1. Khandhavibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±

Catusaccantogadhatt± catunna½ ariyasacc±na½ g±th±ya½ “catusaccadaso”ti nippadesato sacc±ni gahit±n²ti nippadesato eva tadattha½ vibh±vento “catt±ri sacc±n²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha sam±haµ±n²ti sam±n²t±ni, cittena ekato gahit±n²ti adhipp±yo. “Sam±haµ±n²”ti ca etena sam±h±re aya½ sam±soti dasseti. Tenevassa katekattassa catusaccanti napu½sakaniddeso “tivaµµan”ti-±d²su viya. Patt±dipakkhepena hissa na itthiliªgat± yath± pañcapatta½, catuyuga½, tibhuvananti, ta½ catusacca½ passi adakkhi, pariññ±pah±nasacchikiriy±bh±van±bhisamayavasena paµivijjh²ti attho. Kasm± panettha anant±parim±ºesu anaññas±dh±raºesu mah±karuº±sabbaññutaññ±º±d²su buddhaguºesu sa½vijjam±nesu s±vakehi, paccekabuddhehi ca s±dh±raºena catusaccadassanena bhagavanta½ thomet²ti codana½ manasi katv± ±ha “satipi s±vak±nan”ti-±di. Tattha “anaññapubbakatt±”ti imin± s±vakehi, “tattha c±”ti-±din± paccekabuddhehi ca bhagavato catusaccadassanassa as±dh±raºata½, niratisayatañca dasseti. Parasant±nesu pas±ritabh±vena sup±kaµatt±ti desan±nubh±vena veneyyasant±nesu catusaccadassanassa vitth±ritabh±vena y±va devamanussesu suppak±sitatt±. N±thasadda½ loke y±canupat±pissariy±s²s±su paµhant²ti tamattha½ dassetu½ “n±that²ti n±tho”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha yasm± bhagav± catusaccadassanabh±veneva attano hitasukh±s²s±ya kilesabyasanupat±panassa, hitapaµipattiy±canassa ca matthaka½ patto, tasm± ta½ teneva pak±sitanti atthuddh±ra½ an±masitv± paduddh±ravasena n±thasaddassa attha½ dassento “veneyy±na½ hitasukha½ ±s²sat²”ti-±dim±ha. “Catusaccadaso”ti v± imin± anaññas±dh±raºo bhagavato ñ±º±nubh±vo pak±sitoti “n±tho”ti imin± anaññas±dh±raºa½ karuº±nubh±va½ vibh±vetu½ “veneyy±nan”ti-±di vutta½. Paramena cittissariyena samann±gato bhagav± n±thoti vuccat²ti yojan±. Tath± paramena cittissariyena samann±gato sabbasatte guºehi ²sat²ti yojetabba½. Cittissariyen±ti ariyiddhi-±din± citte vas²bh±vena. Guºehi ²sat²ti paramukka½sagatehi attano s²l±diguºehi dhammena issariya½ vattet²ti attho. Eva½bh³to yasm± sabb±bhibh³ n±ma hoti, tena vutta½ “abhibhavat²”ti. Tath± c±ha “sadevake, bhikkhave, loke…pe… abhibh³ anabhibh³to, tasm± ‘tath±gato’ti vuccat²”ti (a. ni. 4.23; d². ni. 1.188). Duvidhen±pi issariyattha½ n±thasadda½ dasseti.
