6. Paµiccasamupp±davibhaªgo

1. Suttantabh±jan²ya½ uddesav±ravaººan±

225. Id±ni tadanantare paµiccasamupp±davibhaªge y± “aya½ avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti-±din± nayena tanti nikkhitt±, tass± atthasa½vaººana½ karontena vibhajjav±dimaº¹ala½ otaritv± ±cariye anabbh±cikkhantena sakasamaya½ avokkamantena parasamaya½ an±y³hantena sutta½ appaµib±hantena vinaya½ anulomentena mah±padese olokentena dhamma½ d²pentena attha½ saªgahantena tamevattha½ puna ±vattetv± aparehipi pariy±yehi niddisantena ca yasm± atthasa½vaººan± k±tabb± hoti, pakatiy±pi ca dukkar±va paµiccasamupp±dassa atthasa½vaººan±, yath±hu por±º±–
“Sacca½ satto paµisandhi, paccay±k±rameva ca;
duddas± caturo dhamm±, desetuñca sudukkar±”ti.
Tasm± “aññatra ±gam±dhigamappattehi na sukar± paµiccasamupp±dassa atthavaººan±”ti paritulayitv±–
Vattuk±mo aha½ ajja, paccay±k±ravaººana½;
patiµµha½ n±dhigacch±mi, ajjhog±¼hova s±gara½.
S±sana½ panida½ n±n±-desan±nayamaº¹ita½;
pubb±cariyamaggo ca, abbocchinno pavattati.
Yasm± tasm± tadubhaya½, sanniss±yatthavaººana½;
±rabhiss±mi etassa, ta½ suº±tha sam±hit±.
Vuttañheta½ pubb±cariyehi–
“Yo kocima½ aµµhi½ katv± suºeyya,
labhetha pubb±pariya½ visesa½;
laddh±na pubb±pariya½ visesa½,
adassana½ maccur±jassa gacche”ti.
Avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±ti-±d²su hi ±ditoyeva t±va–
Desan±bhedato attha-lakkhaºekavidh±dito;
aªg±nañca vavatth±n±, viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
Tattha ‘desan±bhedato’ti bhagavato hi vallih±rak±na½ catunna½ puris±na½ valliggahaºa½ viya ±dito v± majjhato v± paµµh±ya y±va pariyos±na½, tath± pariyos±nato v± majjhato v± paµµh±ya y±va ±d²ti catubbidh± paµiccasamupp±dadesan±. Yath± hi vallih±rakesu cat³su purisesu eko valliy± m³lameva paµhama½ passati, so ta½ m³le chetv± sabba½ ±ka¹¹hitv± ±d±ya kamme upaneti, eva½ bhagav± “iti kho, bhikkhave, avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±…pe… j±tipaccay± jar±maraºan”ti ±dito (ma. ni. 1.402) paµµh±ya y±va pariyos±n±pi paµiccasamupp±da½ deseti.
Yath± pana tesu purisesu eko valliy± majjha½ paµhama½ passati, so majjhe chinditv± uparibh±ga½yeva ±ka¹¹hitv± ±d±ya kamme upaneti, eva½ bhagav± “tassa ta½ vedana½ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhos±ya tiµµhato uppajjati nand²; y± vedan±su nand², tadup±d±na½, tassup±d±napaccay± bhavo, bhavapaccay± j±t²”ti (ma. ni. 1.409; sa½. ni. 3.5) majjhato paµµh±ya y±va pariyos±n±pi deseti.
Yath± ca tesu purisesu eko valliy± agga½ paµhama½ passati, so agge gahetv± agg±nus±rena y±va m³l± sabba½ ±d±ya kamme upaneti, eva½ bhagav± “j±tipaccay± jar±maraºanti iti kho paneta½ vutta½, j±tipaccay± nu kho, bhikkhave, jar±maraºa½ no v± katha½ v± ettha hot²”ti? “J±tipaccay±, bhante, jar±maraºa½; eva½ no ettha hoti– j±tipaccay± jar±maraºan”ti. “Bhavapaccay± j±ti…pe… avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±ti iti kho paneta½ vutta½, avijj±paccay± nu kho, bhikkhave, saªkh±r± no v± katha½ v± ettha hot²”ti? “Avijj±paccay±, bhante, saªkh±r±; eva½ no ettha hoti– avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti pariyos±nato paµµh±ya y±va ±ditopi paµiccasamupp±da½ deseti.
