4. Maggasaccaniddesavaººan±

205. Maggasaccaniddese ayamev±ti aññamaggapaµikkhepanattha½ niyamana½. Ariyoti ta½ta½maggavajjhehi kilesehi ±rakatt± ariyabh±vakaratt± ariyaphalapaµil±bhakaratt± ca ariyo. Aµµhaªg±ni ass±ti aµµhaªgiko. Sv±ya½ caturaªgik± viya sen±, pañcaªgika½ viya t³riya½ aªgamattameva hoti, aªgavinimutto natthi. Nibb±natthikehi magg²yati, nibb±na½ v± maggati, kilese v± m±rento gacchat²ti maggo. Seyyathidanti so katamoti ceti attho.
Id±ni aªgamattameva maggo hoti, aªgavinimmutto natth²ti dassento samm±diµµhi…pe… samm±sam±dh²ti ±ha. Tattha samm± dassanalakkhaº± samm±diµµhi. Samm± abhiniropanalakkhaºo samm±saªkappo. Samm± pariggahalakkhaº± samm±v±c±. Samm± samuµµh±panalakkhaºo samm±kammanto. Samm± vod±nalakkhaºo samm±-±j²vo. Samm± paggahalakkhaºo samm±v±y±mo. Samm± upaµµh±nalakkhaº± samm±sati. Samm± sam±dh±nalakkhaºo samm±sam±dhi.
Tesu ca ekekassa t²ºi t²ºi kicc±ni honti, seyyathida½– samm±diµµhi t±va aññehipi attano paccan²kakilesehi saddhi½ micch±diµµhi½ pajahati, nirodha½ ±rammaºa½ karoti, sampayuttadhamme ca passati tappaµicch±dakamohavidhamanavasena asammohato. Samm±saªkapp±dayopi tatheva micch±saªkapp±d²ni ca pajahanti, nirodhañca ±rammaºa½ karonti. Visesato panettha samm±saªkappo sahaj±tadhamme abhiniropeti, samm±v±c± samm± pariggaºh±ti, samm±kammanto samm± samuµµh±peti, samm±-±j²vo samm± vod±peti, samm±v±y±mo samm± paggaºh±ti, samm±sati samm± upaµµh±ti, samm±sam±dhi samm± padahati.
Apices± samm±diµµhi n±ma pubbabh±ge n±n±kkhaº± n±n±rammaº± hoti, maggak±le ekakkhaº± ek±rammaº±, kiccato pana dukkhe ñ±ºanti-±d²ni catt±ri n±m±ni labhati. Samm±saªkapp±dayopi pubbabh±ge n±n±kkhaº± n±n±rammaº± honti, maggak±le ekakkhaº± ek±rammaº±. Tesu samm±saªkappo kiccato nekkhammasaªkappoti-±d²ni t²ºi n±m±ni labhati. Samm±v±c±dayo tayo pubbabh±ge n±n±kkhaº± n±n±rammaº± viratiyopi honti cetan±yopi, maggakkhaºe pana viratiyova. Samm±v±y±mo samm±sat²ti idampi dvaya½ kiccato sammappadh±nasatipaµµh±navasena catt±ri n±m±ni labhati. Samm±sam±dhi pana pubbabh±gepi maggakkhaºepi samm±sam±dhiyeva.
Iti imesu aµµhasu dhammesu bhagavat± nibb±n±dhigam±ya paµipannassa yogino bah³pak±ratt± paµhama½ samm±diµµhi desit±. Ayañhi “paññ±pajjoto paññ±satthan”ti (dha. sa. 16, 20, 29, 34) ca vutt±. Tasm± et±ya pubbabh±ge vipassan±ñ±ºasaªkh±t±ya samm±diµµhiy± avijjandhak±ra½ viddha½setv± kilesacore gh±tento khemena yog±vacaro nibb±na½ p±puº±ti. Tena vutta½ “nibb±n±dhigam±ya paµipannassa yogino bah³pak±ratt± paµhama½ samm±diµµhi desit±”ti.