Aµµh±rasappabhed±ya desan±ya thomanamev±ti yojan±. Sam±nagaºanaguºeh²ti sam±nagaºanehi guºehi karaºabh³tehi. Yath±vuttena niratisayena catusaccadassanen±ti sabbaññutaññ±ºassa, dasabalesu vas²bh±vassa ca padaµµh±nabh³tena. Sacc±bhisambodhena hi abhin²h±r±nur³pa½ r³p±r³padhammesu chatti½sakoµisatasahassamukhappavattena s±tisaya½ santatisam³hakicc±rammaºaghanappabhedena mah±vajirañ±ºasaªkh±tena buddh±veºikena sammasanena sambh³tena bhagav± samm±sambodhiya½ patiµµhitova kusal±dibhedena, phass±dibhedena ca dhamme vibhajanto cittupp±dakaº¹±divasena dhammasaªgaha½ catudh± desetu½ samattho ahosi. Tath± at²ta½se appaµihatañ±ºat±dibuddhadhammasamann±gato bhagav± at²t±dibhedato khandh±dike vibhajitv± desetu½ samattho ahosi. Tena vutta½ “yath±vuttena…pe… vibhaªgan”ti. “Sabbaññubh±sitatt±”ti vatv± puna “asabbaññun± desetu½ asakkuºeyyata½ dassento”ti etena dhammasaªgaº²vibhaªg±na½ anvayato byatirekato ca samm±sambuddhappaveditataññeva vibh±veti. Samm±sambuddhat±diguºeti buddharatanassa samm±sambuddhat±, dhammasaªgharatan±na½ sv±kkh±tat±, suppaµipannat±ti evam±diguºe pak±seti.
Nanu ca “catusaccadaso”ti-±din± bhagavatova guº± vibh±vit±ti? Sacca½, teneva dhammasaªgh±nampi guº± vibh±vit± honti tappabhavassa anaññath±bh±vato, tadapadesena v± dhammo, tad±dh±ro ca saªgho vuttova hot²ti vutta½ “buddh±d²na½…pe… vibh±vet²”ti.
At²ta½seti at²takoµµh±se, pubbanteti attho. Appaµihatanti nappaµihata½, ñ±ºassa paµigh±to n±ma aññ±ºa½, sabbampi v± kilesaj±ta½. Ta½ yasm± bhagavato saha v±san±ya pah²na½, tasm±ssa at²ta½se sabbatthakameva ñeyy±varaºappah±nena ñ±ºa½ appaµihatanti vuccati. Esa nayo sesesupi. Ki½ panet±ni p±µiyekka½ visu½ ñ±º±ni, ud±hu at²t±d²su pavattanakañ±º±ni eva? T²su k±lesu appaµihatañ±º±ni n±ma p±µiyekka½ bhagavato t²ºi ñ±º±nev±ti vadanti. Eka½yeva hutv± t²su k±lesu appaµihatañ±ºa½ n±ma sabbaññutaññ±ºameva. Sabba½ k±yakammanti ya½ kiñci bhagavat± kattabba½ k±yakamma½. ѱºapubbaªgamanti ñ±ºapurec±rika½. ѱº±nuparivattanti ñ±ºassa anuparivattanaka½, sabba½ k±yapayoga½ pavattento bhagav± ñ±ºena paricchinditv± ñ±ºasahitameva pavattet²ti attho. Sesapadadvayepi eseva nayo. Chandass±ti kattukamyat±ya, mah±karuº±sam±yogato satt±na½ ekantahitesit±ya hitakiriy±chandass±ti attho. Dhammadesan±y±ti dhammakath±ya. Aparikkhay±parimeyyapaµibh±nat±ya hi bhagavato karaºasampattiy± ca dhammadesan± nirantara½ pavattiyam±n±pi na kad±cipi parikkhaya½ gacchati, aññadatthu upar³pari va¹¹hateva. V²riyass±ti parahitapaµipattiya½ uss±hassa. Vimuttiy±ti phalavimuttiy±. Ettha ca sam±dhi-±d²na½ ah±ni ta½ta½paµipakkhassa sav±sanapah²natt± anaññas±dh±raºat±ya veditabb±. Chand±d²na½ pana mah±karuº±sam±yogatopi. Sesa½ suviññeyyameva.
