Saªkh±rapadaniddeso

Saªkh±rapade heµµh± vuttasaªkh±resu saªkh±rasaddena ±gatasaªkh±re an±masitv± avijj±paccay± saªkh±reyeva dassento tattha katame avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±? Puññ±bhisaªkh±roti-±dim±ha. Tattha pun±ti attano k±raka½, p³reti cassa ajjh±saya½, pujjañca bhava½ nibbattet²ti puñño. Abhisaªkharoti vip±ka½ kaµatt±r³pañc±ti abhisaªkh±ro. Puññova abhisaªkh±ro puññ±bhisaªkh±ro. Puññapaµipakkhato apuñño. Apuññova abhisaªkh±ro apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro. Na iñjat²ti ±neñja½. ¾neñjameva abhisaªkh±ro, ±neñjañca bhava½ abhisaªkharot²ti ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ro. K±yena pavattito, k±yato v± pavatto, k±yassa v± saªkh±roti k±yasaªkh±ro. Vac²saªkh±racittasaªkh±resupi eseva nayo.
Tattha paµhamattiko pariv²ma½sanasuttavasena gahito. Tattha hi “puññañce saªkh±ra½ abhisaªkharoti, puññ³paga½ hoti viññ±ºa½. Apuññañce saªkh±ra½ abhisaªkharoti, apuññupaga½ hoti viññ±ºa½. ¾neñjañce saªkh±ra½ abhisaªkharoti, ±neñjupaga½ hoti viññ±ºan”ti (sa½. ni. 2.51) vutta½. Dutiyattiko tadanantarassa vibhaªgasuttassa vasena gahito, samm±diµµhisuttapariy±yena (ma. ni. 1.102) gahitotipi vattu½ vaµµatiyeva. Tattha hi “tayome, bhikkhave, saªkh±r±. Katame tayo? K±yasaªkh±ro, vac²saªkh±ro, cittasaªkh±ro”ti (sa½. ni. 2.2) vutta½. Kasm± panetesa½ sutt±na½ vasena te gahit±ti? Aya½ abhidhammo n±ma na adhun±kato, n±pi b±hiraka-is²hi v± s±vakehi v± devat±hi v± bh±sito. Sabbaññujinabh±sito pana aya½. Abhidhammepi hi suttepi ekasadis±va tanti niddiµµh±ti imassatthassa d²panattha½.
Id±ni te saªkh±re pabhedato dassetu½ tattha katamo puññ±bhisaªkh±roti-±dim±ha. Tattha kusal± cetan±ti aniyamato catubh³mikacetan±pi vutt±. K±m±vacar± r³p±vacar±ti niyamitatt± pana aµµha k±m±vacarakusalacetan±, pañca r³p±vacarakusalacetan±ti terasa cetan± puññ±bhisaªkh±ro n±ma. D±namay±ti-±d²hi t±sa½yeva cetan±na½ puññakiriyavatthuvasena pavatti dassit±. Tattha aµµha k±m±vacar±va d±nas²lamay± honti. Bh±van±may± pana terasapi. Yath± hi paguºa½ dhamma½ sajjh±yam±no eka½ dve anusandhigatepi na j±n±ti, pacch± ±vajjanto j±n±ti; evameva kasiºaparikamma½ karontassa paguºajjh±na½ paccavekkhantassa paguºakammaµµh±nañca manasikarontassa ñ±ºavippayutt±pi bh±van± hoti. Tena vutta½ “bh±van±may± pana terasap²”ti.
Tattha d±namay±d²su “d±na½ ±rabbha d±namadhikicca y± uppajjati cetan± sañcetan± cetayitatta½– aya½ vuccati d±namayo puññ±bhisaªkh±roti. S²la½ ±rabbha…pe… bh±vana½ ±rabbha bh±vanamadhikicca y± uppajjati cetan± sañcetan± cetayitatta½– aya½ vuccati bh±van±mayo puññ±bhisaªkh±ro”ti (vibha. 769) aya½ saªkhepadesan±.