Yath± pana tesu purisesu eko valliy± majjhameva paµhama½ passati, so majjhe chinditv± heµµh± otaranto y±va m³l± ±d±ya kamme upaneti eva½ bhagav± “ime, bhikkhave, catt±ro ±h±r± ki½ nid±n±, ki½ samuday±, ki½ j±tik±, ki½ pabhav±? Ime catt±ro ±h±r± taºh±nid±n±, taºh±samuday±, taºh±j±tik±, taºh±pabhav±. Taºh± c±ya½, bhikkhave, ki½ nid±n±? Vedan±, phasso, sa¼±yatana½, n±mar³pa½, viññ±ºa½. Saªkh±r± ki½ nid±n±…pe… saªkh±r± avijj±nid±n±, avijj±samuday±, avijj±j±tik±, avijj±pabhav±”ti (sa½. ni. 2.11) majjhato paµµh±ya y±va ±dito deseti.
Kasm± paneva½ deset²ti? Paµiccasamupp±dassa samantabhaddakatt±, sayañca desan±vil±sappattatt±. Samantabhaddako hi paµiccasamupp±do tato tato ñ±yappaµivedh±ya sa½vattatiyeva. Desan±vil±sappatto ca bhagav± catuves±rajjappaµisambhid±yogena catubbidhagambh²rabh±vappattiy± ca. So desan±vil±sappattatt± n±n±nayeheva dhamma½ deseti. Visesato panassa y± ±dito paµµh±ya anulomadesan±, s± pavattik±raºavibh±gasamm³¼ha½ veneyyajana½ samanupassato yath±sakehi k±raºehi pavattisandassanattha½ uppattikkamasandassanatthañca pavattit±ti ñ±tabb±.
Y± pariyos±nato paµµh±ya paµilomadesan±, s± “kiccha½ vat±ya½ loko ±panno j±yati ca j²yati ca m²yati c±”ti (d². ni. 2.57) ±din± nayena kicch±panna½ lokamanuvilokayato pubbabh±gappaµivedh±nus±rena tassa tassa jar±maraº±dikassa dukkhassa attan±dhigatak±raºasandassanattha½. Y± pana majjhato paµµh±ya y±va ±di, s± ±h±ranid±navavatth±pan±nus±rena y±va at²ta½ addh±na½ atiharitv± puna at²taddhato pabhuti hetuphalapaµip±µisandassanattha½. Y± pana majjhato paµµh±ya y±va pariyos±n± pavatt±, s± paccuppanne addh±ne an±gataddhahetusamuµµh±nato pabhuti an±gataddhasandassanattha½. T±su y± s± pavattik±raºasamm³¼hassa veneyyajanassa yath±sakehi k±raºehi pavattisandassanattha½ uppattikkamasandassanatthañca ±dito paµµh±ya anulomadesan± vutt±, s± idha nikkhitt±ti veditabb±.
Kasm± panettha avijj± ±dito vutt±? Ki½ pakativ±d²na½ pakati viya avijj±pi ak±raºa½ m³lak±raºa½ lokass±ti? Na ak±raºa½. “¾savasamuday± avijj±samudayo”ti hi avijj±ya k±raºa½ vutta½. Atthi pana pariy±yo yena m³lak±raºa½ siy±. Ko pana soti? Vaµµakath±ya s²sabh±vo. Bhagav± hi vaµµakatha½ kathento dve dhamme s²sa½ katv± kathesi– avijja½ v± bhavataºha½ v±. Yath±ha– “purim±, bhikkhave, koµi na paññ±yati avijj±ya ‘ito pubbe avijj± n±hosi, atha pacch± samabhav²’ti. Evañceta½, bhikkhave, vuccati, atha ca pana paññ±yati ‘idappaccay± avijj±”ti (a. ni. 10.61); bhavataºha½ v±, yath±ha– “purim±, bhikkhave, koµi na paññ±yati bhavataºh±ya ‘ito pubbe bhavataºh± n±hosi, atha pacch± samabhav²’ti. Evañceta½, bhikkhave, vuccati, atha ca pana paññ±yati ‘idappaccay± bhavataºh±”ti (a. ni. 10.62).