1. Te eva dhammeti te eva kusal±dike tikadukehi saªgahite dhamme. Suttante khandh±divasena vutte khandh±divasena vibhajitunti yojan±. Nanu suttante paµisambhid±vasena te na vutt±ti? Yadipi sar³pato na vutt±, “jar±maraºe ñ±ºa½, jar±maraºasamudaye ñ±ºan”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 2.33) pana hetuhetuphal±d²su ñ±ºavibh±gassa vuttatt± atthato vutt± eva honti, paµisambhid±magge (paµi. ma. 2.30) v± paµisambhid±na½ ±gatatt± suttante paµisambhid±vasenapi te dhamm± vutt± eva. Tatth±ti tasmi½ suttante. Saªkhepen±ti sam±sena. Uddesaniddesamatteneva hi suttante khandh±dayo desit±, na paµiniddes±din±ti saªkhepena te tattha vutt±ti vutt±. Tatth±ti v± dhammasaªgahe. Tatth±pi hi “tasmi½ kho pana samaye catt±ro khandh± hont²”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 58) khandh±dayo saªkhepena vutt±ti. Vibhaj²yanti ettha, etena v± khandh±dayoti vibhaªgo, te eva pakir²yanti paµµhap²yanti ettha, etena v±ti pakaraºa½, vibhaªgo ca so pakaraºañc±ti vibhaªgappakaraºa½. ¾disaddatthajotaken±ti “iti v±, iti evar³p± naccag²tav±ditavis³kadassan± paµivirato”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.13) viya ±disaddassa atthad²pakena. Pak±ratthajotaken±ti “iti kho, bhikkhave, sappaµibhayo b±lo, appaµibhayo paº¹ito”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 3.1) viya pak±ratthavibh±vakena. “Ekadesena samud±ya½ nidasset²”ti etena “r³pakkhandho…pe… viññ±ºakkhandho”ti ettha itisaddassa nidassanatthata½ dasseti. Nidassanatthopi hi iti-saddo diµµho yath± “atth²ti kho, kacc±na, ayameko anto”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 2.15; 3.90). Parisam±panattho v± “tasm±tiha me, bhikkhave, dhammad±y±d± bhavatha, no ±misad±y±d±. Atthi me tumhesu anukamp± ‘kinti me s±vak± dhammad±y±d± bhaveyyu½, no ±misad±y±d±’ti” (ma. ni. 1.29) evam±d²su viya. Parisam±panañheta½ suttantabh±jan²yassa ekadesadassanena yadida½ “pañcakkhandh± r³pakkhandho…pe… viññ±ºakkhandho”ti t±va tadatthassa saªgahitatt±. Tatth±ti vibhaªgappakaraºe. “Nibb±navajj±nan”ti ettha yadi nibb±navajj±na½…pe… appakatarapadatt± khandh±na½ khandhavibhaªgo ±dimhi vutto, nanu saha nibb±nena sabbadhammasaªg±hakatt±, sabbadhammasaªg±hakehi ca ±yatan±d²hi khandhehi ca appakatarapadatt± saccavibhaªgo ±dimhi vattabboti Na, tatth±pi dukkhasaccavibhaªge ekadesena khandh±na½ eva vibhajitabbato. Yath±ha “tattha katama½ dukkha½ ariyasacca½? J±tipi dukkh±…pe… sa½khittena pañcup±d±nakkhandh± dukkh±”ti (vibha. 190; d². ni. 2.387; ma. ni. 1.120; 3.373). Idha pana anavasesatova khandh± vibhaj²yant²ti nibb±navajj±na½…pe… appakatarapadatt± khandh±na½ khandhavibhaªgo ±dimhi vutto.