C²var±d²su pana cat³su paccayesu r³p±d²su v± chasu ±rammaºesu ann±d²su v± dasasu d±navatth³su ta½ ta½ dentassa tesa½ upp±danato paµµh±ya pubbabh±ge paricc±gak±le pacch± somanassacittena anussaraºe c±ti t²su k±lesu pavatt± cetan± d±namay± n±ma. S²la½ parip³raºatth±ya pana ‘pabbajiss±m²’ti vih±ra½ gacchantassa pabbajantassa manoratha½ matthaka½ p±petv± ‘pabbajito vatamhi, s±dhu suµµh³’ti ±vajjantassa p±timokkha½ sa½varantassa c²var±dayo paccaye paccavekkhantassa ±p±thagatesu r³p±d²su cakkhudv±r±d²ni sa½varantassa ±j²va½ sodhentassa ca pavatt± cetan± s²lamay± n±ma. Paµisambhid±ya½ vuttena vipassan±maggena cakkhu½ aniccato dukkhato anattato bh±ventassa r³pe…pe… dhamme, cakkhuviññ±ºa½…pe… manoviññ±ºa½, cakkhusamphassa½…pe… manosamphassa½, cakkhusamphassaja½ vedana½…pe… manosamphassaja½ vedana½, r³pasañña½ …pe… dhammasañña½ jar±maraºa½ aniccato dukkhato anattato bh±ventassa pavatt± cetan± bh±van±may± n±m±ti aya½ vitth±rakath±.
Apuññ±bhisaªkh±raniddese akusal± cetan±ti dv±dasa-akusalacittasampayutt± cetan±. K±m±vacar±ti kiñc±pi tattha µhapetv± dve domanassasahagatacetan± ses± r³p±r³pabhavepi uppajjanti, tattha pana paµisandhi½ na ±ka¹¹hanti, k±m±vacareyeva paµisandhivasena vip±ka½ avac±rent²ti k±m±vacar±tveva vutt±.
¾neñj±bhisaªkh±raniddese kusal± cetan± ar³p±vacar±ti catasso ar³p±vacarakusalacetan±. Et± hi catasso aniñjanaµµhena aniñjanassa ca abhisaªkharaºaµµhena ±neñj±bhisaªkh±roti vuccanti. R³p±vacaracatutthajjh±nato hi tisso kusalavip±kakiriy±cetan± dv±dasa ar³p±vacaracetan±ti pañcadasa dhamm± aniccalaµµhena aphandanaµµhena ±neñj± n±ma. Tattha r³p±vacar± kusal± cetan± aniñj± sam±n±pi attan± sarikkhakampi asarikkhakampi sa-iñjanampi aniñjanampi r³p±r³pa½ janet²ti ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ro n±ma na hoti. Vip±kakiriyacetan± pana avip±katt± vip±ka½ na abhisaªkharonti, tath± ar³p±vacar± vip±kakiriyacetan±p²ti ek±das±pi et± cetan± ±neñj±va na abhisaªkh±r±. Catubbidh± pana ar³p±vacarakusalacetan± yath± hatthi-ass±d²na½ sadis±va ch±y± honti, eva½ attan± sadisa½ niccala½ ar³pameva janet²ti ±neñj±bhisaªkh±roti vuccat²ti.
Eva½ puñj±bhisaªkh±ravasena terasa, apuññ±bhisaªkh±ravasena dv±dasa, ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ravasena catassoti sabb±pet± paripiº¹it± ek³nati½sa cetan± honti. Iti bhagav± aparim±ºesu cakkav±¼esu aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ uppajjanakakusal±kusalacetan± mah±tul±ya dh±rayam±no viya, n±¼iya½ pakkhipitv± minam±no viya ca sabbaññutañ±ºena paricchinditv± ek³nati½sameva dassesi.
Id±ni aparim±ºesu cakkav±¼esu aparim±º± satt± kusal±kusalakamma½ ±y³ham±n± yehi dv±rehi ±y³hanti, t±ni t²ºi kammadv±r±ni dassento tattha katamo k±yasaªkh±ro? K±yasañcetan±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha k±yasañcetan±ti k±yaviññatti½ samuµµh±petv± k±yadv±rato pavatt± aµµha k±m±vacarakusalacetan± dv±dasa akusalacetan±ti samav²sati cetan±; k±yadv±re ±d±naggahaºacopana½ p±payam±n± uppann± v²sati kusal±kusalacetan±tipi vattu½ vaµµati.
