2. ¾yatanavibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±

154. As±dh±raºatoti ±veºikato. Ta½ nesa½ as±dh±raºabh±va½ vipakkhavasena patiµµh±petu½ s±dh±raºa½ ud±haraºavasena dasseti “±yatanasaddattho viy±”ti. Atha v± cakkh±di-attho eva cakkh±disaddavisesito ±yatanatthoti ta½ t±disa½ ±yatanattha½ sandh±y±ha “±yatanasaddattho viya as±dh±raºato”ti.
Yadi visayass±danattho cakkhu-saddo, sot±d²nampi aya½ samaññ± siy±ti atippasaªga½ pariharanto “satip²”ti-±dim±ha. Dutiye atthavikappe cakkhat²ti viññ±º±dhiµµhita½ samavisama½ ±cikkhati, ±cikkhanta½ viya, vibh±venta½ viya v± hot²ti attho. R³pamiva cakkhuviññeyya½ viya saviggahamiva sabimbaka½ viya vaººav±cako r³pa-saddo adhippetoti ±ha “vitth±raºa½ v± r³pasaddassa attho”ti.
Vacanamev±ti saviññattikasaddameva. Gam²yat²ti upan²yati. Ajjhoharaºassa rasaggahaºam³lat±vacanena rasassa parampar±ya j²vitahetuta½ dasseti. Rasanimittañhi rasaggahaºa½, rasaggahaºanimitta½ ajjhoharaºa½, ta½nimitta½ j²vitanti. Rasaggahaºam³lat± ca ajjhoharaºassa yebhuyyato veditabb±. Dissati apadissati etena phalanti deso, het³ti ±ha “uppattidesoti uppattik±raºan”ti. Tath±ti cakkh±yatan±dippak±rena. Manogocarabh³t±ti manaso eva gocarabh³t±. S±maññalakkhaºenev±ti anubhavan±divisesalakkhaºa½ aggahetv± dhammabh±vasaªkh±tas±dh±raºalakkhaºeneva Ek±yatanatta½ upanetv± vutt± dv±dasa ekasabh±vatt± bhinditv± vacane payojan±bh±v±. Dv±r±lambanavibh±gadassanatth± hi ±yatanadesan±ti.
Pubbantatoti purimabh±gato p±kabh±vato. P±kabh±vo hi sabh±vadhamm±na½ pubbanto, viddha½s±bh±vo aparanto.
Niv±saµµh±n±d²su ±yatana-saddo na ±yatanatth±d²su viya padatthavivaraºamukhena pavatto, atha kho tasmi½ tasmi½ devaghar±dike niru¼hat±ya evamatthoti ±ha “ru¼hivasena ±yatanasaddassattha½ vattun”ti. Manoti dv±rabh³tamano Nissayabh±voti ettha nissayasadiso nissayo, sadisat± ca phalassa tappaµibaddhavuttit±ya daµµhabb±. Vacan²yattho bh±vattho.
T±vatvatoti tattakato. Ðnacodan±ti dv±dasato ³n±ni kasm± na vutt±n²ti codan±. Yadi cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ as±dh±raºa½ dhammaj±ta½ dhamm±yatana½, eva½ sante cakkh±d²nampi dhamm±yatanabh±vo siy±ti codana½ sandh±y±ha “satip²”ti-±di. Dv±r±rammaºabh±veh²ti na ±rammaºabh±veneva as±dh±raºa½, atha kho dv±r±rammaºabh±vehi as±dh±raºa½ sambhavat²ti vacanaseso.