Apica r³pasamm³¼h± ar³pasamm³¼h± ubhayasamm³¼h±ti tividh± bodhaneyyapuggal±, tath± sa½khittarucino vitth±rarucino n±tisaªkhepavitth±rarucino, tikkhindriy± mudindriy± majjhimindriy±ti ca. Tesu ar³pasamm³¼h±na½ upak±r±ya khandhadesan±, r³pasamm³¼h±na½ ±yatanadesan±, ubhayasamm³¼h±na½ dh±tudesan±. Tath± sa½khittaruc²na½ khandhadesan±, n±tisaªkhepavitth±raruc²na½ ±yatanadesan±, vitth±raruc²na½ dh±tudesan±. Tikkhindriy±na½ khandhadesan±, majjhimindriy±na½ ±yatanadesan±, mudindriy±na½ dh±tudesan±ti imin± payojanena anukkamena ca khandh±yatanadh±tuvibhaªg±na½ desan±kkamova veditabbo. Ta½ paneta½ khandh±dittaya½ pavattinivattitadubhayahetumukheneva ñ±yam±na½ yath±bh³t±vabodh±ya hoti, n±ññath±ti dassanattha½ saccavibhaªgadesan± pavatt±. So ca yath±bh³t±vabodho visesato indriyasannissayen±ti indriyavibhaªgadesan±. Indriy±nañca indaµµho ta½ta½paccayadhammabh³t±na½ yath±saka½ paccayuppannesu paccayabh±vavisesenev±ti paccayapaccayuppannavibh±gasandassan² paccay±k±ravibhaªgadesan±. Paccay±k±rassa khandh±d²nañca avipar²tasabh±v±vabodho satipaµµh±n±d²su samm±manasik±ren±ti satipaµµh±nasammappadh±na-iddhip±dabojjhaªgamaggaªgavibhaªgadesan±. Sv±ya½ satipaµµh±n±d²su samm±manasik±ro im±ya paµipattiy± hot²ti jh±na-appamaññ±vibhaªgadesan±, s± samm±paµipatti ettake s²le patiµµhitassa sambhavat²ti sikkh±padavibhaªgadesan±, yath±vutt±ya ca samm±paµipattiy± ime ±nisa½s±ti paµisambhid±ñ±ºavibhaªgadesan±, te cime ñ±ºavises± imesu kilesesu pah²yantesu ca sambhavanti, n±ññath±ti kilesavibhaªgadesan±, eva½ vitth±rato desite khandh±dike saªkhepatopi j±nantassa atthasiddhi hoti ev±ti dassanattha½ pariyos±ne dhammahadayavibhaªgadesan± pavatt±ti evametesa½ aµµh±rasanna½ mah±vibhaªg±na½ desan±kkamak±raºa½ veditabba½.
R³p±d²nanti r³pavedan±saññ±saªkh±raviññ±º±na½. Vedayit±disabh±vatt±bh±v±ti yath±kkama½ anubhavanasañj±nan±bhisaªkharaº±disabh±vatt±bh±v±. Na hi r³pa½ vedayit±disabh±va½, vedan±di v± ruppan±disabh±va½. Yato r³p±d²na½ vedan±samavarodhanena “catt±ro khandh±”ti-±din± saªkhipitv± khandh± 06 desetabb± siyu½. Ruppan±dito aññass±bh±v±ti ruppan±nubhavan±disabh±vato aññassa at²t±dike gahetv± r±sivasena vattabbassa sa½khittassa sabh±vassa abh±v±. Na hi cetasik±dibh±vo vedan±d²na½ sabh±vo. Heµµh± gaºanes³ti pañcato heµµh± gaºanesu. Aniµµh±nanti apariyos±na½. R³p±d²su hi katipaye, ekampi v± aggahetv± vuccam±n± khandhavasena desan± anavasesasaªkhatadhammasaªg±hin² na sambhavati. Khandhass±ti r±saµµhassa khandhassa. Tenev±ha “na h²”ti-±di. Savibh±gadhammeh²ti sappabhedadhammehi.
