1. Dukkhasaccaniddesavaººan±

J±tiniddeso

190. Id±ni saªkhepato uddiµµh±ni dukkh±d²ni vibhajitv± dassetu½ aya½ tattha katama½ dukkha½ ariyasacca½ j±tipi dukkh±ti niddesav±ro ±raddho. Tattha j±ti veditabb±, j±tiy± dukkhaµµho veditabbo; jar±, maraºa½, soko paridevo, dukkha½, domanassa½, up±y±so, appiyasampayogo, piyavippayogo veditabbo; appiyasampayogassa piyavippayogassa dukkhaµµho veditabbo; icch± veditabb±, icch±ya dukkhaµµho veditabbo; khandh± veditabb±, khandh±na½ dukkhaµµho veditabbo.
Tattha dukkhassa ariyasaccassa kathanatth±ya aya½ m±tik±– idañhi dukkha½ n±ma aneka½ n±nappak±ra½, seyyathida½– dukkhadukkha½, vipariº±madukkha½, saªkh±radukkha½, paµicchannadukkha½, appaµicchannadukkha½, pariy±yadukkha½, nippariy±yadukkhanti.
Tattha k±yikacetasik± dukkhavedan± sabh±vato ca n±mato ca dukkhatt± ‘dukkhadukkha½’ n±ma. Sukhavedan± vipariº±mena dukkhuppattihetuto ‘vipariº±madukkha½’ n±ma. Upekkh±vedan± ceva avases± ca tebh³mak± saªkh±r± udayabbayap²¼itatt± ‘saªkh±radukkha½’ n±ma. Tath± p²¼ana½ pana maggaphal±nampi atthi. Tasm± ete dhamm± dukkhasaccapariy±pannattena saªkh±radukkha½ n±m±ti veditabb±. Kaººas³ladantas³lar±gajapari¼±hadosajapari¼±h±di k±yikacetasiko ±b±dho pucchitv± j±nitabbato upakkamassa ca ap±kaµabh±vato ‘paµicchannadukkha½’ n±ma, ap±kaµadukkhantipi vuccati. Dvatti½sakammak±raº±disamuµµh±no ±b±dho apucchitv±va j±nitabbato upakkamassa ca p±kaµabh±vato ‘appaµicchannadukkha½’ n±ma, p±kaµadukkhantipi vuccati. Ýhapetv± dukkhadukkha½ sesa½ dukkhasaccavibhaªge ±gata½ j±ti-±di sabbampi tassa tassa dukkhassa vatthubh±vato ‘pariy±yadukkha½’ n±ma. Dukkhadukkha½ ‘nippariy±yadukkha½’ n±ma.
Tattha pariy±yadukkha½ nippariy±yadukkhanti imasmi½ padadvaye µhatv± dukkha½ ariyasacca½ kathetabba½. Ariyasaccañca n±meta½ p±¼iya½ saªkhepatopi ±gacchati vitth±ratopi. Saªkhepato ±gataµµh±ne saªkhepenapi vitth±renapi kathetu½ vaµµati Vitth±rato ±gataµµh±ne pana vitth±reneva kathetu½ vaµµati, na saªkhepena. Ta½ ida½ imasmi½ µh±ne vitth±rena ±gatanti vitth±reneva kathetabba½. Tasm± ya½ ta½ niddesav±re “tattha katama½ dukkha½ ariyasacca½? J±tipi dukkh±”ti-±d²ni pad±ni gahetv± “j±ti veditabb±, j±tiy± dukkhaµµho veditabbo”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha j±ti-±d²ni t±va “tattha katam± j±ti? Y± tesa½ tesa½ satt±na½ tamhi tamhi sattanik±ye j±ti sañj±t²”ti imassa pana padabh±jan²yassa vasena veditabb±ni.
191. Tatr±ya½ atthavaººan±– tesa½ tesa½ satt±nanti aya½ saªkhepato anekesa½ satt±na½ s±dh±raºaniddeso. Y± devadattassa j±ti, y± somadattassa j±t²ti evañhi divasampi kathiyam±ne neva satt± pariy±d±na½ gacchanti, na sabba½ aparatthad²pana½ sijjhati. Imehi pana dv²hi padehi na koci satto apariy±dinno hoti, na kiñci aparatthad²pana½ na sijjhati. Tena vutta½– “y± tesa½ tesa½ satt±nan”ti. Tamhi tamh²ti aya½ j±tigativasena anekesa½ sattanik±y±na½ s±dh±raºaniddeso. Sattanik±yeti satt±na½ nik±ye, sattaghaµ±ya½ sattasam³heti attho.