Vac²sañcetan±ti vac²viññatti½ samuµµh±petv± vac²dv±rato pavatt± t±yeva v²sati cetan±; vac²dv±re hanusañcopana½ v±kyabheda½ p±payam±n± uppann± v²sati cetan±tipi vattu½ vaµµati. Abhiññ±cetan± panettha parato viññ±ºassa paccayo na hot²ti na gahit±. Yath± ca abhiññ±cetan±, eva½ uddhaccacetan±pi na hoti. Tasm± s±pi viññ±ºassa paccayabh±ve apanetabb±. Avijj±paccay± pana sabb±pet± honti.
Manosañcetan±ti ubhopi viññattiyo asamuµµh±petv± manodv±re uppann± sabb±pi ek³nati½sa cetan±. Iti bhagav± aparim±ºesu cakkav±¼esu aparim±º± satt± kusal±kusalakamma½ ±y³ham±n± imehi t²hi dv±rehi ±y³hant²ti ±y³hanakammadv±ra½ dassesi.
Imesa½ pana dvinnampi tik±na½ aññamañña½ sampayogo veditabbo. Katha½? Puññ±bhisaªkh±ro hi k±yaduccarit± viramantassa siy± k±yasaªkh±ro, vac²duccarit± viramantassa siy± vac²saªkh±ro. Eva½ aµµha kusalacetan± k±m±vacar± puññ±bhisaªkh±ro ca hoti k±yasaªkh±ro ca vac²saªkh±ro ca. Manodv±re uppann± pana terasa cetan± puññ±bhisaªkh±ro ca hoti cittasaªkh±ro ca. Apuññ±bhisaªkh±ropi k±yaduccaritavasena pavattiya½ siy± k±yasaªkh±ro, vac²duccaritavasena pavattiya½ siy± vac²saªkh±ro, dve dv±r±ni muñcitv± manodv±re pavattiya½ siy± cittasaªkh±roti. Eva½ apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro k±yasaªkh±ropi hoti vac²saªkh±ropi cittasaªkh±ropi.
K±yasaªkh±ro pana siy± puññ±bhisaªkh±ro, siy± apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro, na ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ro. Tath± vac²saªkh±ro. Cittasaªkh±ro pana siy± puññ±bhisaªkh±ro siy± apuññ±bhisaªkh±ro, siy± ±neñj±bhisaªkh±roti. Ime avijj±paccay± saªkh±r± n±ma.
Katha½ paneta½ j±nitabba½– ime saªkh±r± avijj±paccay± hont²ti? Avijj±bh±ve bh±vato. Yassa hi dukkh±d²su avijj±saªkh±ta½ aññ±ºa½ appah²na½ hoti, so dukkhe t±va pubbant±d²su ca aññ±ºena sa½s±radukkha½ sukhasaññ±ya gahetv± tassa hetubh³te tividhepi saªkh±re ±rabhati samudaye aññ±ºena dukkhahetubh³tepi taºh±parikkh±re saªkh±re sukhahetuto maññam±no ±rabhati, nirodhe pana magge ca aññ±ºena dukkhassa anirodhabh³tepi gativisese dukkhanirodhasaññ² hutv± nirodhassa ca amaggabh³tesupi yaññ±maratap±d²su nirodhamaggasaññ² hutv± dukkhanirodha½ patthayam±no yaññ±maratap±dimukhena tividhepi saªkh±re ±rabhati.
Apica so t±ya cat³su saccesu appah²n±vijjat±ya visesato j±tijar±rogamaraº±di-anek±d²navavokiººa½ puññaphalasaªkh±ta½ dukkha½ dukkhato aj±nanto tassa adhigam±ya k±yavac²cittasaªkh±rabheda½ puññ±bhisaªkh±ra½ ±rabhati devaccharak±mako viya marupap±ta½; sukhasammatass±pi ca tassa puññaphalassa ante mah±pari¼±hajanaka½ vipariº±madukkhata½ appass±datañca apassantopi tappaccaya½ vuttappak±rameva puññ±bhisaªkh±ra½ ±rabhati salabho viya d²pasikh±bhinip±ta½, madhubindugiddho viya ca madhulittasatthadh±r±lehana½.
