4. Saccavibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±

Uddesavaººan±

189. Saccavinimutta½ natthi pavattinivattitadubhayahetusandassanavasena pavattanato. Saccesu kamat²ti saccesu visayabh³tesu pavattati. Desetabbatthavisay± hi desan±ti. Etesu kamat²ti etesu ariyasaccesu pariññ±dikiccas±dhanavasena pavattati. “S²lasam±dhipaññ±saªkh±tan”ti vutta½ atthasabh±va½ kamanakiriy±ya kattubh±vena gahitanti p±kaµatara½ katv± dassetu½ “ki½ kamat²”ti pucchati. Tabboh±ren±ti tadupac±rena. Etena nippariy±yena atthasabh±va½ s±sana½, pariy±yena vacanasabh±vanti dasseti.
Ta½sabh±v±ti dukkh±disabh±v±. Amus±sabh±v±ti b±dhan±dibh±vena bh³tasabh±v±. Aññ±k±rarahit±ti ab±dhan±di-±k±ravivitt±. Dvidh±ti dukkhadukkhat±tannimittat±hi. R±g±dikilesapari¼±ho kilesad±ho. Sant±nassa avipph±rikat±karaºa½ puggalahi½sana½. Attano eva tikhiºabh±voti saªkhatadhammassa attano sabh±veneva ruj±vahatikkhabh±vo. Sarasenev±ti sabh±veneva. Sampiº¹akassa samudayassa, kilesasant±parahitassa maggassa, avipariº±massa nirodhassa dassanena yath±saªkhya½ dukkhassa saªkhatasant±pavipariº±maµµh± ±vi bhavant²ti ±ha “itare yath±kkama½ samudayamagganirodhadassanehi ±vibhavan±k±r±”ti. By±petv±ti bhav±d²su n±n±rammaºesu ca visaµ± hutv±. Anekatthatt± dh±t³na½ “³hana½ r±sikaraºan”ti vatv± puna tadattha½ vivarati “dukkhanibbattanan”ti. Ekavok±rabhavepi hi r±sibh³tameva dukkha½ nibbattati anekadhammasam³hato pageva catupañcavok±rabhavesu. Ettha ca by±panattha½ ±k±ra½, tassa ca ya-k±r±gama½ katv± sampiº¹anattha½ ±y³hananti pada½ veditabba½. Nidad±t²ti dukkhassa ekantak±raºatt± ta½ nidassenta½ viya janet²ti dassento “ida½ ta½ dukkhan”ti-±dim±ha. Dukkha…pe… ±vi bhavati rogadassanena viya roganid±na½. Sa½yoga…pe… dassaneh²ti sa½yogaµµho visa½yogasabh±vassa nirodhassa, palibodhaµµho niyy±nasabh±vassa maggassa dassanena ±vi bhavat²ti attho. Teti sa½yogapalibodhaµµh±.
Etth±ti etasmi½ ±rammaºabh³te sati. Samudayato viveko vivekaµµho. Nirodho ca taºh±kkhayabh±vato samudayato vivitto, tasm± avivekabh³tassa samudayassa dassanena nirodhassa vivekaµµho ±vi bhavati, nibb±n±dhigamahetubh³tass±pi maggassa sappaccayat±ya saªkhatabh±va½ passato appaccayassa nirodhassa asaªkhataµµho ±vi bhavati, tath± maraºadhammat±ya dukkha½ vinassanta½ passato amaraºadhammassa nirodhassa amataµµho ±vi bhavat²ti imamattha½ dasseti “vivek±”ti-±din±. Itare samudayanirodhadukkhadassaneh²ti ettha samudayadassanena “n±ya½ hetu nibb±n±dhigam±ya, aya½ pana het³”ti hetuµµho ±vi bhavati. Tath± paramagambh²rassa nipuºatarassa duddasassa nirodhassa dassanena dassanaµµho sukhumar³padassanena cakkhuno viya, dukkhadassanena pana anekarog±turakapaºajanadassanena issarajanassa u¼±rabh±vo viya maggassa ±dhipateyyaµµho ±vi bhavati.
