S±vajjadukkhavip±kalakkhaº±ti ettha ca vuttavidhi-anus±rena attho ca yojan± ca yath±sambhava½ veditabb±. Vip±k±rahat± kusal±kusal±na½ lakkhaºabh±vena vutt±, tabbh±vena akathit± aby±kat± avip±k±rahasabh±v± hont²ti ±ha “avip±kalakkhaº± aby±kat±”ti. Yatheva hi sukhadukkhavip±k±rah± sukhadukkhavip±k±ti eva½lakkhaºat± kusal±kusal±na½ vutt±, evamidh±pi avip±k±rah± avip±k±ti eva½lakkhaºat± aby±kat±na½ vutt±. Tasm± “ahosi kamma½ n±hosi kammavip±ko na bhavissati kammavip±ko natthi kammavip±ko, atthi kamma½ natthi kammavip±ko na bhavissati kammavip±ko, bhavissati kamma½ na bhavissati kammavip±ko”ti (paµi. ma. 1.234) eva½pak±r±na½ kusal±kusal±na½ kusal±kusalabh±v±n±patti aby±katabh±v±patti v± na hoti. Na hi te sukhadukkhavip±k±rah± na honti vip±kadhammatt±, avip±k±rah± v± na honti avip±kadhammatt±bh±v±ti.
Kusal±ti v± dhamm±ti v±ti-±d²n²ti kusaladhammapad±ni dve, akusaladhammapad±ni dve, aby±katadhammapad±ni dveti. Ekatthan±natth±n²ti visu½ visu½ dvinna½ dvinna½ aññamaññ±pekkha½ ekatthan±natthata½ codeti, na channa½. Dosamettha vattuk±mo codako pucchat²ti ñatv± ±cariyo ±ha “kiñcetth±”ti. Ettha ekatthan±natthat±ya½ kiñci vattabba½ asamatt± te codan±, avasiµµha½ t±va br³h²ti vutta½ hoti. Yadi ekatth±ni indasakkasadd±na½ viya saddamatte eva bhedo, eva½ kusaladhammasadd±na½, na attheti. Yath± “indo sakko”ti vutte “indo indo”ti vuttasadisa½ hoti, eva½ “kusal± dhamm±”ti ida½ vacana½ “kusal± kusal±”ti vuttasadisa½ hoti. Eva½ itaresupi “akusal± akusal±”ti vuttasadisat± “aby±kat± aby±kat±”ti vuttasadisat± ca yojetabb±. Atha n±natth±ni, indakuverasadd±na½ viya saddato atthato ca kusaladhammasadd±na½ bhedo, tath± akusaladhammasadd±d²nanti chahi padehi cat³hi padehi ca cha catt±ro ca atth± bhinn± vutt±ti kusalattik±d²na½ kusalachakk±dibh±vo, hetuduk±d²nañca hetucatukk±dibh±vo ±pajjat²ti.
Nanu tiººa½ dhammasadd±na½ tiººa½ indasadd±na½ viya r³p±bhed± atth±bhedoti chakkabh±vo na bhavissati, tasm± evamida½ vattabba½ siy± “tikaduk±na½ catukkatikabh±vo ±pajjat²”ti, na vattabba½, tiººa½ dhammasadd±na½ ekatth±na½ tiººa½ indasadd±na½ viya vacane payojan±bh±v± vutt±na½ tesa½ m±sasadd±na½ viya abhinnar³p±nañca atthabhedo upapajjat²ti, evamapi yath± eko m±sasaddo abhinnar³po k±la½ aparaººavisesa½ suvaººam±sañca vadati, eva½ dhammasaddopi eko bhinne atthe vattumarahat²ti k±l±d²na½ m±sapadatthat±ya viya tabbacan²yabhinnatth±na½ dhammapadatthat±ya abhedoti catukkatikabh±vo eva ±pajjat²ti, n±pajjati ekassa saddassa j±tiguºakiriy±bhinn±na½ anabhidh±nato. Na hi m±sa-saddo eko j±tibhinn±na½ k±l±d²na½ antarena sar³pekasesa½ v±cako hoti. Idha ca yadi sar³pekaseso kato siy±, dutiyo tatiyo ca dhamma-saddo na vattabbo siy±, vutto ca so, tasm± kusal±di-sadd± viya abhinnakusal±dij±t²su r³pas±maññepi m±sa-sadd± viya tayo vinivatta-aññaj±t²su vattam±n± tayo dve ca dhamma-sadd± ±pann±ti tikaduk±na½ chakkacatukkabh±vo eva ±pajjat²ti.