J±t²ti aya½ j±tisaddo anekattho. Tath± hesa “ekampi j±ti½, dvepi j±tiyo”ti (p±r±. 12; ma. ni. 2.257) ettha bhave ±gato. “Atthi vis±khe nigaºµh± n±ma samaºaj±tik±”ti (a. ni. 3.71) ettha nik±ye. “Tiriy± n±ma tiºaj±ti n±bhiy± uggantv± nabha½ ±hacca µhit± ahos²”ti (a. ni. 5.196) ettha paññattiya½. “J±ti dv²hi khandhehi saªgahit±”ti (dh±tu. 71) ettha saªkhatalakkhaºe. “Ya½, bhikkhave, m±tukucchimhi paµhama½ citta½ uppanna½, paµhama½ viññ±ºa½ p±tubh³ta½, tadup±d±ya s±vassa j±t²”ti (mah±va. 124) ettha paµisandhiya½. “Sampatij±to, ±nanda, bodhisatto”ti (ma. ni. 3.207) ettha pas³tiya½. “Anupakkuµµho j±tiv±den±”ti (d². ni. 1.331) ettha kule. “Yatoha½, bhagini, ariy±ya j±tiy± j±to”ti (ma. ni. 2.351) ettha ariyas²le. Idha pan±ya½ savik±resu paµham±bhinibbattakkhandhesu vattati. Tasm± j±yam±nakavasena j±t²ti idamettha sabh±vapaccatta½. Sañj±yanavasena sañj±t²ti upasaggena pada½ va¹¹hita½. Okkamanavasena okkanti. J±yanaµµhena v± j±ti, s± aparipuºº±yatanavasena yutt±. Sañj±yanaµµhena sañj±ti, s± paripuºº±yatanavasena yutt±. Okkamanaµµhena okkanti, s± aº¹ajajal±bujavasena yutt±. Te hi aº¹akosañca vatthikosañca okkamanti, okkamant±pi pavisant± viya paµisandhi½ gaºhanti. Abhinibbattanaµµhena abhinibbatti. S± sa½sedaja-opap±tikavasena yutt±. Te hi p±kaµ± eva hutv± nibbattanti. Aya½ t±va sammutikath±.
Id±ni paramatthakath± hoti. Khandh± eva hi paramatthato p±tubhavanti, na satt±. Tattha ca khandh±nanti ekavok±rabhave ekassa, catuvok±rabhave catunna½, pañcavok±rabhave pañcanna½ gahaºa½ veditabba½. P±tubh±voti uppatti. ¾yatan±nanti ettha tatra tatra uppajjam±n±yatanavasena saªgaho veditabbo. Paµil±bhoti santatiya½ p±tubh±voyeva; p±tubhavant±neva hi t±ni paµiladdh±ni n±ma honti. Aya½ vuccati j±t²ti aya½ j±ti n±ma kathiyati. S± panes± tattha tattha bhave paµham±bhinibbattilakkhaº±, n²yy±tanaras±, at²tabhavato idha ummujjanapaccupaµµh±n±, phalavasena dukkhavicittat±paccupaµµh±n± v±.
Id±ni ‘j±tiy± dukkhaµµho veditabbo’ti ayañhi j±ti saya½ na dukkh±, dukkhuppattiy± pana vatthubh±vena dukkh±ti vutt±. Kataradukkhassa pan±ya½ vatth³ti? Ya½ ta½ b±lapaº¹itasutt±d²su (ma. ni. 3.246 ±dayo) bhagavat±pi upam±vasena pak±sita½ ±p±yika½dukkha½, yañca sugatiya½ manussaloke gabbhokkantim³lak±dibheda½ dukkha½ uppajjati, tassa sabbass±pi es± vatthu. Tatrida½ gabbhokkantim³lak±dibheda½ dukkha½– ayañhi satto m±tukucchimhi nibbattam±no na uppalapadumapuº¹ar²k±d²su nibbattati. Atha kho heµµh± ±m±sayassa upari pakk±sayassa udarapaµalapiµµhikaº¹ak±na½ vemajjhe paramasamb±dhe tibbandhak±re n±n±kuºapagandhaparibh±vite asuciparamaduggandhapavanavicarite adhimattajegucche kucchippadese p³timacchap³tikumm±sacandanik±d²su kimi viya nibbattati. So tattha nibbatto dasa m±se m±tukucchisambhavena usman± puµap±ka½ viya paccam±no piµµhapiº¹i viya sediyam±no samiñjanapas±raº±dirahito adhimatta½ dukkha½ paccanubhot²ti. Ida½ t±va ‘gabbhokkantim³laka½’ dukkha½.