Samm±saªkappo pana tass± bah³pak±ro, tasm± tadanantara½ vutto. Yath± hi heraññiko hatthena parivattetv± parivattetv± cakkhun± kah±paºa½ olokento ‘aya½ k³µo, aya½ cheko’ti j±n±ti, eva½ yog±vacaropi pubbabh±ge vitakkena vitakketv± vipassan±paññ±ya olokayam±no ‘ime dhamm± k±m±vacar±, ime dhamm± r³p±vacar±dayo’ti j±n±ti. Yath± v± pana purisena koµiya½ gahetv± parivattetv± parivattetv± dinna½ mah±rukkha½ tacchako v±siy± tacchetv± kamme upaneti, eva½ vitakkena vitakketv± vitakkatv± dinnadhamme yog±vacaro paññ±ya ‘ime dhamm± k±m±vacar±, ime dhamm± r³p±vacar±’ti-±din± nayena paricchinditv± kamme upaneti. Tena vutta½ ‘samm±saªkappo pana tass± bah³pak±ro, tasm± tadanantara½ vutto”ti.
Sv±ya½ yath± samm±diµµhiy±, eva½ samm±v±c±yapi upak±rako. Yath±ha– “pubbe kho, gahapati, vitakketv± vic±retv± pacch± v±ca½ bhindat²”ti (ma. ni. 1.463). Tasm± tadanantara½ samm±v±c± vutt±.
Yasm± pana ‘idañcidañca kariss±m±’ti paµhama½ v±c±ya sa½vidahitv± loke kammante payojenti, tasm± v±c± k±yakammassa upak±rik±ti samm±v±c±ya anantara½ samm±kammanto vutto.
Catubbidha½ pana vac²duccarita½, tividha½ k±yaduccarita½ pah±ya ubhaya½ sucarita½ p³rentasseva yasm± ±j²vaµµhamakas²la½ p³rati, na itarassa, tasm± tadubhay±nantara½ samm±-±j²vo vutto.
Eva½ suddh±j²vena ‘parisuddho me ±j²vo’ti ett±vat± paritosa½ akatv± suttappamattena viharitu½ na yutta½, atha kho sabba-iriy±pathesu ida½ v²riyam±rabhitabbanti dassetu½ tadanantara½ samm±v±y±mo vutto.
Tato ±raddhav²riyen±pi k±y±d²su cat³su vatth³su sati suppatiµµhit± k±tabb±ti dassanattha½ tadanantara½ samm±sati desit±.
Yasm± pana eva½ suppatiµµhit± sati sam±dhissa upak±r±nupak±r±na½ dhamm±na½ gatiyo samanvesitv± pahoti ekatt±rammaºe citta½ sam±dh±tu½, tasm± samm±sati-anantara½ samm±sam±dhi desitoti veditabbo.
Samm±diµµhiniddese “dukkhe ñ±ºan”ti-±din± catusaccakammaµµh±na½ dassita½. Tattha purim±ni dve sacc±ni vaµµa½, pacchim±ni vivaµµa½. Tesu bhikkhuno vaµµe kammaµµh±n±bhiniveso hoti, vivaµµe natthi abhiniveso. Purim±ni hi dve sacc±ni “pañcakkhandh± dukkha½, taºh± samudayo”ti eva½ saªkhepena ca “katame pañcakkhandh±? R³pakkhandho”ti-±din± nayena vitth±rena ca ±cariyassa santike uggaºhitv± v±c±ya punappuna½ parivattento yog±vacaro kamma½ karoti; itaresu pana dv²su saccesu “nirodhasacca½ iµµha½ kanta½ man±pa½, maggasacca½ iµµha½ kanta½ man±pan”ti eva½ savaneneva kamma½ karoti. So eva½ kamma½ karonto catt±ri sacc±ni ekena paµivedhena paµivijjhati, ek±bhisamayena abhisameti; dukkha½ pariññ±paµivedhena paµivijjhati, samudaya½ pah±napaµivedhena, nirodha½ sacchikiriyapaµivedhena, magga½ bh±van±paµivedhena paµivijjhati; dukkha½ pariññ±bhisamayena…pe… magga½ bh±van±bhisamayena abhisameti.