Te panete hetuµµh±dike sar³pato dassetu½ “tattha palibodhupacchedavasen±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha palibodhupacchedavasen±ti samudayappah±navasena. “Magg±dhipatino dhamm±”ti vacanatoti yasm± satipi jh±n±d²na½ ±rammaº±dhipatibh±ve “jh±n±dhipatino dhamm±”ti evam±di na vutta½, “magg±dhipatino dhamm±” icceva pana vutta½. Tasm± s±tisayo maggaªgadhamm±na½ ±rammaº±dhipatibh±vo. Ten±ha “visesato v± ±rammaº±dhipatibh³t± maggaªgadhamm± hont²”ti. So tesa½ ±k±roti yo maggaªg±na½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhaºavasena pavattadhamm±na½ ±rammaº±dhipatipaccayat±saªkh±to ±k±ro, so maggassa ±dhipateyyaµµho. Purimo pana ±dhipateyyaµµho sahaj±t±dhipativasena vutto. Abhisametabbaµµhoti yath±vuttap²¼an±di-atthameva paµivijjhitabbat±ya ekajjha½ katv± vadati. Tena abhisamayasadda½ kammattha½ dasseti. Abhisamayass±ti ñ±ºassa. Pavatti-±k±roti parij±nan±divises±k±ro. So hi maggakkhaºe asammohato siddho, pacch± paccavekkhaº±din± p±kaµo hoti. ¾k±ropi ñ±ºena araº²yato atthoti vuccat²ti katv± tatiyanayo dassito. P²¼an±din± dassito visayavibh±genapi visayivibh±go hoti yath± “r³pasaññ±, saddasaññ±”ti (sa½. ni. 3.57).
Kucchita½ khanti garahita½ hutv± as±ra½. “Sam±gamo”ti-±din± anvayato byatirekato ca sa½-saddassa sa½yogatthajotakattam±ha. “Uppanna½ uditan”ti-±d²su kevalassa panna-saddassa, ita-saddassa ca payoge uppatti-atthassa anupalabbhanato, u-saddassa ca payoge upalabbhanato so uppatti-attha½ d²pet²ti ±ha “eva½ uppanna½ uditanti etth±p²”ti. Visu½ payujjam±n±ti ±gama-ita-padehi vin± payujjam±n±. Sadh±tukanti anton²tena dh±tun± sadh±tuka½. Teneva te “upasagg±”ti ca vutt±.
Dukkhavivekabh±vanti dukkhavivittata½. Nivattiy±ti nibb±nassa. Nivattetv±ti anupp±dasaddena visesanavasena nivattetv±. Nirodhapaccayat± nirodhassa maggassa ±rammaºapaccayat±. Puggalasacchikiriy±dhammabh±veh²ti puggaladhammabh±vena sacchikaraºadhammabh±vena ca. Phalanti ariyaphala½. Tass±ti niµµh±nabh³t±ya phalasaªkh±t±ya dukkhanirodhappattiy± abhisamayabh³t±ya dukkhanirodhappattiy± paµipadat± daµµhabb±.
Paµivijjhanak±le nippariy±yena buddh±disamaññ±ti ±ha “paµividdhak±le pavattan”ti. Tato ev±ti tena pak±sitatt± eva.
Tannimittabh±voti j±ti-±di viya adhiµµh±nabh±vena dukkhassa k±raºabh±vo, na samudayasacca½ viya pabhavabh±vena. Udayabbayap²¼itabh±vo saªkh±radukkhat±. Pavattanamev±ti pavatti eva. Kicca½ rasoti rasassa kiccatthata½ dasseti. Pavattinivatt²s³ti niddh±raºe bhumma½. Avik±rat± vik±r±bh±vo niccat±.
Mar²cim±y±-att±nanti mar²ciy± m±y±ya attano ca ariyañ±ºass±ti ariy±na½ ñ±ºassa. Tena ariy±na½ maggañ±º±nus±rena pavattanakañ±ºampi saªgahita½ hoti. Ten±ha “avitathag±hakass±”ti-±di Tesanti paµivedhapaccavekkhaºañ±º±na½. Tattha paµivedhañ±ºassa paµivijjhitabbat± gocarabh±vo, itarassa ±rammaºabh±vo. Paµivijjhitabbat±, ±rammaºabh±vo v± paµivedhañ±ºassa gocarabh±vo, itarassa ±rammaºabh±vova.