Kasm± pana bhagav± vaµµakatha½ kathento ime dveva dhamme s²sa½ katv± kathes²ti? Sugatiduggatig±mino kammassa visesahetubh³tatt±. Duggatig±mino hi kammassa visesahetu avijj±. Kasm±? Yasm± avijj±bhibh³to puthujjano, aggisant±palagu¼±bhigh±taparissam±bhibh³t± vajjhag±v² t±ya parissam±turat±ya nirass±dampi attano anatth±vahampi ca uºhodakap±na½ viya, kilesasant±pato nirass±dampi duggativinip±tato ca attano anatth±vahampi p±º±tip±t±dimanekappak±ra½ duggatig±mikamma½ ±rabhati. Sugatig±mino pana kammassa visesahetu bhavataºh±. Kasm±? Yasm± bhavataºh±bhibh³to puthujjano, yath± vuttappak±r± g±v² s²tudakataºh±ya sa-ass±da½ attano parissamavinodanañca s²tudakap±na½ viya, kilesasant±pavirahato sa-ass±da½ sugatisamp±panena attano duggatidukkhaparissamavinodanañca p±º±tip±t±veramaº²-±dimanekappak±ra½ sugatig±mikamma½ ±rabhati.
Etesu pana vaµµakath±ya s²sabh³tesu dhammesu katthaci bhagav± ekadhammam³lika½ desana½ deseti, seyyathida½– “iti kho, bhikkhave, avijj³panis± saªkh±r±, saªkh±r³panisa½ viññ±ºan”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 2.23). Tath± “up±d±n²yesu, bhikkhave, dhammesu ass±d±nupassino viharato taºh± pava¹¹hati, taºh±paccay± up±d±nan”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 2.52). Katthaci ubhayam³likampi, seyyathida½– “avijj±n²varaºassa, bhikkhave, b±lassa taºh±ya sampayuttassa evamaya½ k±yo samud±gato. Iti ayañceva k±yo bahiddh± ca n±mar³pa½ ittheta½ dvaya½, dvaya½ paµicca phasso, sa¼ev±yatan±ni yehi phuµµho b±lo sukhadukkha½ paµisa½vedet²”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 2.19). T±su t±su desan±su “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti ayamidha avijj±vasena ekadhammam³lik± desan±ti veditabb±. Eva½ t±vettha desan±bhedato viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Atthato’ti avijj±d²na½ pad±na½ atthato, seyyathida½– p³retu½ ayuttaµµhena k±yaduccarit±di avindiya½ n±ma; aladdhabbanti attho. Ta½ avindiya½ vindat²ti avijj±. Tabbipar²tato k±yasucarit±di vindiya½ n±ma. Ta½ vindiya½ na vindat²ti avijj±. Khandh±na½ r±saµµha½, ±yatan±na½ ±yatanaµµha½, dh±t³na½ suññaµµha½, sacc±na½ tathaµµha½, indriy±na½ ±dhipateyyaµµha½ avidita½ karot²ti avijj±. Dukkh±d²na½ p²¼an±divasena vutta½ catubbidha½ catubbidha½ attha½ avidita½ karot²tipi avijj±. Antavirahite sa½s±re sabbayonigatibhavaviññ±ºaµµhitisatt±v±sesu satte jav±pet²ti avijj±. Paramatthato avijjam±nesu itthipuris±d²su javati, vijjam±nesupi khandh±d²su na javat²ti avijj±. Apica cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ vatth±rammaº±na½ paµiccasamupp±dapaµiccasamuppann±nañca dhamm±na½ ch±danatopi avijj±.
Ya½ paµicca phalameti so paccayo. Paµicc±ti na vin± tena; ta½ apaccakkhitv±ti attho. Et²ti uppajjati ceva pavattati c±ti attho. Api ca upak±rakaµµho paccayaµµho. Avijj± ca s± paccayo c±ti avijj±paccayo. Tasm± avijj±paccay±.
Saªkhatamabhisaªkharont²ti saªkh±r±. Apica avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±, saªkh±rasaddena ±gatasaªkh±r± c±ti duvidh± saªkh±r±. Tattha puññ±puññ±neñj±bhisaªkh±r± tayo, k±yavac²cittasaªkh±r± tayoti ime cha avijj±paccay± saªkh±r± Te sabbepi lokiyakusal±kusalacetan±mattameva honti.