“Saddatthasahita½ khandhasaddassa visaya½ dasset²”ti etena r±sisaddassa viya r±saµµhe khandhasaddassa v±cakabh±vena pavatti½ dasseti pariy±yantarabh±vato. Guº±d²su pana kevala½ tabbisayapayogabh±veneva pavatti, na v±cakabh±ven±ti ±ha “guºe…pe… na saddatthan”ti. Khandhasaddoti s²l±disadde sannidh±pito khandhasaddo. Tenev±ha “s²l±diguºavisiµµha½ r±saµµha½ d²pet²”ti. Kec²ti dhammasiritthera½ sandh±ya vadati. Etth±ti “s²lakkhandho sam±dhikkhandho”ti (d². ni. 3.355) ettha. Na kevalañca so eva, aµµhakath±cariyehipi ettha guºatthat± icchit± eva. Tath± hi aµµhas±liniya½ “s²lakkhandho sam±dhikkhandhoti-±d²su guºaµµhen±”ti (dha. sa. aµµha. 5) vutta½. Nanu ca kevalopi khandhasaddo “tiººa½ kho, m±ºava, khandh±na½ vaººav±d², na kho, ±vuso vis±kha, t²hi khandhehi ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo saªgahito”ti (ma. ni. 1.462) ca ±d²su s²l±div±cako diµµhoti? Na, tatth±pi adhik±r±divacchedakavasenevassa s²l±d²su pavattidassanato. Na khandhasaddo paññattisaddassa atthe vattat²ti niruttivoh±r±disadd± viya paññattipariy±yo na hot²ti attho. D±rukkhandhoti paññatti hot²ti tassa khandhasaddassa paññattivisesappavattita½ dasseti. Viññ±ºakkhandhoti khandhasaddoti “viññ±ºa½ viññ±ºakkhandho”ti (yama. 1.khandhayamaka.32) ettha vutto khandhasaddo. Samud±ye niru¼hoti at²t±dibhedabhinnassa paññ±ya abhisa½y³hanena r±sikate viññ±ºasam³he niru¼ho. T±ya eva ru¼hiy± pavattat²ti t±ya samud±ye niru¼hat±ya tadavayave ekasmimpi viññ±ºe pavattat²ti. Ettha ca ñ±ºasampayutte niru¼ho kosallasambh³taµµhena kusalabh±vo viya ñ±ºavippayutte viññ±ºasamud±ye niru¼ho tadekadesepi ru¼hiy± pavattat²ti veditabba½. Atha v± kiñci nimitta½ gahetv± satipi aññasmi½ tannimittayutte kismiñcideva visaye sammutiy± cirak±lat±vasena nimittavirahepi pavatti ru¼hi n±ma, yath± mahiya½ set²ti mahi½so, gacchant²ti g±voti, eva½ khandhasaddass±pi ru¼hibh±vo veditabbo.
R±sito guºatoti sabbattha bhummatthe v± nissakkavacana½ daµµhabba½. Niyametv±ti vavatthapetv±. Piº¹aµµhoti saªgh±tattho. Tasm±ti yasm± pañceva khandh± vutt±, koµµh±saµµhe ca khandhaµµhe nibb±nassa vasena chaµµhen±pi khandhena bhavitabba½, tasm± khandhaµµho n±ma r±saµµhoti yutta½. “Yesa½ v± at²t±divasena bhedo atth²”ti-±din± at²t±divibh±gabhinnesu ruppan±disabh±vadhammesu visu½ visu½ koµµh±sabh±vena gayham±nesu tabbibh±garahitassa ekassa nibb±nassa r±saµµhat± viya koµµh±saµµhat±pi na sambhavat²ti dasseti. Etena paññattiy±pi khandhesu aggahaºe k±raºa½ vuttanti veditabba½.
