10. Bojjhaªgavibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±

466. Id±ni tadanantare bojjhaªgavibhaªge satt±ti gaºanaparicchedo. Bojjhaªg±ti bodhiy± bodhissa v± aªg±ti bojjhaªg±. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– y± es± dhammas±magg² y±ya lokuttaramaggakkhaºe uppajjam±n±ya l²nuddhaccapatiµµh±n±y³hanak±masukhattakilamath±nuyoga-ucchedasassat±bhinives±d²na½ anekesa½ upaddav±na½ paµipakkhabh³t±ya satidhammavicayav²riyap²tipassaddhisam±dhi-upekkh±saªkh±t±ya dhammas±maggiy± ariyas±vako bujjhat²ti katv± bodh²ti vuccati, bujjhati kilesasant±nanidd±ya uµµhahati, catt±ri v± ariyasacc±ni paµivijjhati, nibb±nameva v± sacchikaroti, tass± dhammas±magg²saªkh±t±ya bodhiy± aªg±tipi bojjhaªg±, jh±naªgamaggaªg±d²ni viya. Yo panesa yath±vuttappak±r±ya et±ya dhammas±maggiy± bujjhat²ti katv± ariyas±vako bodh²ti vuccati, tassa bodhissa aªg±tipi bojjhaªg±, senaªgarathaªg±dayo viya. Ten±hu aµµhakath±cariy±– “bujjhanakassa puggalassa aªg±ti v± bojjhaªg±”ti.
Apica “bojjhaªg±ti kenaµµhena bojjhaªg±? Bodh±ya sa½vattant²ti bojjhaªg±, bujjhant²ti bojjhaªg±, anubujjhant²ti bojjhaªg±, paµibujjhant²ti bojjhaªg±, sambujjhant²ti bojjhaªg±”ti imin± paµisambhid±nayen±pi bojjhaªgattho veditabbo.
Satisambojjhaªgoti-±d²su pasattho sundaro ca bojjhaªgo sambojjhaªgo, satiyeva sambojjhaªgo satisambojjhaªgo. Tattha upaµµh±nalakkhaºo satisambojjhaªgo, pavicayalakkhaºo dhammavicayasambojjhaªgo, paggahalakkhaºo v²riyasambojjhaªgo, pharaºalakkhaºo p²tisambojjhaªgo, upasamalakkhaºo passaddhisambojjhaªgo, avikkhepalakkhaºo sam±dhisambojjhaªgo, paµisaªkh±nalakkhaºo upekkh±sambojjhaªgo. Tesu “satiñca khv±ha½, bhikkhave, sabbatthika½ vad±m²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.234) vacanato sabbesa½ bojjhaªg±na½ upak±rakatt± satisambojjhaªgo paµhama½ vutto. Tato para½ “so tath± sato viharanto ta½ dhamma½ paññ±ya pavicinat²”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 150) nayena eva½ anukkameneva nikkhepapayojana½ p±¼iya½ ±gatameva.
Kasm± panete satteva vutt±, an³n± anadhik±ti? L²nuddhaccapaµipakkhato sabbatthikato ca. Ettha hi tayo bojjhaªg± l²nassa paµipakkh±, yath±ha– “yasmiñca kho, bhikkhave, samaye l²na½ citta½ hoti, k±lo tasmi½ samaye dhammavicayasambojjhaªgassa bh±van±ya, k±lo v²riyasambojjhaªgassa bh±van±ya, k±lo p²tisambojjhaªgassa bh±van±y±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.234). Tayo uddhaccassa paµipakkh±, yath±ha– “yasmiñca kho, bhikkhave, samaye uddhata½ citta½ hoti, k±lo tasmi½ samaye passaddhisambojjhaªgassa bh±van±ya, k±lo sam±dhisambojjhaªgassa bh±van±ya, k±lo upekkh±sambojjhaªgassa bh±van±y±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.234). Eko panettha loºadh³pana½ viya sabbabyañjanesu, sabbakammika-amacco viya ca sabbesu r±jakiccesu, sabbabojjhaªgesu icchitabbato sabbatthiko, yath±ha– “satiñca khv±ha½, bhikkhave, sabbatthika½ vad±m²”ti. “Sabbatthakan”tipi p±¼i. Dvinnampi sabbattha icchitabbanti attho. Eva½ l²nuddhaccapaµipakkhato sabbatthikato ca satteva vutt±ti veditabb±.