Evamassa pubbabh±ge dv²su saccesu uggahaparipucch±savanadh±raºasammasanapaµivedho hoti, dv²su savanapaµivedhoyeva; aparabh±ge t²su kiccato paµivedho hoti, nirodhe ±rammaºapaµivedho. Tattha sabbampi paµivedhañ±ºa½ lokuttara½, savanadh±raºasammasanañ±ºa½ lokiya½ k±m±vacara½, paccavekkhaº± pana pattasaccassa hoti. Ayañca ±dikammiko. Tasm± s± idha na vutt±. Imassa ca bhikkhuno pubbe pariggahato ‘dukkha½ parij±n±mi samudaya½ pajah±mi, nirodha½ sacchikaromi, magga½ bh±vem²’ti ±bhogasamann±h±ramanasik±rapaccavekkhaº± natthi, pariggahato paµµh±ya hoti; aparabh±ge pana dukkha½ pariññ±tameva hoti…pe… maggo bh±vitova hoti.
Tattha dve sacc±ni duddasatt± gambh²r±ni, dve gambh²ratt± duddas±ni. Dukkhasaccañhi uppattito p±kaµa½; kh±ºukaºµakappah±r±d²su ‘aho dukkhan’ti vattabbatampi ±pajjati. Samudayampi kh±dituk±mat±bhuñjituk±mat±divasena uppattito p±kaµa½. Lakkhaºapaµivedhato pana ubhayampi gambh²ra½. Iti t±ni duddasatt± gambh²r±ni. Itaresa½ pana dvinna½ dassanatth±ya payogo bhavaggagahaºattha½ hatthappas±raºa½ viya, av²ciphusanattha½ p±dappas±raºa½ viya, satadh± bhinnav±lassa koµiy± koµi½ paµip±dana½ viya ca hoti. Iti t±ni gambh²ratt± duddas±ni. Eva½ duddasatt± gambh²resu gambh²ratt± ca duddasesu cat³su saccesu uggah±divasena pubbabh±gañ±ºuppatti½ sandh±ya ida½ “dukkhe ñ±ºan”ti-±di vutta½. Paµivedhakkhaºe pana ekameva ñ±ºa½ hoti.
Samm±saªkappaniddese k±mato nissaµoti nekkhammasaªkappo. By±p±dato nissaµoti aby±p±dasaªkappo. Vihi½s±ya nissaµoti avihi½s±saªkappo. Tattha nekkhammavitakko k±mavitakkassa padagh±ta½ padaccheda½ karonto uppajjati, aby±p±davitakko by±p±davitakkassa, avihi½s±vitakko vihi½s±vitakkassa. Nekkhammavitakko ca k±mavitakkassa paccan²ko hutv± uppajjati, aby±p±da-avihi½s±vitakk± by±p±davihi½s±vitakk±na½.
Tattha yog±vacaro k±mavitakkassa padagh±tanattha½ k±mavitakka½ v± sammasati añña½ v± pana kiñci saªkh±ra½. Athassa vipassan±kkhaºe vipassan±sampayutto saªkappo tadaªgavasena k±mavitakkassa padagh±ta½ padaccheda½ karonto uppajjati, vipassana½ ussukk±petv± magga½ p±peti. Athassa maggakkhaºe maggasampayutto saªkappo samucchedavasena k±mavitakkassa padagh±ta½ padaccheda½ karonto uppajjati; by±p±davitakkass±pi padagh±tanattha½ by±p±davitakka½ v± añña½ v± saªkh±ra½ sammasati; vihi½s±vitakkassa padagh±tanattha½ vihi½s±vitakka½ v± añña½ v± saªkh±ra½ sammasati. Athassa vipassan±kkhaºeti sabba½ purimanayeneva yojetabba½.