K±m³pasevan±d²su ca savip±kesu ±d²nava½ apassanto sukhasaññ±ya ceva kiles±bhibh³tat±ya ca dv±rattayappavattampi apuññ±bhisaªkh±ra½ ±rabhati b±lo viya g³thak²¼ana½, marituk±mo viya ca visakh±dana½. ¾ruppavip±kesu c±pi saªkh±ravipariº±madukkhata½ anavabujjham±no sassat±divipall±sena cittasaªkh±rabh³ta½ ±neñj±bhisaªkh±ra½ ±rabhati dis±m³¼ho viya pis±canagar±bhimukhamaggagamana½.
Eva½ yasm± avijj±bh±vatova saªkh±rabh±vo, na abh±vato; tasm± j±nitabbameta½– ime saªkh±r± avijj±paccay± hont²ti. Vuttampi ceta½– “avidv±, bhikkhave, avijj±gato puññ±bhisaªkh±rampi abhisaªkharoti, apuññ±bhisaªkh±rampi abhisaªkharoti, ±neñj±bhisaªkh±rampi abhisaªkharoti. Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno avijj± pah²n±, vijj± uppann±, so avijj±vir±g± vijjupp±d± neva puññ±bhisaªkh±ra½ abhisaªkharot²”ti.
Etth±ha– gaºh±ma t±va eta½ ‘avijj± saªkh±r±na½ paccayo’ti. Ida½ pana vattabba½– ‘katamesa½ saªkh±r±na½ katha½ paccayo hot²’ti? Tatrida½ vuccati–
Paccayo hoti puññ±na½, duvidh±nekadh± pana;
paresa½ pacchim±na½ s±, ekadh± paccayo mat±.
Tattha ‘puññ±na½ duvidh±’ti ±rammaºapaccayena ca upanissayapaccayena c±ti dvedh± paccayo hoti. S± hi avijja½ khayato vayato sammasanak±le k±m±vacar±na½ puññ±bhisaªkh±r±na½ ±rammaºapaccayena paccayo hoti, abhiññ±cittena samohacittaj±nanak±le r³p±vacar±na½, avijj±samatikkamanatth±ya pana d±n±d²ni ceva k±m±vacarapuññakiriyavatth³ni p³rentassa r³p±vacarajjh±n±ni ca upp±dentassa dvinnampi tesa½ upanissayapaccayena paccayo hoti; tath± avijj±samm³¼hatt± k±mabhavar³pabhavasampattiyo patthetv± t±neva puññ±ni karontassa.
‘Anekadh± pana paresan’ti apuññ±bhisaªkh±r±na½ anekadh± paccayo hoti. Katha½? Es± hi avijja½ ±rabbha r±g±d²na½ uppajjanak±le ±rammaºapaccayena, garu½ katv± ass±danak±le ±rammaº±dhipati-±rammaº³panissayehi, avijj±samm³¼hassa an±d²navadass±vino p±º±tip±t±d²ni karontassa upanissayapaccayena, dutiyajavan±d²na½ anantarasamanantar±nantar³panissay±sevananatthivigatapaccayehi, ya½ kiñci akusala½ karontassa hetusahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayasampayutta-atthi-avigatapaccayeh²ti anekadh± paccayo hoti.
‘Pacchim±na½ s± ekadh± paccayo mat±’ti ±neñj±bhisaªkh±r±na½ upanissayapaccayeneva ekadh± paccayo mat±. So panass± upanissayabh±vo puññ±bhisaªkh±re vuttanayeneva veditabboti.
Etth±ha– ‘ki½ pan±yamek±va avijj± saªkh±r±na½ paccayo ud±hu aññepi paccay± hont²’ti? Kiñcettha yadi t±va ek±va ekak±raºav±do ±pajjati. Atha ‘aññepi santi avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±’ti ekak±raºaniddeso nupapajjat²ti? Na nupapajjati. Kasm±? Yasm±–
Eka½ na ekato idha, n±nekamanekatopi no eka½;
phalamatthi atthi pana eka-hetuphalad²pane attho.
