2. ¾yatanavibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±

154. Id±ni tadanantare ±yatanavibhaªganiddese suttantabh±jan²ya½ t±va dassento dv±das±yatan±ni cakkh±yatana½ r³p±yatananti-±dim±ha. Tattha p±¼imuttakena t±va nayena–
Atthalakkhaºat±vatva, kamasaªkhepavitth±r±;
tath± daµµhabbato ceva, viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
Tattha visesato t±va cakkhat²ti cakkhu; r³pa½ ass±deti, vibh±veti c±ti attho. R³payat²ti r³pa½; vaººavik±ra½ ±pajjam±na½ hadayaªgatabh±va½ pak±set²ti attho. Suº±t²ti sota½. Sappat²ti saddo; ud±hariyat²ti attho. Gh±yat²ti gh±na½. Gandhayat²ti gandho; attano vatthu½ s³cayat²ti attho. J²vita½ avh±yat²ti jivh±. Rasanti ta½ satt±ti raso; ass±dent²ti attho. Kucchit±na½ s±savadhamm±na½ ±yoti k±yo. ¾yoti uppattideso. Phus²yat²ti phoµµhabba½. Manat²ti mano. Attano lakkhaºa½ dh±rayant²ti dhamm±.
Avisesato pana ±yatanato, ±y±na½ tananato, ±yatassa ca nayanato ±yatananti veditabba½. Cakkhur³p±d²su hi ta½ta½dv±r±rammaº± cittacetasik± dhamm± sena sena anubhavan±din± kiccena ±yatanti uµµhahanti ghaµµenti v±yamant²ti vutta½ hoti. Te ca pana ±yabh³te dhamme et±ni tanonti vitth±rent²ti vutta½ hoti. Idañca anamatagge sa½s±re pavatta½ at²va ±yata½ sa½s±radukkha½ y±va na nivattati t±va nayanteva, pavattayant²ti vutta½ hoti. Iti sabbepi me dhamm± ±yatanato ±y±na½ tananato ±yatassa ca nayanato ‘±yatana½ ±yatanan’ti vuccanti.
Apica niv±saµµh±naµµhena, ±karaµµhena, samosaraºaµµh±naµµhena sañj±tidesaµµhena, k±raºaµµhena ca ±yatana½ veditabba½. Tath± hi loke “issar±yatana½ v±sudev±yatanan”ti-±d²su niv±saµµh±na½ ±yatananti vuccati “Suvaºº±yatana½ rajat±yatanan”ti-±d²su ±karo. S±sane pana “manorame ±yatane sevanti na½ vihaªgam±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 5.38) samosaraºaµµh±na½. “Dakkhiº±patho gunna½ ±yatanan”ti-±d²su sañj±tideso. “Tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbata½ p±puº±ti sati sati-±yatane”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 5.23) k±raºa½.
Cakkhur³p±d²su c±pi te te cittacetasik± dhamm± nivasanti tad±yattavuttit±y±ti cakkh±dayo nesa½ niv±sanaµµh±na½. Cakkh±d²su ca te ±kiºº± ta½ nissitatt± tad±rammaºatt± c±ti cakkh±dayo nesa½ ±karo. Cakkh±dayo ca nesa½ samosaraºaµµh±na½, tattha tattha vatthudv±r±rammaºavasena samosaraºato. Cakkh±dayo ca nesa½ sañj±tideso; ta½ nissay±rammaºabh±vena tattheva uppattito. Cakkh±dayo ca nesa½ k±raºa½, tesa½ abh±ve abh±vatoti. Iti niv±saµµh±naµµhena, ±karaµµhena, samosaraºaµµh±naµµhena, sañj±tidesaµµhena, k±raºaµµhen±ti imehi k±raºehi ete dhamm± ‘±yatana½ ±yatanan’ti vuccanti. Tasm± yath±vuttenatthena cakkhu ca ta½ ±yatanañc±ti cakkh±yatana½…pe… dhamm± ca te ±yatanañc±ti dhamm±yatananti eva½ t±vettha ‘atthato’ viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Lakkhaºato’ti cakkh±d²na½ lakkhaºatopettha viññ±tabbo vinicchayo. T±ni ca pana nesa½ lakkhaº±ni heµµh± r³pakaº¹aniddese vuttanayeneva veditabb±ni.
