ navanna½ dasanna½ puna dasanna½ ek±dasannañca ±yatan±na½ vasena saªgaho veditabbo. Ekabhavapariy±pannassa khandhasant±nassa paµham±bhinibbattibh³t± paµisandhikkhandh±ti ±ha “paµham±bhinibbattilakkhaº±”ti. Tameva sant±na½ niyy±tenta½ viya “handa gaºhath±”ti paµicch±penta½ viya pavattat²ti niyy±tanaras±. Santatiy± eva ummujjana½ hutv± gayhat²ti ummujjanapaccupaµµh±n±. Dukkhar±sissa vicittat± dukkhavicittat±, dukkhavises± v± tadavayav±, ta½ paccupaµµh±peti phalat²ti dukkhavicittat±paccupaµµh±n±.
Pariy±yanippariy±yadukkhesu ya½ dukkha½ j±ti hoti, ta½ dukkhabh±voyeva tass± dukkhaµµho. Yadi akkh±nena p±puºitabba½ siy±, bhagav± ±cikkheyya. Bhagavat±pi–
“Ta½ ki½ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamo nu kho mahantataro? Yo c±ya½ may± paritto p±ºimatto p±s±ºo gahito, yo ca himav± pabbatar±j±ti. Appama…pe… gahito, himavanta½ pabbatar±j±na½ upanidh±ya saªkhampi na upeti, kalabh±gampi na upeti, upanidhampi na upeti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, ya½ so puriso t²hi sattisatehi haññam±no tatonid±na½ dukkha½ domanassa½ paµisa½vedeti, ta½ nerayikassa dukkhassa upanidh±ya saªkhampi…pe… upanidhampi na upet²”ti (ma. ni. 3.250)–

Upam±vasena pak±sita½ ±p±yikadukkha½. Sukhuppattik±raº±ni suc²ni uppal±d²n²ti katv± tattha nibbattiniv±raºena j±tiy± dukkhavatthubh±va½ dasseti “atha kho”ti-±din±. Dukkhuppattik±raºe nibbattanena gabbhapariharaº³pakkamena vin± m±tukucchisambhavameva dukkha½ gabbhokkantim³laka½ aññ±napekkhatt±, upakkamanibbatta½ pana pariharaºam³laka½ okkantimatt±napekkhatt±. Ayametesa½ viseso.

Attano abhimukha½ ka¹¹hana½ ±ka¹¹hana½, parito sabbatobh±gena ka¹¹hana½ parika¹¹hana½. Adho dhunana½ odhunana½, tiriya½, sabbato v± dhunana½ nidhunana½. Tacchetv± kh±rapakkhipana½ kh±r±paµicchaka½.
Sakalasar²ranh±pana½ nh±pana½, ekadesadhovana½ dhovana½, s³riy±bhimukhapavattanena ±t±pana½, pañcaggit±pena parit±pana½ daµµhabba½. Sabboyeva v± t±po dvidh±pi vutto.
Kuhi½ nu patiµµha½ labhetha, j±tiy± vin± na tassa dukkhassa patiµµh±na½ atth²ti attho, j±tiy± v± vin± so satto kuhi½ nu patiµµha½, kattha nu patiµµhanto ta½ dukkha½ labheth±ti attho. Tattha tiracch±nesu katha½ dukkha½ bhaveyya tahi½ tiracch±nesu j±ti½ vin±. Na cass±ti na ce assa. Nanu nevatth²ti sambandho k±tabbo, nanu ±h±ti v±. Yadatoti yasm± nevatthi, tasm± ±h±ti attho.