Ekato hi k±raºato na idha kiñci eka½ phalamatthi, na aneka½. N±pi anekehi k±raºehi eka½. Anekehi pana k±raºehi anekameva hoti. Tath± hi anekehi utupathav²b²jasalilasaªkh±tehi k±raºehi anekameva r³pagandharas±di-aªkurasaªkh±ta½ phalamuppajjam±na½ dissati. Ya½ paneta½ “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±, saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºan”ti ekekahetuphalad²pana½ kata½, tattha attho atthi, payojana½ vijjati.
Bhagav± hi katthaci padh±natt±, katthaci p±kaµatt±, katthaci as±dh±raºatt±, desan±vil±sassa ca veneyy±nañca anur³pato ekamevahetu½ v± phala½ v± d²peti; “phassapaccay± vedan±”ti (d². ni. 2.97) hi ekameva hetu½ phalañc±ha. Phasso hi vedan±ya padh±nahetu yath±phassa½ vedan±vavatth±nato. Vedan± ca phassassa padh±naphala½ yath±vedana½ phassavavatth±nato.
“Semhasamuµµh±n± ±b±dh±”ti (mah±ni. 5) p±kaµatt± eka½ hetum±ha. P±kaµo hettha semho, na kamm±dayo. “Ye keci, bhikkhave, akusal± dhamm±, sabbete ayonisomanasik±ram³lak±”ti as±dh±raºatt± eka½ hetum±ha; as±dh±raºo hi ayonisomanasik±ro akusal±na½, s±dh±raº±ni vatth±rammaº±d²n²ti.
Tasm± ayamidha avijj± vijjam±nesupi aññesu vatth±rammaºasahaj±tadhamm±d²su saªkh±rak±raºesu “ass±d±nupassino taºh± pava¹¹hat²”ti (sa½. ni. 2.52) ca “avijj±samuday± ±savasamudayo”ti (ma. ni. 1.104) ca vacanato aññesampi taºh±d²na½ saªkh±rahet³na½ het³ti padh±natt±, “avidv±, bhikkhave, avijj±gato puññ±bhisaªkh±rampi abhisaªkharot²”ti p±kaµatt± as±dh±raºatt± ca saªkh±r±na½ hetubh±vena d²pit±ti veditabb±. Eteneva ca ekekahetuphalad²panaparih±ravacanena sabbattha ekekahetuphalad²pane payojana½ veditabbanti.
Etth±ha eva½ santepi ekant±niµµhaphal±ya s±vajj±ya avijj±ya katha½ puññ±neñj±bhisaªkh±rapaccayatta½ yujjati? Na hi nimbab²jato ucchu uppajjat²ti. Katha½ na yujjissati? Lokasmiñhi–
Viruddho c±viruddho ca, sadis±sadiso tath±;
dhamm±na½ paccayo siddho, vip±k± eva te ca na.
Dhamm±nañhi µh±nasabh±vakicc±diviruddho ca aviruddho ca paccayo loke siddho. Purimacittañhi aparacittassa µh±naviruddho paccayo, purimasipp±disikkh± ca pacch±pavattam±n±na½ sipp±dikiriy±na½. Kamma½ r³passa sabh±vaviruddho paccayo, kh²r±d²ni ca dadhi-±d²na½. ¾loko cakkhuviññ±ºassa kiccaviruddho, gu¼±dayo ca ±sav±d²na½. Cakkhur³p±dayo pana cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ µh±n±viruddh± paccay± Purimajavan±dayo pacchimajavan±d²na½ sabh±v±viruddh± kicc±viruddh± ca.