‘T±vatvato’ti t±vabh±vato. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– cakkh±dayopi hi dhamm± eva. Eva½ sati dhamm±yatanamicceva avatv± kasm± dv±das±yatan±ni vutt±n²ti ce? Cha viññ±ºak±yuppattidv±r±rammaºavavatth±nato. Idha channa½ viññ±ºak±y±na½ dv±rabh±vena ±rammaºabh±vena ca vavatth±nato ayameva tesa½ bhedo hot²ti dv±dasa vutt±ni. Cakkhuviññ±ºav²thipariy±pannassa hi viññ±ºak±yassa cakkh±yatanameva uppattidv±ra½, r³p±yatanameva c±rammaºa½ Tath± itar±ni itaresa½. Chaµµhassa pana bhavaªgamanasaªkh±to man±yatanekadesova uppattidv±ra½, as±dh±raºañca dhamm±yatana½ ±rammaºanti Iti channa½ viññ±ºak±y±na½ uppattidv±r±rammaºavavatth±nato dv±dasa vutt±n²ti. Evamettha ‘t±vatvato’ viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Kamato’ti idh±pi pubbe vuttesu uppattikkam±d²su desan±kkamova yujjati. Ajjhattikesu hi ±yatanesu sanidassanasappaµighavisayatt± cakkh±yatana½ p±kaµanti paµhama½ desita½. Tato anidassanasappaµighavisay±ni sot±yatan±d²ni. Atha v± dassan±nuttariyasavan±nuttariyahetubh±vena bah³pak±ratt± ajjhattikesu cakkh±yatanasot±yatan±ni paµhama½ desit±ni. Tato gh±n±yatan±d²ni t²ºi. Pañcannampi gocaravisayatt± ante man±yatana½. Cakkh±d²na½ pana gocaratt± tassa tassa anantar±ni b±hiresu r³p±yatan±d²ni. Apica viññ±ºuppattik±raºavavatth±natopi ayameva tesa½ kamo veditabbo. Vuttañheta½ “cakkhuñca paµicca r³pe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññ±ºa½…pe… manañca paµicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññ±ºan”ti (ma. ni. 3.421) eva½ ‘kamato’pettha viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Saªkhepavitth±r±’ti saªkhepato hi man±yatanassa ceva dhamm±yatanekadesassa ca n±mena, tadavases±nañca ±yatan±na½ r³pena saªgahitatt± dv±das±pi ±yatan±ni n±mar³pamattameva honti.
Vitth±rato pana ajjhattikesu t±va cakkh±yatana½ j±tivasena cakkhupas±damattameva, paccayagatinik±yapuggalabhedato pana anantappabheda½. Tath± sot±yatan±d²ni catt±ri. Man±yatana½ tebh³makakusal±kusalavip±kakiriyaviññ±ºabhedena ek±s²tippabheda½, vatthupaµipad±dibhedato pana anantappabheda½. R³pagandharas±yatan±ni samuµµh±nabhedato catuppabhed±ni, sadd±yatana½ dvippabheda½. Sabh±gavisabh±gabhedato pana sabb±nipi anantappabhed±ni. Phoµµhabb±yatana½ pathav²dh±tutejodh±tuv±yodh±tuvasena tippabheda½, samuµµh±nato catuppabheda½, sabh±gavisabh±gato anekappabheda½. Dhamm±yatana½ tebh³makadhamm±rammaºavasena anekappabhedanti. Eva½ saªkhepavitth±r± viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Daµµhabbato’ti ettha pana sabb±nevet±ni ±yatan±ni an±gamanato aniggamanato ca daµµhabb±ni. Na hi t±ni pubbe uday± kutoci ±gacchanti, n±pi uddha½ vay± kuhiñci gacchanti; atha kho pubbe uday± appaµiladdhasabh±v±ni, uddha½ vay± paribhinnasabh±v±ni, pubbant±parantavemajjhe paccay±yattavuttit±ya avas±ni pavattanti. Tasm± an±gamanato aniggamanato ca daµµhabb±ni. Tath± nir²hato aby±p±rato ca. Na hi cakkhur³p±d²na½ eva½ hoti– ‘aho vata amh±ka½ s±maggiy± viññ±ºa½ n±ma uppajjeyy±’ti, na ca t±ni viññ±ºupp±danattha½ dv±rabh±vena vatthubh±vena ±rammaºabh±vena v± ²hanti, na by±p±ram±pajjanti; atha kho dhammat±ves± ya½ cakkhur³p±d²na½ s±maggiya½ cakkhuviññ±º±d²ni sambhavanti. Tasm± nir²hato aby±p±rato ca daµµhabb±ni. Apica ajjhattik±ni suññag±mo viya daµµhabb±ni dhuvasubhasukhattabh±vavirahitatt±, b±hir±ni g±magh±takacor± viya ajjhattik±na½ abhigh±takatt±. Vuttañheta½– “cakkhu, bhikkhave, haññati man±p±man±pehi r³peh²ti vitth±ro. Apica ajjhattik±ni cha p±ºak± viya daµµhabb±ni, b±hir±ni tesa½ gocar± viy±ti. Evampettha ‘daµµhabbato’ viññ±tabbo vinicchayoti.