Kasm± panettha phass±dike viya saªkh±rakkhandhe anavarodhetv± vedan±saññ± visu½ khandhabh±vena gahit±ti? Viv±dam³lat±divisesadassanattha½. Gahaµµh±nañhi viv±dak±raºa½ k±majjhos±na½. Vuttañceta½ “puna capara½, bhikkhave, k±mahetu k±manid±na½ k±m±dhikaraºa½ k±m±nameva hetu m±t±pi puttena vivadati, puttopi m±tar± vivadat²”ti-±di (ma. ni. 1.168, 178). Pabbajit±na½ diµµh±bhiniveso. Vuttampi ceta½ “ye diµµhimuggayha viv±dayanti, ‘idameva saccan’ti (su. ni. 838; mah±ni. 67) ca v±dayant²”ti-±di. Tesu k±majjhos±na½ vedanass±dena hoti, diµµh±bhiniveso saññ±vipall±sena. Saññ±vipall±sena hi cittavipall±so, cittavipall±sena diµµhim±nataºh±papañc±na½ vipall±soti. Tath± vedan±nugiddho vipallatthasañño ca sa½sarati. Vedan±nugiddhassa hi vedan±paccay± taºh± siddh± hoti, tato ca taºh±paccay± up±d±nanti ±vaµµati bhavacakka½. Vipallatthasaññissa ca “saññ±nid±n± hi papañcasaªkh±”ti (su. ni. 880) vacanato diµµhim±nataºh±papañc±na½ anupacchedato sa½s±rassa anupacchedova. Iti viv±dak±raº±na½ k±majjhos±nadiµµh±bhinives±na½ k±raºabh±vo sa½s±rahetubh±voti imassa viv±dam³lat±divisesassa dassanattha½ saªkh±rakkhandhe anavarodhetv± vedan±saññ± visu½ khandhabh±vena gahit±ti veditabba½.
Ok±ses³ti vibhajanakiriy±ya pavattiµµh±nabh±vato at²t±dayo ok±s±ti vutt±. Itisadden±ti “up±d±yar³pan”ti eva½ aµµhakath±ya½ vutta-itisaddena. Nidassanatthen±ti ud±haraºatthena. Sabboti sakalo ek±dasasu ok±sesu vibhatto vibhajananayo. Idañca vibhajananti “catt±ro ca mah±bh³t±…pe… up±d±yar³pan”ti eva½ vibhatta½ idañca vibhajana½. O¼±rik±d²s³ti o¼±rikasukhumah²napaº²tad³rasantikesu. Cakkh±yatananti-±divibhajanañc±ti “cakkh±yatana½…pe… phoµµhabb±yatana½ itthindriya½…pe… kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro r³p± sadd± gandh± ras± phoµµhabb±ti eva½ pavatta½ vibhajanañca. Yath±sambhavanti yath±raha½. Ek±dasasu ok±sesu ya½ yattha vibhajana½ yutta½, ta½ tattha yojetabba½. Eva½ vedan±kkhandh±d²sup²ti yath± r³pakkhandhe yath±sambhava½ ek±dasasu ok±sesu vibhajana½ yojetabbanti vutta½, eva½ vedan±kkhandh±d²supi yath±sambhava½ ek±dasasu ok±sesu vibhajana½ yojetabbanti attho.
Tattha vedan±kkhandho t±va purime ok±sapañcake sukh±divedan±ttikavasena vibhatto, itarasmi½ kusalattikavedan±ttikasam±pannadukas±savadukavasena. Saññ±kkhandho pana purime ok±sapañcake chaphassadv±ravasena, itarasmi½ o¼±rikaduke paµighasamphassadukavasena ceva yath±vuttakusalattik±divasena ca vibhatto. Sesesu kusalattik±divaseneva. Tath± saªkh±rakkhandho. Paµighasamphassaduko panettha nattheva. Cetan±ya eva cettha niddeso saªkh±rakkhandhadhamm±na½ cetan±ppadh±nabh±vadassanattha½. Tath± hi s± “saªkh±rakkhandho”ti vutt±. Tatth±ti tasmi½ viññ±ºakkhandhassa vibhajane paµiniddese. Ta½ pana dvayanti manodh±tumanoviññ±ºadh±tudvaya½. Yañhi sattaviññ±ºadh±tudesan±ya½ “manodh±tu, manoviññ±ºadh±t³”ti dvaya½ desita½, ta½ chaviññ±ºak±yadesan±ya½ “manoviññ±ºan”tveva vuccat²ti.
P±¼inayen±ti khandhavibhaªgap±¼inayena. Aññena pak±ren±ti dhammasaªgahe, tadaµµhakath±yañca ±gatena pak±rantarena.