Yath± ca viruddh±viruddh± paccay± siddh±, eva½ sadis±sadis±pi. Sadisameva hi utu-±h±rasaªkh±ta½ r³pa½ r³passa paccayo hoti, s±lib²j±d²ni ca s±liphal±d²na½. Asadisampi r³pa½ ar³passa, ar³pañca r³passa paccayo hoti; golom±vilomavis±ºadadhitilapiµµh±d²ni ca dabbabh³tiºak±d²na½. Yesañca dhamm±na½ ye viruddh±viruddh± sadis±sadis± paccay±, na te dhamm± tesa½ dhamm±na½ vip±k±yeva. Iti aya½ avijj± vip±kavasena ekant±niµµhaphalasabh±vavasena ca s±vajj±pi sam±n± sabbesampi etesa½ puññ±bhisaªkh±r±d²na½ yath±nur³pa½ µh±nakiccasabh±vaviruddh±viruddhapaccayavasena sadis±sadisapaccayavasena ca paccayo hot²ti veditabb±.
So cass± paccayabh±vo “yassa hi dukkh±d²su avijj±saªkh±ta½ aññ±ºa½ appah²na½ hoti, so dukkhe t±va pubbant±d²su ca aññ±ºena sa½s±radukkha½ sukhasaññ±ya gahetv± tassa hetubh³te tividhepi saªkh±re ±rabhat²”ti-±din± nayena vutto eva.
Apica aya½ aññopi pariy±yo–
Cut³pap±te sa½s±re, saªkh±r±nañca lakkhaºe;
yo paµiccasamuppanna-dhammesu ca vimuyhati.
Abhisaªkharoti so ete, saªkh±re tividhe yato;
avijj± paccayo tesa½, tividh±nampi ya½ tatoti.
Katha½ pana yo etesu vimuyhati, so tividhepete saªkh±re karot²ti ce? Cutiy± t±va vim³¼ho sabbattha “khandh±na½ bhedo maraºan”ti cuti½ agaºhanto ‘satto marati, sattassa desantarasaªkamanan’ti-±d²ni vikappeti. Upap±te vim³¼ho sabbattha “khandh±na½ p±tubh±vo j±t²”ti upap±ta½ agaºhanto ‘satto upapajjati, sattassa navasar²rap±tubh±vo’ti-±d²ni vikappeti. Sa½s±re vim³¼ho yo esa–
“Khandh±nañca paµip±µi, dh±tu-±yatan±na ca;
abbocchinna½ vattam±n±, sa½s±roti pavuccat²”ti.
Eva½ vaººito sa½s±ro. Ta½ eva½ agaºhanto ‘aya½ satto asm± lok± para½ loka½ gacchati, parasm± lok± ima½ loka½ ±gacchat²’ti-±d²ni vikappeti. Saªkh±r±na½ lakkhaºe vim³¼ho saªkh±r±na½ sabh±valakkhaºa½ s±maññalakkhaºañca agaºhanto saªkh±re attato attaniyato dhuvato subhato sukhato ca vikappeti. Paµiccasamuppannadhammesu vim³¼ho avijj±d²hi saªkh±r±d²na½ pavatti½ agaºhanto “att± j±n±ti v± na j±n±ti v±, so eva karoti ca k±reti ca so paµisandhiya½ upapajjati, tassa aºu-issar±dayo kalal±dibh±vena sar²ra½ saºµhapetv± indriy±ni samp±denti, so indriyasampanno phusati vediyati taºhiyati up±diyati ghaµiyati, so puna bhavantare bhavat²”ti v± “sabbe satt± niyatisaªgatibh±vapariºat±”ti (d². ni. 1.168) v± vikappeti. So eva½ avijj±ya andh²kato eva½ vikappento yath± n±ma andho pathaviya½ vicaranto maggampi amaggampi thalampi ninnampi samampi visamampi paµipajjati, eva½ puññampi apuññampi ±neñjampi saªkh±ra½ abhisaªkharot²ti. Teneta½ vuccati–
Yath±pi n±ma jaccandho, naro aparin±yako;
ekad± y±ti maggena, kummaggen±pi ekad±.
Sa½s±re sa½sara½ b±lo, tath± aparin±yako;
karoti ekad± puñña½, apuññamapi ekad±.
Yad± ñatv± ca so dhamma½, sacc±ni abhisamessati;
tad± avijj³pasam±, upasanto carissat²ti.
Aya½ avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±ti padasmi½ vitth±rakath±.

Avijj±paccay± saªkh±rapadaniddeso.