Yebhuyyasahuppatti-±d²h²ti yebhuyyena cakkh±yatan±d²ni kassaci kad±ci ekato uppajjanti. “K±madh±tuy± upapattikkhaºe kassaci ek±das±yatan±ni uppajjant²”ti hi vutta½. Tasm± ±yatan±na½ uppattikkamo t±va na yujjati, na pah±nakkamo kusal±by±kat±na½ appah±tabbato, na paµipattikkamo akusal±na½, ekacca-aby±kat±nañca appaµipajjan²yato, na bh³mikkamo a¹¹hek±dasanna½ ±yatan±na½ ekantak±m±vacaratt±, itaresa½ catubh³mipariy±pannatt±, ekaccassa lokuttarabh±vato ca. Eva½ uppattikkam±di-ayuttiyojan± veditabb±. Yesu vijjam±nesu attabh±vassa paññ±pan±, te “mayha½ cakkhun”ti-±din± adhikasinehavatthubh³t± cakkh±dayo yath± ajjhattikat±ya, eva½ dassan±dikiccakara-indriyat± ca padh±n±ti ±ha “ajjhattikabh±vena, visayibh±vena c±”ti. Gh±n±dikkamen±ti gh±na½ jivh± k±yoti imin± kamena.
Paccuppann±rammaºatt± v± cakkh±d²ni paµhama½ vutt±ni, mano pana kiñci paccuppann±rammaºa½ kiñci y±vanavattabb±rammaºanti pacch± vutta½. Paccuppann±rammaºesupi up±d±r³p±rammaº±ni catt±ri paµhama½ vutt±ni, tato bh³tar³p±rammaºa½. Up±d±r³p±rammaºesupi d³ratare d³re, s²ghatara½ s²ghañca ±rammaºasampaµicchanad²panattha½ cakkh±d²na½ desan±kkamo. Cakkhusotadvayañhi d³ragocaranti paµhama½ vutta½. Tatr±pi cakkhu d³rataragocaranti sabbapaµhama½ vutta½. Passantopi hi d³ratare nadisota½ na tassa sadda½ suº±ti. Gh±najivh±supi gh±na½ s²ghataravutt²ti paµhama½ vutta½. Purato µhapitamattassa hi bhojanassa gandho gayhat²ti. Yath±µh±na½ v± tesa½ desan±kkamo. Imasmiñhi sar²re sabbupari cakkhussa adhiµµh±na½, tassa adho sotassa, tassa adho gh±nassa, tassa adho jivh±ya, tath± k±yassa yebhuyyena, mano pana ar³p²bh±vato sabbapacch± vutto. Ta½ta½gocaratt± tassa tass±nantara½ b±hir±yatan±ni vutt±n²ti vuttov±yamatthoti evampi imesa½ kamo veditabbo.
Tatoti hadayavatthubhedato. Yañhi hadayavatthu½ niss±ya eka½ manoviññ±ºa½ pavattati, na tadeva niss±ya añña½ pavattati. Niddesavasen±ti saªkhepavitth±raniddesavasena. Yojetabba½ “kusalasamuµµh±na½ kusalasamuµµh±nassa sabh±gan”ti-±din±.
Sabh±voti visayivisayabh±vo, tadabhinibbattiyañca yogyat±. K±raºasamatthat±ti k±raºabh³t± samatthat± paccayabh±vo. Dv±r±dibh±voti dv±r±rammaºe dv±ravuttibh±vo. Imasmi½ attheti anantara½ vutta-atthe. Yasm±ti y±ya dhammat±ya yena dv±r±dibh±vena k±raºabh³tena. Sambhavanavisesananti kiriy±ya par±masanam±ha. Ya½ sambhavana½, dhammat±ves±ti attho. Rittak±nev±ti dhuv±dibh±varittak±neva. Visam±d²su ajjh±sayo etesanti visam±di-ajjh±say±ni, visam±di-ajjh±say±ni viya hont²ti visam±di-ajjh±say±ni, cakkh±d²ni. Visamabh±va…pe… vanabh±veh²ti visamabh±v±disannissita-ahi-±disadisup±dinnadhammehi cakkh±d²hi, vanasannissitamakkaµasadisena cittena ca abhiramitatt±. Vanabh±voti hi vanajjh±sayoti attho.