B±dhakappabhavabh±ven±ti b±dhakassa upp±dakabh±vena visu½ gahitatt± na taºh± b±dhakabh±vena gahit± pavattipavattihet³na½ asaªkaravasena bodhanato. Evañca katv± abhidhammabh±jan²yepi ayamatthavaººan± yujjateva Yadipi eva½ “dukkhameva b±dhakan”ti niyam±nupapatti, samudayabh±vappasaªgo c±ti codana½ sandh±y±ha “j±ti-±d²na½ viya v±”ti-±di. B±dhakattassa b±dhakatte ca niyamoti ±ha “dvidh±pi b±dhakatth±vadh±raºen±”ti. Yath± hi b±dhakattassa dukkhe niyatat±, eva½ dukkhassa ca b±dhakatte niyatat±ti. Suttantabh±jan²ye taºh±ya eva samudayabh±vassa dassitatt± taºh±vasena niyama½ dassento “na taºh±ya vin±”ti-±dim±ha. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan± hes±ti. “Kusalehi vin±”ti-±din± dukkhahetut±ya taºh±ya padh±nabh±vam±ha. Tath± hi s± kammavicittat±ya hetubh±va½ gacchant² visesena kammassa sahak±rik±raºa½ hot²ti. Dvidh±pi niyamen±ti maggova niyy±na½, niyy±nameva ca maggoti dvippak±rena niyamena.
Vac²sacca½ saccav±c±, ta½samuµµh±pik± cetan± c±ti ±ha “viratisacceti mus±v±daviratiyan”ti. Keci pana “viratisacca½ sam±d±navirat²”ti vadanti, tesampi na sam±d±namatta½ viratisacca½, atha kho sam±d±n±visa½v±dana½. Ta½ pana paµiññ±saccatt± mus±v±daviratiyeva hoti. Ten±ha “na hi aññavirat²su saccasaddo niru¼ho”ti. Satipi dukkhasamuday±vabodhe y±vadeva nirodhamagg±dhigamatth± paññ±bh±van±ti pacchimadvayasseva saccattha½ s±tisaya½, tadadhigamassa ca aviv±dahetuka½ sutte vibh±vita½ dassento “tassa pan±”ti-±dim±ha.
Ýh±na½ natth²ti attano v±dapatiµµh±panak±raºa½ natth²ti attho. Attabh±vapaµil±bheneva satt±na½ j±ti-±d²na½ patti sammukh²bh±vo ca j±yat²ti ±ha “sampattat±, paccakkhat± ca paµhamat±”ti. Bhagavato desan±kkameneva v± paµham±dit± daµµhabb±.
Parijanan±d²h²ti pariññ±ppah±nasacchikiriy±bh±van±hi, nissakkavacanañceta½ aññasaddapekkh±ya. Dhammañ±ºakiccanti sabh±vadhamm±vabodhakicca½. Pariññeyy±d²ni etapparam±nev±ti ito para½ neyya½ natth²ti dasseti.
Dukkh±d²na½ ariyasaccabh±vassa anur³pa½ yutta½, ±cariyaparampar±gata½ v± savana½ anussavo. Sut±nus±rena, aññath± v± kakkha¼aphusan±di-anicc±disabh±vas±maññ±k±rapariggaºhana½ ±k±raparivitakko. Yath±vitakkit±k±rassa diµµhisaªkh±t±ya dassanabh³t±ya paññ±ya nijjh±nakkhamana½ rocana½ diµµhinijjh±nakkhanti ¾dicco viya pabh±ya nirodha½ phusati sacchikaroti kilesandhak±ra½ viddha½seti. Catt±ripi sacc±ni passat²ti vutta½ “yo, bhikkhave, dukkha½ passat²”ti-±din±.