Pad±nañca asambandhoti kusaladhammapad±na½ aññamañña½ tath± akusaladhammapad±na½ aby±katadhammapad±nañca asambandho ±pajjat²ti attho. Dvinna½ dvinnañhi icchito sambandho, na sabbesa½ channa½ catunna½ v± aññamaññanti. Ida½ pana kasm± codeti, nanu n±natthatte sati atthantaradassanattha½ vuccam±nesu dhamma-saddesu kusal±kusal±by±kata-sadd±na½ viya asambandho vutto yutto ev±ti? Saccameta½, asambandha½ pana siddha½ katv± purimacodan± kat± “tikaduk±na½ chakkacatukkabh±vo ±pajjat²”ti, idha pana ta½ asambandha½ s±dhetu½ ida½ coditanti veditabba½. Atha v± evamettha yojan± k±tabb±– yadi pana chakkacatukkabh±va½ na icchasi, pad±na½ sambandhena bhavitabba½ yath±vuttanayena, so ca sam±navibhatt²na½ dvinna½ dvinna½ sambandho ekatthatte sati yujjeyya, tva½ pana n±natthata½ vadas²ti pad±nañca te asambandho ±pajjati, neva n±pajjat²ti. Niyamanattho ca-saddo. Pubb±para…pe… nippayojan±ni n±ma hont²ti chakkacatukkabh±va½ anicchantassa, n±natthata½ pana icchantass±ti adhipp±yo. Avassañca sambandho icchitabbo pubb±paravirodh±pattitoti dassetu½ “y±pi ces±”ti-±dim±ha. Pucch± hi padavipall±sakaraºena dhamm± eva kusal±ti kusaladhamma-sadd±na½ idha uddiµµh±na½ ekatthata½ d²peti, tava ca n±natthata½ vadantassa neva hi dhamm± kusal±ti katv± t±yapi pucch±ya virodho ±pajjati, vuccati ca tath± s± pucch±ti na n±natthat± yujjati.
Aparo nayoti “kusal± dhamm±”ti-±d²na½ dvinna½ dvinna½ ekatthattameva tiººa½ dhammasadd±na½ ekatthan±natthattehi codeti. Tiººa½ dhamm±na½ ekatt±ti-±dimhi yath± t²hi inda-saddehi vuccam±n±na½ indatth±na½ indabh±vena ekatt± tato anaññesa½ sakkapurindadasahassakkhasaddatth±na½ ekatta½, eva½ tiººa½ dhamma-saddatth±na½ dhammabh±vena ekatt± tato anaññesa½ kusal±kusal±by±kata-saddatth±na½ ekatta½ ±pajjat²ti attho. Dhammo n±ma bh±voti sabh±vadh±raº±din± atthena dhammoti vutto, so ca sabh±vasseva hoti, n±sabh±vass±ti imin± adhipp±yena vadati. Hotu bh±vo, tato kinti? Yadi tiººa½ dhammasadd±na½ n±natthat±, t²su dhammesu yo koci eko dhammo bh±vo, tato anañña½ kusala½ akusala½ aby±kata½ v± ekekameva bh±vo. Bh±vabh³t± pana dhamm± aññe dve abh±v± hont²ti tehi anaññe kusal±d²su dve ye keci abh±v±. Yopi ca so eko dhammo bh±voti gahito, sopi sam±nar³pesu t²su dhammasaddesu ayameva bh±vattho hot²ti niyamassa abh±v± aññassa bh±vatthatte sati abh±vo hot²ti tato anaññassapi abh±vatta½ ±pannanti kusal±d²na½ sabbesampi abh±vatt±patti hoti. Na hi indassa amanussatte tato anaññesa½ sakk±d²na½ manussatta½ atth²ti.