Id±ni tesa½ vipassitabb±k±ra½ dassetu½ cakkhu½ aniccanti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha cakkhu t±va hutv± abh±vaµµhena aniccanti veditabba½. Aparehipi cat³hi k±raºehi anicca½– upp±davayavantato, vipariº±mato, t±vak±likato, niccapaµikkhepatoti.
Tadeva paµip²¼anaµµhena dukkha½. Yasm± v± eta½ uppanna½ µhiti½ p±puº±ti, µhitiya½ jar±ya kilamati, jara½ patv± avassa½ bhijjati; tasm± abhiºhasampaµip²¼anato, dukkhamato, dukkhavatthuto, sukhapaµikkhepatoti imehi cat³hi k±raºehi dukkha½.
Avasavattanaµµhena pana anatt±. Yasm± v± eta½ uppanna½ µhiti½ m± p±puº±tu, µh±nappatta½ m± jiratu, jarappata½ m± bhijjat³ti imesu t²su µh±nesu kassaci vasavattibh±vo natthi, suñña½ tena vasavattan±k±rena; tasm± suññato, ass±mikato, ak±mak±riyato, attapaµikkhepatoti imehi cat³hi k±raºehi anatt±.
Vibhavagatikato pubb±paravasena bhavasaªkantigamanato, pakatibh±vavijahanato ca vipariº±madhamma½. Ida½ aniccavevacanameva. R³p± anicc±ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Apicettha µhapetv± cakkhu½ tebh³makadhamm± anicc±, no cakkhu. Cakkhu pana cakkhu ceva aniccañca. Tath± sesadhamm± dukkh±, no cakkhu. Cakkhu pana cakkhu ceva dukkhañca. Sesadhamm± anatt±, no cakkhu. Cakkhu pana cakkhu ceva anatt± c±ti. R³p±d²supi eseva nayo.
Imasmi½ pana suttantabh±jan²ye tath±gatena ki½ dassitanti? Dv±dasanna½ ±yatan±na½ anattalakkhaºa½. Samm±sambuddho hi anattalakkhaºa½ dassento aniccena v± dasseti, dukkhena v±, aniccadukkhehi v±. Tattha “cakkhu, att±ti yo vadeyya, ta½ na upapajjati. Cakkhussa upp±dopi vayopi paññ±yati. Yassa kho pana upp±dopi vayopi paññ±yati ‘att± me uppajjati ca veti c±’ti iccassa evam±gata½ hoti. Tasm± ta½ na upapajjati– cakkhu att±ti yo vadeyya iti cakkhu anatt±”ti (ma. ni. 3.422). Imasmi½ sutte aniccena anattalakkhaºa½ dassesi. “R³pa½, bhikkhave, anatt±. R³pañca hida½, bhikkhave, att± abhavissa, na yida½ r³pa½ ±b±dh±ya sa½vatteyya; labbhetha ca r³pe– eva½ me r³pa½ hotu, eva½ me r³pa½ m± ahos²ti. Yasm± ca kho, bhikkhave, r³pa½ anatt± tasm± r³pa½ ±b±dh±ya sa½vattati; na ca labbhati r³pe– eva½ me r³pa½ hotu, eva½ me r³pa½ m± ahos²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.59; mah±va. 20) imasmi½ sutte dukkhena anattalakkhaºa½ dassesi. “R³pa½, bhikkhave, anicca½, yadanicca½ ta½ dukkha½, ya½ dukkha½ tadanatt±, yadanatt± ta½ neta½ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso att±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 3.15) aniccadukkhehi anattalakkhaºa½ dassesi. Kasm±? Aniccadukkh±na½ p±kaµatt±.