K±lantaradassananti n±n±bhisamaya½ vadati. Ekadassinoti ekasaccadassino. Na yojetabb± siy±ti yojan±yañca sabbadassana½ dassanantaraparamanti dassan±nuparamo ±pajjeyya, sacc±nañca n±n±bhisamaye dukkhadassan±d²hi paµhamamagg±dippaheyy±na½ sa½yojanattay±d²na½ ekadesappah±na½ ±pajjati. Tath± ca sati ekadesasot±pattimaggaµµhat±, tadanantarañca pattabbena phalena ekadesasot±pannat± ca ±pajjati, tasm± na sacc±na½ n±n±bhisamayo yutto. Yath± ca n±n±bhisamayo na yutto, eva½ ±rammaº±bhisamayopi. Yadi hi ±rammaºakaraºena catusacc±bhisamayo icchito, na maggo sayameva att±na½ ±rammaºa½ karot²ti aparipuººo sacc±bhisamayo siy±. Aññena maggena maggo ±lamb²yat²ti paripuººov±ti ce? Eva½ sati yena maggena maggo ±lambito, sopi aññena, sopi aññen±ti anavaµµh±na½ siy±, tasm± na ±rammaºapaµivedhato catusacc±bhisamayo yutto, vuttanayeneva pana yutto. Kiñca paricchinditabba½ samucchinditabbañca ±lambitv± paricchedasamucchedabh±van± maggañ±ºassa na yutt± tato anissaµabh±vato, sabbasaªkhatavinissaµa½ nibb±nameva pana ±rammaºat± yutt±. Ahetukadiµµhi akiriyadiµµhiggahaºena gahit± hetuby±p±rova paramatthato kiriy±ti katv±.
Pavattet²ti sajjati, pavattiy± v± hetu hoti. Nivattet²ti sa½harati palaya½ gameti, palokat±divasena v± mokkhahetu hoti. Padh±natoti pakatito, ya½ “abyattan”tipi vuccati.
“K±lo karoti bh³t±ni, k±lo sa½harat² paj±;
k±lo sutte j±garati, k±lo hi duratikkamo”ti.–

Eva½v±d± k±lav±dino. “Kaºµakassa tikhiºat±, kapiµµhaphal±d²na½ parimaº¹alat±, migapakkhisar²sap±d²na½ vicittabh±voti evam±dayo kena k±rit±? Sabh±veneva siddh±, eva½ sabbampi, na ettha kassaci k±mak±ro”ti eva½v±d± sabh±vav±dino. “Loko niyato acchejjasutt±vut±bhejjamaºisadiso na ettha kassaci purisak±ro”ti eva½pavattav±d± niyativ±dino,

“Yadicch±ya pavattanti, yadicch±ya nivattare;
yadicch±ya sukhadukkha½, tasm± yadicchat² paj±”ti.–

Eva½pavattav±d± yadicch±v±disaªkh±t± adhiccasamuppattiv±dino ca ettha sabh±vav±de eva antogadh±ti daµµhabb±. Aº³hi loko pavattat²ti ±j²vakav±da½ sandh±y±ha. So hi ak±raºapariggaho. Kaº±dav±do pana issaricch±vasena aº³na½ sa½yogaviyogato lokassa pavattinivatti½ vadati. Padh±nassa appavatt²ti mahat±dibh±vena apariº±mo, anabhibyatti v±. “Ahamañño, pakati aññ±”ti eva½ pavattapakatipurisantaraj±nanena attasukhadukkhamohesu avibh±gaggahaºe nivattite kira vuttanayena padh±na½ nappavattati, so vimokkhoti k±pil±. Evam±d²ti ±di-saddena mah±brahmuno sam²pat±, sa½yogoti evam±d²nampi saªgaho veditabbo.

Ekatt±ti ekabh±vato ekopi vutto. Tayoti kiccavibh±gena. T±n²ti samm±v±c±dis²l±ni. Chandassa saddahan±nuk³l±pi chandanavasena pavatti hot²ti saddhindriyasaddh±balehi saddhi½ chandiddhip±do vutto. T±dise k±le upekkh±nimitt±nubr³hanena upak±r± sam±dhissa samav±hit±vasena t±disakicc±va upekkh± veditabb±.
Vigh±takatt±ti sa½haraº²yavasena vihantabh±vato.