K±mavitakk±d²na½ pana tiººa½ p±¼iya½ vibhattesu aµµhati½s±rammaºesu ekakammaµµh±nampi apaccan²ka½ n±ma natthi. Ekantato pana k±mavitakkassa t±va asubhesu paµhamajjh±nameva paccan²ka½, by±p±davitakkassa mett±ya tikacatukkajjh±n±ni, vihi½s±vitakkassa karuº±ya tikacatukkajjh±n±ni. Tasm± asubhe parikamma½ katv± jh±na½ sam±pannassa sam±pattikkhaºe jh±nasampayutto saªkappo vikkhambhanavasena k±mavitakkassa paccan²ko hutv± uppajjati. Jh±na½ p±daka½ katv± vipassana½ paµµhapentassa vipassan±kkhaºe vipassan±sampayutto saªkappo tadaªgavasena k±mavitakkassa paccan²ko hutv± uppajjati. Vipassana½ ussukk±petv± magga½ p±pentassa maggakkhaºe maggasampayutto saªkappo samucchedavasena k±mavitakkassa paccan²ko hutv± uppajjati. Eva½ uppanno nekkhammasaªkappoti vuccat²ti veditabbo.
Mett±ya pana parikamma½ katv±, karuº±ya parikamma½ katv± jh±na½ sam±pajjat²ti sabba½ purimanayeneva yojetabba½. Eva½ uppanno aby±p±dasaªkappoti vuccati, avihi½s±saªkappoti ca vuccat²ti veditabbo. Evamete nekkhammasaªkapp±dayo vipassan±jh±navasena uppatt²na½ n±natt± pubbabh±ge n±n±; maggakkhaºe pana imesu t²su µh±nesu uppannassa akusalasaªkappassa padacchedato anuppattis±dhanavasena maggaªga½ p³rayam±no ekova kusalasaªkappo uppajjati. Aya½ samm±saªkappo n±ma.
Samm±v±c±niddesepi yasm± aññeneva cittena mus±v±d± viramati, aññenaññena pisuºav±c±d²hi, tasm± catassopet± veramaºiyo pubbabh±ge n±n±; maggakkhaºe pana micch±v±c±saªkh±t±ya catubbidh±ya akusaladuss²lyacetan±ya padacchedato anuppattis±dhanavasena maggaªga½ p³rayam±n± ek±va samm±v±c±saªkh±t± kusalaveramaº² uppajjati. Aya½ samm±v±c± n±ma.
Samm±kammantaniddesepi yasm± aññeneva cittena p±º±tip±t± viramati, aññena adinn±d±n±, aññena k±mesumicch±c±r±, tasm± tissopet± veramaºiyo pubbabh±ge n±n±; maggakkhaºe pana micch±kammantasaªkh±t±ya tividh±ya akusaladuss²lyacetan±ya padacchedato anuppattis±dhanavasena maggaªga½ p³rayam±n± ek±va samm±kammantasaªkh±t± akusalaveramaº² uppajjati. Aya½ samm±kammanto n±ma.
Samm±-±j²vaniddese idh±ti imasmi½ s±sane. Ariyas±vakoti ariyassa buddhassa s±vako. Micch±-±j²va½ pah±y±ti p±paka½ ±j²va½ pajahitv±. Samm±-±j²ven±ti buddhapasatthena kusala-±j²vena. J²vika½ kappet²ti j²vitappavatti½ pavatteti. Idh±pi yasm± aññeneva cittena k±yadv±rav²tikkam± viramati; aññena vac²dv±rav²tikkam±, tasm± pubbabh±ge n±n±kkhaºesu uppajjati; maggakkhaºe pana dv²su dv±resu sattanna½ kammapath±na½ vasena uppann±ya micch±-±j²vaduss²lyacetan±ya padacchedato anuppattis±dhanavasena maggaªga½ p³rayam±n± ek±va samm±-±j²vasaªkh±t± kusalaveramaº² uppajjati. Aya½ samm±-±j²vo n±ma.