467. Id±ni nesa½ ekasmi½yev±rammaºe attano attano kiccavasena n±n±karaºa½ dassetu½ tattha katamo satisambojjhaªgoti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha idha bhikkh³ti imasmi½ s±sane bhikkhu. Satim± hot²ti paññ±ya paññav±, yasena yasav±, dhanena dhanav± viya satiy± satim± hoti, satisampannoti attho. Paramen±ti uttamena; tañhi paramatthasaccassa nibb±nassa ceva maggassa ca anulomato parama½ n±ma hoti uttama½ seµµha½. Satinepakken±ti nepakka½ vuccati paññ±; satiy± ceva nepakkena c±ti attho.
Kasm± pana imasmi½ satibh±jan²ye paññ± saªgahit±ti? Satiy± balavabh±vad²panattha½. Sati hi paññ±ya saddhimpi uppajjati vin±pi, paññ±ya saddhi½ uppajjam±n± balavat² hoti, vin± uppajjam±n± dubbal±. Tenass± balavabh±vad²panattha½ paññ± saªgahit±. Yath± hi dv²su dis±su dve r±jamah±matt± tiµµheyyu½; tesu eko r±japutta½ gahetv± tiµµheyya, eko attano dhammat±ya ekakova tesu r±japutta½ gahetv± µhito attanopi tejena r±japuttassapi tejena tejav± hoti; attano dhammat±ya µhito na tena samatejo hoti; evameva r±japutta½ gahetv± µhitamah±matto viya paññ±ya saddhi½ uppann± sati, attano dhammat±ya µhito viya vin± paññ±ya uppann±. Tattha yath± r±japutta½ gahetv± µhito attanopi tejena r±japuttassapi tejena tejav± hoti, eva½ paññ±ya saddhi½ uppann± sati balavat² hoti; yath± attano dhammat±ya µhito na tena samatejo hoti, eva½ vin± paññ±ya uppann± dubbal± hot²ti balavabh±vad²panattha½ paññ± gahit±ti.
Cirakatamp²ti attano v± parassa v± k±yena cirakata½ vatta½ v± kasiºamaº¹ala½ v± kasiºaparikamma½ v±. Cirabh±sitamp²ti attan± v± parena v± v±c±ya cirabh±sita½ bahukampi, vattas²se µhatv± dhammakatha½ v± kammaµµh±navinicchaya½ v±, vimutt±yatanas²se v± µhatv± dhammakathameva. Sarit± hot²ti ta½ k±yaviññatti½ vac²viññattiñca samuµµh±petv± pavatta½ ar³padhammakoµµh±sa½ ‘eva½ uppajjitv± eva½ niruddho’ti sarit± hoti. Anussarit±ti punappuna½ sarit±. Aya½ vuccati satisambojjhaªgoti aya½ eva½ uppann± sesabojjhaªgasamuµµh±pik± vipassan±sampayutt± sati satisambojjhaªgo n±ma kath²yati.
So tath± sato viharantoti so bhikkhu ten±k±rena uppann±ya satiy± sato hutv± viharanto. Ta½ dhammanti ta½ cirakata½ cirabh±sita½ heµµh± vuttappak±ra½ dhamma½. Paññ±ya pavicinat²ti paññ±ya ‘anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±’ti pavicinati. Pavicarat²ti ‘anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±’ti tattha pañña½ car±pento pavicarati. Pariv²ma½sa½ ±pajjat²ti olokana½ gavesana½ ±pajjati. Aya½ vuccat²ti ida½ vuttappak±ra½ bojjhaªgasamuµµh±paka½ vipassan±ñ±ºa½ dhammavicayasambojjhaªgo n±ma vuccati.
Tassa ta½ dhammanti tassa bhikkhuno ta½ heµµh± vuttappak±ra½ dhamma½. ¾raddha½ hot²ti paripuººa½ hoti paggahita½. Asall²nanti ±raddhatt±yeva asall²na½. Aya½ vuccat²ti ida½ bojjhaªgasamuµµh±paka½ vipassan±sampayutta½ v²riya½ v²riyasambojjhaªgo n±ma vuccati.
Nir±mis±ti k±m±misalok±misavaµµ±mis±na½ abh±vena nir±mis± parisuddh±. Aya½ vuccat²ti aya½ bojjhaªgasamuµµh±pik± vipassan±sampayutt± p²ti p²tisambojjhaªgo n±ma vuccati.
P²timanass±ti p²tisampayuttacittassa. K±yopi passambhat²ti khandhattayasaªkh±to n±mak±yo kilesadarathapaµippassaddhiy± passambhati. Cittamp²ti viññ±ºakkhandhopi tatheva passambhati. Aya½ vuccat²ti aya½ bojjhaªgasamuµµh±pik± vipassan±sampayutt± passaddhi passaddhisambojjhaªgo n±ma vuccati.