Hatthato hi taµµake v± sarake v± kismiñcideva v± patitv± bhinne ‘aho aniccan’ti vadanti. Eva½ anicca½ p±kaµa½ n±ma. Attabh±vasmi½ pana gaº¹api¼ak±d²su v± uµµhit±su kh±ºukaºµak±d²hi v± viddh±su ‘aho dukkhan’ti vadanti. Eva½ dukkha½ p±kaµa½ n±ma. Anattalakkhaºa½ ap±kaµa½ andhak±ra½ avibh³ta½ duppaµivijjha½ dudd²pana½ duppaññ±pana½ Aniccadukkhalakkhaº±ni upp±d± v± tath±gat±na½ anupp±d± v± paññ±yanti. Anattalakkhaºa½ vin± buddhupp±d± na paññ±yati, buddhupp±deyeva paññ±yati. Mahiddhik± hi mah±nubh±v± t±pasaparibb±jak± sarabhaªgasatth±r±dayopi ‘anicca½ dukkhan’ti vattu½ sakkonti, ‘anatt±’ti vattu½ na sakkonti. Sace hi te sampattaparis±ya anatt±ti vattu½ sakkuºeyyu½, sampattaparis±ya maggaphalapaµivedho bhaveyya. Anattalakkhaºapaññ±panañhi aññassa kassaci avisayo, sabbaññubuddh±nameva visayo. Evameta½ anattalakkhaºa½ ap±kaµa½. Tasm± satth± anattalakkhaºa½ dassento aniccena v± dassesi, dukkhena v±, aniccadukkhehi v±. Idha pana ta½ aniccadukkhehi dasses²ti veditabba½.
Im±ni pana lakkhaº±ni kissa amanasik±r± appaµivedh±, kena paµicchannatt±, na upaµµhahanti? Aniccalakkhaºa½ t±va udayabbay±na½ amanasik±r± appaµivedh±, santatiy± paµicchannatt±, na upaµµh±ti. Dukkhalakkhaºa½ abhiºhasampaµip²¼anassa amanasik±r± appaµivedh±, iriy±pathehi paµicchannatt±, na upaµµh±ti. Anattalakkhaºa½ n±n±dh±tuvinibbhogassa amanasik±r± appaµivedh±, ghanena paµicchannatt±, na upaµµh±ti. Udayabbaya½ pana pariggahetv± santatiy± vikopit±ya aniccalakkhaºa½ y±th±vasarasato upaµµh±ti. Abhiºhasampaµip²¼ana½ manasikatv± iriy±pathe uggh±µite dukkhalakkhaºa½ y±th±vasarasato upaµµh±ti. N±n±dh±tuyo vinibbhujitv± ghanavinibbhoge kate anattalakkhaºa½ y±th±vasarasato upaµµh±ti.
Ettha ca anicca½ aniccalakkhaºa½, dukkha½ dukkhalakkhaºa½, anatt± anattalakkhaºanti aya½ vibh±go veditabbo. Tattha aniccanti khandhapañcaka½. Kasm±? Upp±davayaññathattabh±v±, hutv± abh±vato v±; upp±davayaññathatta½ aniccalakkhaºa½, hutv± abh±vasaªkh±to ±k±ravik±ro v±. “Yadanicca½ ta½ dukkhan”ti vacanato pana tadeva khandhapañcaka½ dukkha½. Kasm±? Abhiºhasampaµip²¼anato; abhiºhasampaµip²¼an±k±ro dukkhalakkhaºa½. “Ya½ dukkha½ ta½ anatt±”ti pana vacanato tadeva khandhapañcaka½ anatt±. Kasm±? Avasavattanato; avasavattan±k±ro anattalakkhaºa½. Iti aññadeva anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±, aññ±ni aniccadukkh±nattalakkhaº±ni. Pañcakkhandh±, dv±das±yatan±ni, aµµh±rasa dh±tuyoti idañhi sabbampi anicca½ dukkha½ anatt± n±ma. Vuttappak±r±k±ravik±r± aniccadukkh±nattalakkhaº±n²ti.
Saªkhepato panettha das±yatan±ni k±m±vacar±ni, dve tebh³mak±ni. Sabbesupi sammasanac±ro kathitoti veditabbo.

Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±.