Samm±v±y±maniddeso sammappadh±navibhaªge anupadavaººan±vasena ±vibhavissati. Aya½ pana pubbabh±ge n±n±cittesu labhati. Aññeneva hi cittena anuppann±na½ p±pak±na½ akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ anupp±d±ya v±y±ma½ karoti, aññena uppann±na½ pah±n±ya; aññeneva ca anuppann±na½ kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ upp±d±ya, aññena uppann±na½ µhitiy±; maggakkhaºe pana ekacitteyeva labbhati. Ekameva hi maggasampayutta½ v²riya½ catukiccas±dhanaµµhena catt±ri n±m±ni labbhati.
Samm±satiniddesopi satipaµµh±navibhaªge anupadavaººan±vasena ±vibhavissati. Ayampi ca pubbabh±ge n±n±cittesu labbhati. Aññeneva hi cittena k±ya½ pariggaºh±ti, aññenaññena vedan±d²ni; maggakkhaºe pana ekacitteyeva labbhati. Ek±yeva hi maggasampayutt± sati catukiccas±dhanaµµhena catt±ri n±m±ni labhati.
Samm±sam±dhiniddese catt±ri jh±n±ni pubbabh±gepi n±n±, maggakkhaºepi. Pubbabh±ge sam±pattivasena n±n±, maggakkhaºe n±n±maggavasena. Ekassa hi paµhamamaggo paµhamajjh±niko hoti, dutiyamagg±dayopi paµhamajjh±nik±, dutiy±d²su aññatarajjh±nik± v±. Ekassa paµhamamaggo dutiy±d²na½ aññatarajjh±niko hoti, dutiy±dayopi dutiy±d²na½ aññatarajjh±nik± v± paµhamajjh±nik± v±. Eva½ catt±ropi magg± jh±navasena sadis± v± asadis± v± ekaccasadis± v± honti.
Aya½ panassa viseso p±dakajjh±naniy±mena hoti. P±dakajjh±naniy±mena t±va paµhamajjh±nal±bhino paµhamajjh±n± vuµµh±ya vipassantassa uppannamaggo paµhamajjh±niko hoti; maggaªgabojjhaªg±ni panettha paripuºº±neva honti. Dutiyajjh±nato uµµh±ya vipassantassa uppanno maggo dutiyajjh±niko hoti; maggaªg±ni panettha satta honti. Tatiyajjh±nato uµµh±ya vipassantassa uppanno maggo tatiyajjh±niko hoti; maggaªg±ni panettha satta, bojjhaªg±ni cha honti. Esa nayo catutthajjh±nato paµµh±ya y±va nevasaññ±n±saññ±yatan±.
¾ruppe catukkapañcakajjh±na½ uppajjati. Tañca kho lokuttara½ no lokiyanti vutta½. Ettha kathanti? Etth±pi paµhamajjh±n±d²su yato uµµh±ya sot±pattimagga½ paµilabhitv± ±ruppasam±patti½ bh±vetv± yo ±ruppe uppanno, ta½jh±nik±va tassa tattha tayo magg± uppajjanti Eva½ p±dakajjh±nameva niy±meti. Keci pana ther± “vipassan±ya ±rammaºabh³t± khandh± niy±ment²”ti vadanti. Keci “puggalajjh±sayo niy±met²”ti vadanti. Keci “vuµµh±nag±min²vipassan± niy±met²”ti vadanti. Tesa½ v±davinicchayo heµµh± cittupp±dakaº¹e lokuttarapadabh±jan²yavaººan±ya½ (dha. sa. aµµha. 350) vuttanayeneva veditabbo. Aya½ vuccati samm±sam±dh²ti y± imesu cat³su jh±nesu ekaggat±, aya½ pubbabh±ge lokiyo, aparabh±ge lokuttaro samm±sam±dhi n±ma vuccat²ti. Eva½ lokiyalokuttaravasena bhagav± maggasacca½ desesi.