Ariyasaccadvayanti samudayamaggasaccadvaya½. Tenev±ti yath±vuttadukkh±disadd±na½ pariññeyy±div±cakatt± eva. ¾dipadasaªgahoti “dukkha½, na ariyasaccan”ti imin± catukke ±dipade saªgaho. Tadapekkhanti ariyasaccasadd±pekkha½ dukkhasadda½. Catutthapadasaªgahoti “neva dukkha½, na ariyasaccan”ti imin± padena saªgaho. Avasesakiles±dayoti taºh±vajjakiles± avases±kusal±, s±sav±ni kusalam³l±ni, s±sav± ca kusaladhamm±. Te hi abhidhammabh±jan²ye samudayabh±vena vutt±, na ariyasaccabh±ven±ti ±ha “samudayo, na ariyasaccan”ti. Aññ±ni maggaªg±n²ti phalasamm±diµµhi-±dayo. Imin± nayen±ti etth±ya½ yojan±– atthi samudayo, na ariyasacca½, atthi ariyasacca½, na samudayo, atthi samudayo ceva ariyasaccañca, atthi neva samudayo, na ariyasacca½. Tattha paµhamapada½ vuttattha½. Nirodho ariyasacca½, na samudayo, taºh± samudayo ceva ariyasaccañca, maggasampayutt± dhamm± s±maññaphal±ni ca yassa pah±n±ya bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussati, tadabh±vato neva samudayo, na ariyasacca½. Itarasaccadvaya½ ariyasacca½ tassa tassa pabh±vakaµµhena siy± samudayo, na pana yassa pah±n±ya bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussati tathatthena. Itaracatukkadvayepi ±dipada½ vuttatthameva. Sesesu samudayo ariyasacca½, na nirodho, asaªkhatadh±tu nirodho ceva ariyasaccañca, maggasampayutt± dhamm±, s±maññaphal±ni ca yassa sacchikiriy±ya bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussati tathatthena neva nirodho, na ariyasacca½. Itarasaccadvaya½ ariyasacca½, nirodhadhammat±ya siy± nirodho, na pana yassa sacchikiriy±ya bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussati tathatthena. Tath± nirodho ariyasacca½, na maggo, ariyamaggo maggo ceva ariyasaccañca, maggasampayutt± dhamm±, s±maññaphal±ni ca yassa bh±van±ya bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussati tathatthena neva maggo, na ariyasacca½. Itarasaccadvaya½ siy± maggo upapattimaggabh±vato, na pana yassa bh±van±ya bhagavati brahmacariya½ vussati tathatthena.
Santanti sam±na½. Eva½ itaresup²ti k±tabb±pi kiriy± k±rakarahit± kevala½ attano paccayehi t±ya pavattam±n±ya paccayas±magg² kiriya½ karot²ti voh±ramatta½ hoti. Nibbutigamakesupi eseva nayo.
S±savat± asubhat± kiles±sucipaggharaºato. Dukkh±d²nanti dukkhasamudayamagg±na½. Samuday±dibh±voti dukkhassa samudayamaggabh±vo, samudayassa maggadukkhabh±vo, maggassa dukkhasamudayabh±vo ca, na pana nirodhabh±vo dukkh±d²nanti sambandho. Aññamaññasamaªgit±ti dukkh±d²na½ itar²tarasabh±vayogo. Taºh±y±ti ±dh±re bhumma½. Punabbhavass±ti punabhavasaªkh±tassa ±yatidukkhassa. Pakativ±d²nanti k±pil±na½. Vik±r±ti mahat±dayo byatt±. Vibh±vatoti abhibyattito, pariº±mato v± pubbe. Paµippal²n± c±ti pacch± pakatiya½ palaya½ gat± vesamma½ muñcitv± satt±disamabh±vena anto samoruddh±. Ten±ha “pakatibh±veneva tiµµhant²”ti. Pakatibh±venev±ti abyattabh±veneva Samudayabh±ven±ti taºh±saªkh±tapabhavabh±vena. Aññath± ta½sampayutta-avijj±d²nampi samudayabh±vo labbhatev±ti. Avibhatteh²ti vesammavirahena pakatibh±va½ gatehi. “Vik±reh²”ti s±maññato vutte “mahant±”ti-±din± sar³pato dasseti. Tattha mahantoti mah±buddhi. Tañhi k±pil± “mah±-ajjh±sayo”ti ca voharanti. R³patammatt±dayo pañca tammatt±, aha½k±ro c±ti cha avises±. Cakkhu sota½ gh±na½ jivh± k±yo v±c± p±ºi p±do p±yu upattha½ manoti ek±dasindriy±ni. Pathav² ±po tejo v±yo ±k±santi pañca bh³tavises±, tehi. “Pakatibh±veneva µhiteh²”ti imin± “avibhatteh²”ti padassa attha½ vadati. Sagabbh±ti sab²j± asuññat±. Tant³s³ti suttesu samav±yik±raºabh³tesu. Tath± kap±lesu. Tividhañhi te k±raºa½ vadanti up±d±nak±raºa½ nimittak±raºa½ samav±yik±raºanti. Tattha turivemasal±k±dayo up±d±nak±raºa½. Tantav±yo nimittak±raºa½. Tantavo samav±yik±raºanti. Dv²su aº³s³ti pathav²bh³tesu v± ±potejov±yobh³tesu v± dv²su param±º³su. Idhabuddhivoh±rajanakoti “idha tant³su paµo, idha kap±lesu ghaµo, idha b²raºesu ghaµo”ti-±din± nayena hetuphal±na½ sambandhabh³tena satt±na½ idhabuddhivoh±r± j±yanti. So govis±º±na½ viya avisu½ sahasiddh±na½ sambandho samav±yo. Kh±ºusen±na½ viya pana visu½siddh±na½ sambandho sa½yogo. T²su aº³su ti-aºuka½ phala½ samaveta½ ek²bh³tamiva sambandhanti yojan±. “Samavetan”ti etassa “ek²bh³tamiva sambandhan”ti ida½ atthavivaraºa½. Mah±parim±ºanti mahantaparim±ºa½ mah±pathav²-±dika½ eka½ phala½, ya½ te “k±riya½ drabyan”ti vadanti. Yehi k±raºehi ±raddha½ k±riyadrabya½, tadantogadh±ni eva t±ni k±raº±ni maññant²ti ±ha “attano antogadhehi k±raºeh²”ti. Sati samav±ye hetumhi phala½ samavetanti phale hetu siy±, ta½ natth²ti dassento ±ha “samav±y±bh±v± phale hetu natth²ti hetusuñña½ phalan”ti.
¾h±rabhedeti kaba¼²k±r±di-±h±ravisese. Tappaccayadhammabhedeti ajjhoharaº²yavatthusa¼±yatana-avijj±-abhisaªkh±rasaªkh±te tesa½ paccayabh³tadhammavisese, ojaµµhamakar³pavedan±paµisandhiviññ±ºan±mar³pasaªkh±te v± tannibbattadhammavisese, te paccay± etesa½ dhammavises±nanti tappaccayadhammabhed± R³p±di-±rammaºavasena v±ti yojan±. Y±nadvayavasen±ti samathavipassan±y±nadvayavasena. Kiñc±pi maggakkhaºe samathavipassan± yuganaddh±va, yath± pana suññat±disamaññ±, eva½ samathavipassan±samaññ±pi ±gamanato maggassa siyunti ±ha “±gamanavasena vutto”ti. Yassa v± paññindriya½ adhika½, tassa maggo vipassan±, itarassa samathoti evamettha attho daµµhabbo.
Sam±dhij±ti sam±dh±naµµhova. Tato ev±ti sam±dhi-anuguºakiriyatt±va.
¾d±ya ³hitv±ti gahetv± viya takketv± vitakketv±. Dvinnanti samm±diµµhisamm±saªkapp±na½. Purimak±lassa viya niddeso yath± “eka½ khandha½ paµicca tayo khandh±”ti, “eka½ mah±bh³ta½ paµicca tayo mah±bh³t±”ti ca.
Og±hitunti ñ±ºena paµivijjhitu½. Gahetu½ asakkuºeyyat±ya saºhatta½. Sukhum±ya paññ±ya gahetabbat±ya sukhumatta½. It²ti imin± kamen±ti ayamatthoti adhipp±yen±ha “itisaddena vij±nanakkama½ dasset²”ti. Eva½ pak±reh²ti eva½-saddena jotiyam±no eva attho pak±ra-saddena vuccat²ti “eva½-saddena vij±nanak±raºabh³te naye dasset²”ti vutta½. It²ti v± nidassanattho. Tena vuttappabhede pacc±masanavasena nidasseti. Eva½-saddo idamattho. Tena eva½ pak±reh²ti ida½pak±rehi, ²diseh²ti attho.

Uddesavaººan± niµµhit±.