Passaddhak±yassa sukhinoti passaddhak±yat±ya uppannasukhena sukhitassa. Sam±dhiyat²ti samm± ±dhiyati, niccala½ hutv± ±rammaºe µhap²yati, appan±ppatta½ viya hoti. Aya½ vuccat²ti aya½ bojjhaªgasamuµµh±pik± vipassan±sampayutt± cittekaggat± sam±dhisambojjhaªgo n±ma vuccati.
Tath± sam±hitanti tena appan±ppattena viya sam±dhin± sam±hita½. S±dhuka½ ajjhupekkhit± hot²ti suµµhu ajjhupekkhit± hoti; tesa½ dhamm±na½ pah±nava¹¹hane aby±vaµo hutv± ajjhupekkhati. Aya½ vuccat²ti aya½ channa½ bojjhaªg±na½ anosakkana-anativattanabh±vas±dhako majjhatt±k±ro upekkh±sambojjhaªgo n±ma vuccati.
Ett±vat± ki½ kathita½ n±ma hoti? Apubba½ acarima½ ekacittakkhaºe n±n±rasalakkhaº± pubbabh±gavipassan± bojjhaªg± kathit± hont²ti.

Paµhamo nayo.

468-469. Id±ni yena pariy±yena satta bojjhaªg± cuddasa honti, tassa pak±sanattha½ dutiyanaya½ dassento puna satta bojjhaªg±ti-±dim±ha. Tatr±ya½ anupubbapadavaººan±– ajjhatta½ dhammesu sat²ti ajjhattikasaªkh±re pariggaºhantassa uppann± sati. Bahiddh± dhammesu sat²ti bahiddh±saªkh±re pariggaºhantassa uppann± sati. Yadap²ti y±pi. Tadap²ti s±pi. Abhiññ±y±ti abhiññeyyadhamme abhij±nanatth±ya. Sambodh±y±ti sambodhi vuccati maggo, maggatth±y±ti attho. Nibb±n±y±ti v±na½ vuccati taºh±; s± tattha natth²ti nibb±na½, tadatth±ya, asaªkhat±ya amatadh±tuy± sacchikiriyatth±ya sa½vattat²ti attho. Dhammavicayasambojjhaªgepi eseva nayo.
K±yika½ v²riyanti caªkama½ adhiµµhahantassa uppannav²riya½. Cetasika½ v²riyanti “na t±v±ha½ ima½ pallaªka½ bhindiss±mi y±va me na anup±d±ya ±savehi citta½ vimuccissat²”ti eva½ k±yapayoga½ vin± uppannav²riya½. K±yapassaddh²ti tiººa½ khandh±na½ darathapassaddhi. Cittapassaddh²ti viññ±ºakkhandhassa darathapassaddhi. Upekkh±sambojjhaªge satisambojjhaªgasadisova vinicchayo. Imasmi½ naye satta bojjhaªg± lokiyalokuttaramissak± kathit±.
Por±ºakatther± pana ‘ettakena p±kaµa½ na hot²’ti vibhajitv± dassesu½. Etesu hi ajjhattadhammesu sati pavicayo upekkh±ti ime tayo attano khandh±rammaºatt± lokiy±va honti. Tath± magga½ appatta½ k±yikav²riya½. Avitakka-avic±r± pana p²tisam±dhiyo lokuttar± honti. Ses± lokiyalokuttaramissak±ti.
Tattha ajjhatta½ t±va dhammesu satipavicaya-upekkh± ajjhatt±rammaº±, lokuttar± pana bahiddh±rammaº±ti tesa½ lokuttarabh±vo m± yujjittha. Caªkamappayogena nibbattav²riyampi lokiyanti vadanto na kilamati. Avitakka-avic±r± pana p²tisam±dhiyo kad± lokuttar± hont²ti? K±m±vacare t±va p²tisambojjhaªgo labbhati, avitakka-avic±r± p²ti na labbhati. R³p±vacare avitakka-avic±r± p²ti labbhati, p²tisambojjhaªgo pana na labbhati. Ar³p±vacare sabbena sabba½ na labbhati. Ettha pana alabbham±naka½ up±d±ya labbham±nak±pi paµikkhitt±. Evamaya½ avitakka-avic±ro p²tisambojjhaªgo k±m±vacaratopi nikkhanto r³p±vacaratopi ar³p±vacaratop²ti nibbattitalokuttaro yev±ti kathito.
Tath± k±m±vacare sam±dhisambojjhaªgo labbhati, avitakka-avic±ro pana sam±dhi na labbhati. R³p±vacara-ar³p±vacaresu avitakka-avic±ro sam±dhi labbhati, sam±dhisambojjhaªgo pana na labbhati. Ettha pana alabbham±naka½ up±d±ya labbham±nakopi paµikkhitto. Evamaya½ avitakka-avic±ro sam±dhi k±m±vacaratopi nikkhanto r³p±vacaratopi ar³p±vacaratop²ti nibbattitalokuttaro yev±ti kathito.