Tattha lokiyamagge sabb±neva maggaªg±ni yath±nur³pa½ chasu ±rammaºesu aññatar±rammaº±ni honti. Lokuttaramagge pana catusaccapaµivedh±ya pavattassa ariyassa nibb±n±rammaºa½ avijj±nusayasamuggh±taka½ paññ±cakkhu samm±diµµhi. Tath± sampannadiµµhissa ta½sampayutta½ tividhamicch±saªkappasamuggh±taka½ cetaso nibb±napad±bhiniropana½ samm±saªkappo. Tath± passantassa vitakkentassa ca ta½sampayutt±va catubbidhavac²duccaritasamuggh±tik±ya micch±v±c±ya virati samm±v±c±. Tath± viramantassa ta½sampayutt±va micch±kammantasamucchedik± tividhak±yaduccaritavirati samm±kammanto. Tesa½yeva samm±v±c±kammant±na½ vod±nabh³t± ta½sampayutt±va kuhan±disamucchedik± micch±-±j²vavirati samm±-±j²vo. Imiss± samm±v±c±kammant±j²vasa½kh±t±ya s²labh³miya½ patiµµham±nassa tadanur³po ta½sampayuttova kosajjasamucchedako anuppannuppann±na½ akusalakusal±na½ anupp±dapah±nupp±daµµhitis±dhako ca v²riy±rambho samm±v±y±mo. Eva½ v±yamantassa ta½sampayuttova micch±sativiniddhunanako k±y±d²su k±y±nupassan±dis±dhako ca cetaso asammoso samm±sati. Iti anuttar±ya satiy± suvihitacitt±rakkhassa ta½sampayutt±va micch±sam±dhisamuggh±tik± cittekaggat± samm±sam±dh²ti. Esa lokuttaro ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo yo saha lokiyena maggena dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±ti saªkha½ gato.
So kho panesa maggo samm±diµµhisaªkapp±na½ vijj±ya, sesadhamm±na½ caraºena saªgahitatt± vijj± ceva caraºañca. Tath± tesa½ dvinna½ vipassan±y±nena, itaresa½ samathay±nena saªgahitatt± samatho ceva vipassan± ca. Tesa½ v± dvinna½ paññ±kkhandhena, tadanantar±na½ tiººa½ s²lakkhandhena, avases±na½ sam±dhikkhandhena adhipaññ±-adhis²la-adhicittasikkh±hi ca saªgahitatt± khandhattayañceva sikkh±ttayañca hoti; yena samann±gato ariyas±vako dassanasamatthehi cakkh³hi gamanasamatthehi ca p±dehi samann±gato addhiko viya vijj±caraºasampanno hutv± vipassan±y±nena k±masukhallik±nuyoga½, samathay±nena attakilamath±nuyoganti antadvaya½ parivajjetv± majjhimapaµipada½ paµipanno paññ±kkhandhena mohakkhandha½, s²lakkhandhena dosakkhandha½, sam±dhikkhandhena ca lobhakkhandha½ pad±lento adhipaññ±sikkh±ya paññ±sampada½, adhis²lasikkh±ya s²lasampada½, adhicittasikkh±ya sam±dhisampadanti tisso sampattiyo patv± amata½ nibb±na½ sacchikaroti, ±dimajjhapariyos±nakaly±ºa½ sattati½sabodhipakkhiyadhammaratanavicitta½ sammattaniy±masaªkh±ta½ ariyabh³miñca okkanto hot²ti.

Suttantabh±jan²yavaººan±.