Saªkhatasaªkh±ro, abhisaªkhatasaªkh±ro, abhisaªkharaºasaªkh±ro, payog±bhisaªkh±roti ime pana catt±ro saªkh±rasaddena ±gatasaªkh±r±. Tattha “anicc± vata saªkh±r±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.221, 272; sa½. ni. 1.186; 2.143) vutt± sabbepi sappaccay± dhamm± ‘saªkhatasaªkh±r±’ n±ma. Kammanibbatt± tebh³mak± r³p±r³padhamm± ‘abhisaªkhatasaªkh±r±’ti aµµhakath±su vutt±. Tepi “anicc± vata saªkh±r±”ti ettheva saªgaha½ gacchanti. Visu½ pana nesa½ ±gataµµh±na½ na paññ±yati. Tebh³makakusal±kusalacetan± pana ‘abhisaªkharaºakasaªkh±ro’ti vuccati. Tassa “avijj±gatoya½, bhikkhave, purisapuggalo puññañce abhisaªkharot²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 2.51) ±gataµµh±na½ paññ±yati. K±yikacetasika½ pana v²riya½ ‘payog±bhisaªkh±ro’ti vuccati. So “y±vatik± abhisaªkh±rassa gati, t±vatika½ gantv± akkh±hata½ maññe aµµh±s²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 3.15) ±gato.
Na kevalañca eteyeva, aññepi “saññ±vedayitanirodha½ sam±pajjantassa kho, ±vuso vis±kha, bhikkhuno paµhama½ nirujjhati vac²saªkh±ro, tato k±yasaªkh±ro, tato cittasaªkh±ro”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.464) nayena saªkh±rasaddena ±gat± anekasaªkh±r±. Tesu natthi so saªkh±ro, yo saªkhatasaªkh±re saªgaha½ na gaccheyya. Ito para½ saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºanti-±d²su ya½ vutta½ ta½ vuttanayeneva veditabba½.
Avutte pana vij±n±t²ti viññ±ºa½. Namat²ti n±ma½. Ruppat²ti r³pa½. ¾ye tanoti, ±yatañca nayat²ti ±yatana½. Phusat²ti phasso. Vedayat²ti vedan±. Paritassat²ti taºh±. Up±diyat²ti up±d±na½. Bhavati bh±vayati c±ti bhavo. Janana½ j±ti. J²raºa½ jar±. Maranti eten±ti maraºa½. Socana½ soko. Paridevana½ paridevo. Dukkhayat²ti dukkha½; upp±daµµhitivasena v± dvedh± khaºat²ti dukkha½. Dummanassa bh±vo domanassa½. Bhuso ±y±so up±y±so.
Sambhavant²ti nibbattanti. Na kevalañca sok±d²heva, atha kho sabbapadehi ‘sambhavant²’ti saddassa yojan± k±tabb±. Itarath± hi “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti vutte ki½ karont²ti na paññ±yeyyu½. “Sambhavant²”ti pana yojan±ya sati “avijj± ca s± paccayo c±ti avijj±paccayo; tasm± avijj±paccay± saªkh±r± sambhavant²”ti paccayapaccayuppannavavatth±na½ kata½ hoti. Esa nayo sabbattha.