Purimantavivittat±ti pubbabh±gaviraho. Upp±dato purimakoµµh±so hi idha purimanto. Aparanteti aparabh±ge, bhaªgato uddhanti attho. Udayabbayaparicchinno hi sabh±vadhammo. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½ “anidh±nagat± bhagg±, puñjo natthi an±gate”ti (mah±ni. 10). Sad± abh±voti na sad± abh±vapatiµµh±pana½ sabbak±lampi natth²ti, atha kho udayabbayaparicchinnatt± sad±bh±vapaµikkhepoti ±ha “aniccalakkhaºan”ti. Sabh±vavijahananti bhaªgappattim±ha Viparivattana½ upp±dajar±vatth±hi sant±na½ vin± na vik±r±patt²ti ±ha “sant±navik±r±patti v±”ti.
J±tidhammat±d²h²ti j±tijar±by±dhimaraº±disabh±vat±hi. Aniµµhat±ti na iµµhat±, dukkhat±ti attho. Purima½ s±maññalakkhaºanti “paµip²¼anaµµhen±”ti pubbe s±maññato vutta½ dukkhalakkhaºa½. Paccayavasena dukkhan±k±rena pavattam±n±na½ sabh±vadhamm±na½ dukkhana½ puggalasseva vasena dukkhamat±ti ±ha “puggalassa p²¼anato dukkhaman”ti. Dukkhavacananti “dukkhan”ti satthu vacana½.
“Natthi etassa vasavattako”ti imin± natthi etassa att±ti anatt±ti imamattha½ dasseti, “n±pi ida½ vasavattakan”ti imin± pana na att±ti anatt±ti. Attanoti niyakajjhatta½ sandh±ya vadati. Parasminti tato aññasmi½. Parassa ca attan²ti etth±pi eseva nayo. Ta½ etassa natth²ti ta½ yath±vuttaparaparikappita½ vasavattaka½ etassa cakkh±dino natthi, etena catukoµikasuññat±ya saªgaho daµµhabbo. “Suñña½ ta½ tena vasavattan±k±ren±”ti imin± ubhayath±pi avasavattanaµµhe dassitabbe tattha t±va eka½ dassetu½ “parass±”ti-±di½ vatv± puna “atha v±”ti-±din± itara½ dasseti. S±mi eva s±miko, na s±miko ass±mikoti eva½ atthe gayham±ne “ass±mikato”ti padassa suññavisesanat±ya payojana½ natthi. K±mak±riyanti yath±k±makaraº²ya½. Avasavattanattha½ visesetv± dasseti sam±sadvayatthasaªgahato.
Sasant±ne dhamm±na½ visadisuppatti idha bh±vasaªkantigamana½ n±m±ti ±ha “santatiya½ bh±vantaruppattiyev±”ti. Tath± visadisuppattiya½ purim±k±ravigamo pakatibh±vavijahananti ±ha “santatiy± yath±pavatt±k±ravijahanan”ti. Bhavat²ti v± bh±vo, avatth±viseso, tassa saªkamana½ bh±vasaªkanti. Sabh±vadhammo hi upp±dakkhaºa½ µhitikkhaºañca patv± bhijjat²ti upp±d±vatth±ya jar±vattha½, tato bhaªg±vattha½ saªkamat²ti vuccati. Tath± saªkamato ca attal±bhakkhaºato uddha½ jar±maraºehi ta½sabh±vaparicc±go pakatibh±vavijahananti khaºavasena ceta½ yojetabba½. Pubb±paravasen±ti ca khaº±na½ pubb±paravasen±ti attho sambhavati. Ekatthatt±ti sam±n±dhikaraºatt±, na pana visesanavisesitabbabh±v±na½ ekatt±. “Cakkhu½ aniccan”ti vutte “anicca½ cakkhun”tipi vuttameva hot²ti “ya½ cakkhu, ta½ anicca½, ya½ anicca½, ta½ cakkhun”ti ±pannamev±ti ±ha “anicc±na½ sesadhamm±nampi cakkhubh±vo ±pajjat²”ti.