Nanu evamapi ekassa bh±vatta½ vin± aññesa½ abh±vatta½ na sakk± vattu½, tattha ca ekeneva bh±vena bhavitabbanti niyam±bh±vato tiººampi bh±vatte siddhe tehi anaññesa½ kusal±d²nampi bh±vatta½ siddha½ hot²ti? Na hoti tiººa½ dhamma-sadd±na½ n±natthabh±vassa anuññ±tatt±. Na hi tiººa½ bh±vatte n±natthat± atthi, anuññ±t± ca s± tay±ti. Nanu tiººa½ dhamm±na½ abh±vattepi n±natthat± na siy±ti? M± hotu n±natthat±, tava pana n±natthata½ paµij±nantassa “eso doso”ti vad±mi, na pana may± n±natthat± ekatthat± v± anuññ±t±ti kuto me virodho siy±ti. Atha v± abh±vatta½ ±pannehi dhammehi anaññe kusal±dayopi abh±v± eva siyunti ida½ vacana½ aniyamena ye keci dve dhamm± abh±vatta½ ±pann±, tehi anaññesa½ kusal±d²su yesa½ kesañci dvinna½ kusal±d²na½ abh±vatt±patti½ sandh±ya vutta½ ekassa bh±vatt±. Yampi vutta½ “tehi ca añño kusalaparopi abh±vo siy±”ti, ta½ aniyamadassanattha½ vutta½, na sabbesa½ abh±vas±dhanattha½. Ayañhi tattha attho akusalaparassa v± aby±kataparassa v± dhammassa bh±vatte sati tehi añño kusalaparopi abh±vo siy±ti.
Sabbameta½ ak±raºanti ettha k±raºa½ n±ma yutti. Kusalakusalasadd±na½ viya ekanta-ekatthata½, kusalar³pacakkhuma-sadd±na½ viya ekantan±natthatañca vikappetv± y±ya½ punarutti chakkacatukk±patti asambandhavirodh±bh±v±patti dos±ropanayutti vutt±, sabb± s± ayutti, tath± ekatthan±natthat±bh±vatoti vutta½ hoti. Y± y± anumati yath±numati anumatiy± anumatiy± voh±rasiddhito. Anumatiy± anur³pa½ v± yath±numati, yath± anumati pavatt±, tath± tadanur³pa½ voh±rasiddhitoti attho. Anumati hi visesanavisesitabb±bh±vato accantamabhinnesu katthaci kiriy±guº±dipariggahavisesena avivaµasaddatthavivaraºattha½ pavatt± yath± “sakko indo purindado”ti. Katthaci accanta½ bhinnesu yath± “dhavo khadiro pal±so ca ±n²yant³”ti. Katthaci visesanavisesitabbabh±vato bhed±bhedavantesu seyyath±pi “n²luppala½ paº¹itapuriso”ti, t±ya t±ya anumatiy± tadanur³pañca te te voh±r± siddh±. Tasm± ih±pi kusaladhamma-sadd±na½ visesanavisesitabbabh±vato visesatthas±maññatthapariggahena sam±ne atthe bhed±bhedayutte pavatti anumat±ti t±ya t±ya anumatiy± tadanur³pañca siddho eso voh±ro. Tasm± vutta½ “sabbameta½ ak±raºan”ti.