Evanti niddiµµhanayanidassana½. Tena avijj±d²heva k±raºehi, na issaranimm±n±d²h²ti dasseti. Etass±ti yath±vuttassa. Kevalass±ti asammissassa sakalassa v±. Dukkhakkhandhass±ti dukkhasam³hassa, na sattassa, na sukhasubh±d²na½. Samudayoti nibbatti. Hot²ti sambhavati. Evamettha atthato viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Lakkhaº±dito’ti avijj±d²na½ lakkhaº±dito, seyyathida½– aññ±ºalakkhaº± avijj±, sammohanaras±, ch±danapaccupaµµh±n±, ±savapadaµµh±n±. Abhisaªkharaºalakkhaº± saªkh±r±, ±y³hanaras±, cetan±paccupaµµh±n±, avijj±padaµµh±n±. Vij±nanalakkhaºa½ viññ±ºa½, pubbaªgamarasa½, paµisandhipaccupaµµh±na½, saªkh±rapadaµµh±na½, vatth±rammaºapadaµµh±na½ v±. Namanalakkhaºa½ n±ma½, sampayogarasa½, avinibbhogapaccupaµµh±na½, viññ±ºapadaµµh±na½. Ruppanalakkhaºa½ r³pa½, vikiraºarasa½, aby±katapaccupaµµh±na½, viññ±ºapadaµµh±na½. ¾yatanalakkhaºa½ sa¼±yatana½, dassan±dirasa½, vatthudv±rabh±vapaccupaµµh±na½ n±mar³papadaµµh±na½. Phusanalakkhaºo phasso, saªghaµµanaraso, saªgatipaccupaµµh±no, sa¼±yatanapadaµµh±no. Anubhavanalakkhaº± vedan±, visayarasasambhogaras±, sukhadukkhapaccupaµµh±n±, phassapadaµµh±n±. Hetulakkhaº± taºh±, abhinandanaras±, atittibh±vapaccupaµµh±n±, vedan±padaµµh±n±. Gahaºalakkhaºa½ up±d±na½, amuñcanarasa½, taºh±da¼hattadiµµhipaccupaµµh±na½, taºh±padaµµh±na½. Kammakammaphalalakkhaºo bhavo, bh±vanabhavanaraso, kusal±kusal±by±katapaccupaµµh±no, up±d±napadaµµh±no. J±ti-±d²na½ lakkhaº±d²ni saccavibhaªge vuttanayeneva veditabb±ni. Evamettha lakkhaº±ditopi viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Ekavidh±dito’ti ettha avijj± aññ±º±dassanamoh±dibh±vato ekavidh±, appaµipattimicch±paµipattito duvidh± tath± saªkh±r±saªkh±rato, vedan±ttayasampayogato tividh±, catusacca-appaµivedhato catubbidh±, gatipañcak±d²navacch±danato pañcavidh±, dv±r±rammaºato pana sabbesupi ar³padhammesu chabbidhat± veditabb±.
Saªkh±r± s±savavip±kadhammadhamm±dibh±vato ekavidh±, kusal±kusalato duvidh± tath± parittamahaggatah²namajjhimamicchattaniyat±niyatato, tividh± puññ±bhisaªkh±r±dibh±vato, catubbidh± catuyonisa½vattanato, pañcavidh± pañcagatig±mito.
Viññ±ºa½ lokiyavip±k±dibh±vato ekavidha½, sahetuk±hetuk±dito duvidha½, bhavattayapariy±pannato vedan±ttayasampayogato ahetukaduhetukatihetukato ca tividha½, yonigativasena catubbidha½ pañcavidhañca.
N±mar³pa½ viññ±ºasannissayato kammapaccayato ca ekavidha½, s±rammaº±n±rammaºato duvidha½, at²t±dito tividha½, yonigativasena catubbidha½ pañcavidhañca.
Sa¼±yatana½ sañj±tisamosaraºaµµh±nato ekavidha½, bh³tappas±daviññ±º±dito duvidha½, sampatt±sampattanobhayagocarato tividha½, yonigatipariy±pannato catubbidha½ pañcavidhañc±ti imin± nayena phass±d²nampi ekavidh±dibh±vo veditabboti. Evamettha ekavidh±ditopi viññ±tabbo vinicchayo.
‘Aªg±nañca vavatth±n±’ti sok±dayo cettha bhavacakkassa avicchedadassanattha½ vutt±. Jar±maraºabbh±hatassa hi b±lassa te sambhavanti. Yath±ha– “assutav±, bhikkhave, puthujjano s±r²rik±ya dukkh±ya vedan±ya phuµµho sam±no socati kilamati paridevati uratt±¼i½ kandati sammoham±pajjat²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.252). Y±va ca tesa½ pavatti t±va avijj±y±ti punapi avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±ti sambandhameva hoti bhavacakka½. Tasm± tesampi jar±maraºeneva ekasaªkhepa½ katv± dv±daseva paµiccasamupp±daªg±n²ti veditabb±ni. Evamettha aªg±na½ vavatth±natopi viññ±tabbo vinicchayo. Aya½ t±vettha uddesav±ravasena saªkhepakath±.

Uddesav±ravaººan± niµµhit±.