Tehi ca aniccadukkhalakkhaºehi ca anattalakkhaºameva visesena dassita½ “yadanicca½, ta½ dukkha½, ya½ dukkha½, tadanatt±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.15, 45, 76, 85; 2.4.1, 2; paµi. ma. 2.10) viya. Dosalakkhaº±k±ranidassanatthoti dosassa lakkhitabb±k±ranidassanattho. Eva½ dukkhen±ti eva½ n±nappak±rena akkhirog±didukkhena ±b±dhat±ya. Anattalakkhaºad²pak±nanti anattat±paññ±panassa jotak±na½ up±yabh³t±na½. Na hi ghaµabhedakaºµakavedh±divasena labbham±n± aniccadukkhat± satt±na½ ekantato anattat±dhigamahet³ honti. Paccayapaµibaddhat±-abhiºhasampaµip²¼an±divasena pana labbham±n± honti. Tath± hi cakkh±d²ni kamm±dimah±bh³t±dipaccayapaµibaddhavutt²ni, tato eva ahutv± sambhavanti, hutv± paµivent²ti anicc±ni, abhiºhasampaµip²¼itatt± dukkh±ni, eva½bh³t±ni ca avasavattanato anattak±n²ti pariggahe µhitehi samupacitañ±ºasambh±rehi passitu½ sakk±.
Katha½ panetesa½ hutv± abh±vo j±nitabboti? Khaºe khaºe aññathattadassanato. Ta½ katha½ ñ±yat²ti? Yuttito. K± panettha yutt²ti? Visesaggahaºa½. Yadi cakkh±d²na½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½ na siy±, bahipaccayabhede yadida½ pacch± visesaggahaºa½, ta½ na siy±. Yassa hi t±disa½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½ natthi, tassa asati bahipaccayavisese katha½ pacch± visesaggahaºa½ bhaveyya, bhavati ca visesaggahaºa½. Tasm± atthi nesa½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½ ya½ saºika½ saºika½ va¹¹henta½ pacch± p±kaµatara½ j±yat²ti. Tath± hi sar²rassa t±va ±n±p±n±na½ anavatth±nato parissamato ca visesaggahaºa½. Anavatthit± hi ass±sapass±s± v±t± v±rena v±rena pavattanato. Yadi hi assasite v± passassite v± sar²rassa koci pacch± viseso na siy±, na nesa½ koci bhedo siy±, diµµho ca so. Tasm± assasita½ sar²ra½ aññath± honta½ kamena t±disa½ avattha½ p±puº±ti. Y± pass±sassa paccayo hoti, passasite ca puna tatheva ass±sassa paccayo hot²ti ±n±p±n±na½ anavatth±natopi sar²rassa visesaggahaºa½ aññathattasiddhi. Tath± parissamopi asati visese pacch± sar²rassa na siy±, yen±ya½ iriy±pathantar±d²ni sevanena parissamavinodana½ karoti.
Atha v± r³p±dibhedatopi visesaggahaºa½. R³pagandharasaphass±d²nañhi visesena yo sar²re anindriyabaddhesu ca kh²r³dakavatthapupphaphalosadhidhaññ±d²na½ pacch± viseso gayhati, so asati bahipaccayavisese nesa½ jar±di-avatth±su vaººabal±dibhedo, rasav²riyavip±k±nubh±vabhedo ca khaºe khaºe aññathatta½ vin± kathamupalabbheyya. Ya½ pana ta½ dhammat±r³pa½ sil±di, tattha kathanti? Tass±pi s²tuºhasamphassabhedato attheva visesaggahaºa½. Ta½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½ vin± na yujjat²ti. Sati ca r³p±dibhede siddhova ta½nissayamah±bh³tabhedopi. Na hi nissayamah±bh³tabhedena vin± nissitabhedo sambhavat²ti. Eva½ t±va r³padhamm±na½ visesaggahaºato khaºe khaºe aññathatta½, tato ca hutv± abh±vasiddhi.