Ya½ pana so m±tu sahas± upakkhalanagamananis²dana-uµµh±naparivattan±d²su sur±dhuttahatthagato e¼ako viya ahiguºµhikahatthagato sappapotako viya ca ±ka¹¹hanaparika¹¹hana-odhunananiddhunan±din± upakkamena adhimatta½ dukkhamanubhavati, yañca m±tu s²tudakap±nak±le s²tanarak³papanno viya, uºhay±gubhatt±di-ajjhoharaºak±le aªg±ravuµµhisamparikiººo viya, loºambil±di-ajjhoharaºak±le kh±r±paµicchak±dikammak±raºappatto viya tibba½ dukkhamanubhoti– ida½ ‘gabbhapariharaºam³laka½’ dukkha½.
Ya½ panassa m³¼hagabbh±ya m±tuy± mitt±maccasuhajj±d²hipi adassan±rahe dukkhuppattiµµh±ne chedanaph±lan±d²hi dukkha½ uppajjati– ida½ ‘gabbhavipattim³laka½’ dukkha½. Ya½ vij±yam±n±ya m±tuy± kammajehi v±tehi parivattetv± narakapap±ta½ viya atibhay±naka½ yonimagga½ paµip±tiyam±nassa paramasamb±dhena yonimukhena t±¼acchigga¼ena viya nikka¹¹hiyam±nassa mah±n±gassa narakasattassa viya ca saªgh±µapabbatehi vicuººiyam±nassa dukkha½ uppajjati– ida½ ‘vij±yanam³laka½’ dukkha½. Ya½ pana j±tassa taruºavaºasadisassa sukum±rasar²rassa hatthaggahaºanh±panadhovanaco¼aparimajjan±dik±le s³cimukhakhuradh±ravijjhanaph±lanasadisa½ dukkha½ uppajjati– ida½ m±tukucchito ‘bahi nikkhamanam³laka½’ dukkha½. Ya½ tato para½ pavattiya½ attan±va att±na½ vadhantassa, acelakavat±divasena ±t±panaparit±pan±nuyogamanuyuttassa, kodhavasena abhuñjantassa, ubbandhantassa ca dukkha½ hoti– ida½ ‘att³pakkamam³laka½’ dukkha½.
Ya½ pana parato vadhabandhan±d²ni anubhavantassa dukkha½ uppajjati– ida½ ‘par³pakkamam³laka½’ dukkhanti. Iti imassa sabbass±pi dukkhassa aya½ j±ti vatthumeva hot²ti. Teneta½ vuccati–
J±yetha no ce narakesu satto,
tatthaggid±h±dikamappasayha½;
labhetha dukkha½ nu kuhi½ patiµµha½,
icc±ha dukkh±ti mun²dha j±ti.
Dukkha½ tiracchesu kas±patoda-
daº¹±bhigh±t±dibhava½ aneka½;
ya½ ta½ katha½ tattha bhaveyya j±ti½,
vin± tahi½ j±ti tatopi dukkh±.
Petesu dukkha½ pana khuppip±s±-
v±t±tap±dippabhava½ vicitta½;
yasm± aj±tassa na tattha atthi,
tasm±pi dukkha½ muni j±tim±ha.
Tibbandhak±re ca asayhas²te,
lokantare ya½ asuresu dukkha½;
na ta½ bhave tattha na cassa j±ti,
yato aya½ j±ti tatopi dukkh±.
Yañc±pi g³thanarake viya m±tugabbhe,
satto vasa½ ciramato bahi nikkhamanañca;
pappoti dukkhamatighoramidampi natthi,
j±ti½ vin± itipi j±tirayañhi dukkh±.
Ki½ bh±sitena bahun± nanu ya½ kuhiñci,
atth²dha kiñcidapi dukkhamida½ kad±ci;
nevatthi j±tivirahe yadato mahes²,
dukkh±ti sabbapaµhama½ imam±ha j±tinti.