Apica lokiya½ gahetv± lokuttaro k±tabbo; lokuttara½ gahetv± lokiyo k±tabbo. Ajjhattadhammesu hi satipavicaya-upekkh±na½ lokuttarabh±van±k±lopi atthi. Tatrida½ sutta½– “ajjhattavimokkha½ khv±ha½, ±vuso, sabbup±d±nakkhaya½ vad±mi; evamassime ±sav± n±nusent²”ti (sa½. ni. 2.32 thoka½ visadisa½) imin± suttena lokuttar± honti. Yad± pana caªkamapayogena nibbatte k±yikav²riye anupasanteyeva vipassan± maggena ghaµ²yati, tad± ta½ lokuttara½ hoti. Ye pana ther± “kasiºajjh±ne, ±n±p±najjh±ne, brahmavih±rajjh±ne ca bojjhaªgo uddharanto na v±retabbo”ti vadanti, tesa½ v±de avitakka-avic±r± p²tisam±dhisambojjhaªg± lokiy± hont²ti.

Dutiyo nayo.

470-471. Id±ni bojjhaªg±na½ bh±van±vasena pavatta½ tatiyanaya½ dassento puna satta bojjhaªg±ti-±dim±ha. Tatth±pi aya½ anupubbapadavaººan±– bh±vet²ti va¹¹heti; attano sant±ne punappuna½ janeti abhinibbatteti. Vivekanissitanti viveke nissita½. Vivekoti vivittat±. So c±ya½ tadaªgaviveko, vikkhambhanasamucchedapaµippassaddhinissaraºavivekoti pañcavidho. Tattha tadaªgaviveko n±ma vipassan±. Vikkhambhanaviveko n±ma aµµha sam±pattiyo. Samucchedaviveko n±ma maggo. Paµippassaddhiviveko n±ma phala½. Nissaraºaviveko n±ma sabbanimittanissaµa½ nibb±na½. Evametasmi½ pañcavidhe viveke nissita½ vivekanissitanti tadaªgavivekanissita½ samucchedavivekanissita½ nissaraºavivekanissitañca satisambojjhaªga½ bh±vet²ti ayamattho veditabbo.
Tath± hi aya½ satisambojjhaªgabh±van±nuyogamanuyutto yog² vipassan±kkhaºe kiccato tadaªgavivekanissita½, ajjh±sayato nissaraºavivekanissita½, maggak±le pana kiccato samucchedavivekanissita½, ±rammaºato nissaraºavivekanissita½, satisambojjhaªga½ bh±veti. Pañcavivekanissitamp²ti eke. Te hi na kevala½ balavavipassan±maggaphalakkhaºesu eva bojjhaªga½ uddharanti, vipassan±p±dakakasiºajjh±na-±n±p±n±subhabrahmavih±rajjh±nesupi uddharanti, na ca paµisiddh± aµµhakath±cariyehi Tasm± tesa½ matena etesa½ jh±n±na½ pavattikkhaºe kiccato eva vikkhambhanavivekanissita½. Yath± ca vipassan±kkhaºe “ajjh±sayato nissaraºavivekanissitan”ti vutta½, eva½ “paµippassaddhivivekanissitampi bh±vet²”ti vattu½ vaµµati. Esa nayo vir±ganissit±d²su. Vivekatth± eva hi vir±g±dayo.
Kevalañcettha vossaggo duvidho– paricc±gavossaggo ca pakkhandanavossaggo c±ti. Tattha ‘paricc±gavossaggo’ti vipassan±kkhaºe ca tadaªgavasena maggakkhaºe ca samucchedavasena kilesappah±na½. ‘Pakkhandanavossaggo’ti vipassan±kkhaºe tanninnabh±vena, maggakkhaºe pana ±rammaºakaraºena nibb±napakkhandana½. Tadubhayampi imasmi½ lokiyalokuttaramissake atthavaººan±naye vaµµati. Tath± hi aya½ sati sambojjhaªgo yath±vuttena pak±rena kilese pariccajati, nibb±nañca pakkhandati.
Vossaggapariº±minti imin± pana sakalena vacanena vossaggattha½ pariºamanta½ pariºatañca, paripaccanta½ paripakkañc±ti ida½ vutta½ hoti. Ayañhi bojjhaªgabh±vanamanuyutto bhikkhu yath± satisambojjhaªgo kilesaparicc±gavossaggattha½ nibb±napakkhandanavossaggatthañca paripaccati, yath± ca paripakko hoti, tath± na½ bh±vet²ti. Esa nayo sesabojjhaªgesupi. Imasmimpi naye lokiyalokuttaramissak± bojjhaªg± kathit±ti.

Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±.