Ar³padhamm±na½ pana ±rammaº±dibhedena visesaggahaºa½. Yattha yattha hi ±rammaºe ar³padhamm± uppajjanti, tattha tattheva te bhijjanti, na añña½ saªkamanti, ±rammaºadhamm± ca yath±saka½ khaºato uddha½ na tiµµhant²ti. Sv±yamattho pad²p±di-ud±haraºena veditabbo. Aññe eva hi khaºe khaºe r³p±dayo pad²paj±l±ya, tath± kh²radh±r±d²su patant²su, v±yumhi ca paharante samphass±ni. Yath± cetesa½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½, kimaªga½ pana cittacetasik±na½. Kiñca saddabhedato, saddavisesatopi tannimitt±na½ cittacetasik±na½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½, tato visesaggahaºa½. Paguºañhi gantha½ s²gha½ parivattentassa cittasamuµµh±n±na½ sadd±na½ bhedo diµµho. Na hi k±raºabhedena vin± phalabhedo atthi. Yath± ta½ v±ditasadd±na½, eva½ ±rammaºabhedena ar³padhamm±na½ visesaggahaºa½. Teneva nesa½ khaºe khaºe aññathatta½ veditabba½. J±tibh³misampayuttadhammabhedena visesaggahaºepi eseva nayo. Eva½ r³p±r³padhamm±na½ visesaggahaºato khaºe khaºe aññathattasiddhi. Yato hutv± abh±vato cakkh±d²ni anicc±n²ti siddh±ni, aniccatt± eva abhiºhasampaµip²¼anato dukkh±ni, tato ca avasavattanato anattak±ni. Ten±ha bhagav± “yadanicca½, ta½ dukkha½, ya½ dukkha½, tadanatt±”ti (sa½. ni. 3.15, 45, 76, 85; 2.4.1, 2; paµi. ma. 2.10).
Nirantara½ pavattam±nass±ti abhiºhasaddattha½ visesetv± vadati. Dh±tumattat±y±ti dh±tumattabh±vena. Sam³hatoti sasambh±racakkh±dipiº¹ato. “Cakkh±d²nan”ti ida½ “sam³hato”ti pada½ apekkhitv± sambandhe s±mivacana½, “vinibbhujanan”ti pada½ apekkhitv± kammattheti veditabba½. Catt±ripi ghan±n²ti santatisam³hakicc±rammaºaghan±ni. Pavattar³p±diggahaºatoti ruppan±divasena pavattañca ta½ r³p±diggahaºañc±ti pavattar³p±diggahaºa½, tatoti yojetabba½. Anicc±diggahaºassa sabbh±v±ti r³pavedan±diñ±ºato bhinnassa anicc±diñ±ºassa labbham±natt±. Tena satipi r³p±di-atth±na½ anicc±dibh±ve ruppan±dibh±vato anicc±dibh±vassa bhedam±ha. Id±ni tameva bheda½ ñ±tat²raºapariññ±visayat±ya p±kaµa½ k±tu½ “na h²”ti-±dim±ha. N±tidh±vitunti idha lakkhaºalakkhaºavant± bhinn± vutt±. Tattha lakkhaº±rammaºikavipassan±ya khandh±rammaºat±vacanena abhinn±ti aññamaññavirodh±p±danena atidh±vitu½ na yutta½. Kasm±ti ce? Vutta½ “te pan±k±r±”ti-±di. Adhipp±yopi cettha lakkhaº±na½ r³p±di-±k±ramattat±vibh±vananti daµµhabbo. “Anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±”ti hi saªkh±re sabh±vato sallakkhentoyeva lakkhaº±ni ca sallakkhet²ti. Yath± anicc±dito aniccat±d²na½ vuttanayena bhedo, eva½ aniccat±d²nampi satipi lakkhaºabh±vas±maññe n±n±ñ±ºagocarat±ya, n±n±paµipakkhat±ya, n±nindriy±dhikat±ya ca vimokkhamukhattayabh³t±na½ aññamaññabhedoti dassento “aniccanti ca gaºhanto”ti-±dim±ha. Ta½ suviññeyyameva.

Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan± niµµhit±.