Attano attano atthavisesa½ tassa d²pent²ti attan± pariggahita½ attan± vuccam±na½ anavajjasukhavip±k±dikusal±dibh±va½ dhamma-saddassa d²penti tadatthassa tabbh±vad²panavasen±ti adhipp±yo. Na hi dhamma-saddo kusal±dibh±vo hot²ti. Imin±v±ti “dhamma-saddo pariyatti-±d²su dissat²”ti-±din± “attano sabh±va½ dh±rent²”ti-±din± ca nayena. So hi sabbattha sam±no, na kusala-saddo ±rogy±d²su dissat²ti “kucchite salayant²”ti-±diko, so ca visesanayo “ito para½ visesamattameva vakkh±m±”ti etena apan²toti daµµhabbo. Na hi kusal±divisesa½ gahetv± pavatt± sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt±ti-±dayo vises±ti.
2. Sukhassa ca pah±n±ti ettha sukhindriya½ “sukhan”ti vutta½, tañca sukhavedan±va hot²ti “sukhavedan±ya½ dissat²”ti vutta½, na pana “tisso im±, bhikkhave, vedan± sukh± vedan±”ti-evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.249 ±dayo) sukha-saddo viya sukhavedan±saddena sam±natthatt±. Ayañhi sukhindriyattho sukha-saddo k±yasukhana½ k±y±nuggaha½ s±tavisesa½ gahetv± pavatto, na pana sukh± vedan± “ya½ kiñci vedana½ vedeti sukha½ v± (ma. ni. 1.409), yo sukha½ dukkhato”ti-evam±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.253) sukha-saddo viya s±tas±mañña½ gahetv± pavattoti. Yasmi½ sati sukhahet³na½ pavatti, ta½ sukham³la½. Buddhupp±de ca k±masamatikkam±dike vir±ge ca sati sukhahet³na½ puññapassaddhi-±d²na½ pavatti hot²ti ta½ “sukham³la½ sukhan”ti vutta½. Sukhassa ca ±rammaºatt± “r³pa½ sukhan”ti vutta½. Puññ±n²ti yadida½ vacana½, ta½ sukhassa ca adhivacana½ iµµhavip±kassa adhivacana½ tadatthassa iµµhavip±kavipaccanatoti attho. Sukhapaccay±na½ r³p±d²na½ iµµh±na½ µh±na½ ok±so sagg± nandanañc±ti “sukh± sagg± sukha½ nandanan”ti vutta½. Diµµhadhammeti imasmi½ attabh±ve. Sukhavih±r±ti paµhamajjh±navih±r±d². N²varaº±diby±b±dharahitatt± “aby±bajjh±”ti vutt±. Sabbasaªkh±radukkhanibb±panato ta½nirodhatt± v± “nibb±na½ sukhan”ti vutta½. ¾di-saddena “adukkhamasukha½ santa½, sukhamicceva bh±sitan”ti adukkhamasukhe. “Dvepi may±, ±nanda, vedan± vutt± pariy±yena sukh± vedan± dukkh± vedan±”ti (sa½. ni. 4.267) sukhopekkh±su ca iµµh±s³ti evam±d²su pavatti saªgahit±.
Dukkhavatth³ti dukkhassa ok±so. Attano paccayehi uppajjam±nampi hi ta½ dukkha½ j±ti-±d²su vijjam±nesu tabbatthuka½ hutv± uppajjati. Dukkhapaccayeti dukkhahetumhi, dukkhassa janaketi attho. Dukkhapaccayaµµh±neti dukkhajanakakammassa sah±yabh³t±na½ aniµµhar³p±dipaccay±na½ µh±ne. Paccayasaddo hi janake janakasah±ye ca pavattat²ti. ¾di-saddena “yadanicca½ ta½ dukkhan”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 3.15, 45-46, 76) saªkh±radukkh±d²su pavatti daµµhabb±. Sampayutte vatthuñca karajak±ya½ sukhayati laddhass±de anuggahite karot²ti sukh±. Sukh±ti vedan±saddamapekkhitv± sukhabh±vamattassa appak±sanena napu½sakaliªgat± na kat±. Sabh±vato saªkappato ca ya½ iµµha½, tadanubhavana½ iµµh±k±r±nubhavana½ v± iµµh±nubhavana½.