Tikam±tik±padavaººan±

Id±ni paµiññ±takatha½ k±tu½ “id±ni iti me…pe… kathanok±so sampatto”ti-±dim±ha. Ito paµµh±y±ti kusaladhammapadato paµµh±ya.
1. Sabbapadehi laddhan±moti t²supi padesu vedan±saddassa vijjam±natt± tena laddhan±mo sabbapadehi laddhan±mo hoti. Nanu sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dhamm±ti catt±ri pad±ni, eva½ sesesup²ti dv±daset±ni pad±ni, na t²º²ti vedan±saddassa padattay±vayavatta½ sandh±ya “sabbapadeh²”ti vucceyya, na yutta½. “Vedan±y±”ti hi visu½ pada½ na kassaci padassa avayavo hoti, n±pi sukh±dipadabh±va½ bhajat²ti tena laddhan±mo katha½ sabbapadehi laddhan±mo siy±ti? Adhippetappak±ratthagamakassa padasamud±yassa padatt±. Pajjati avabujjh²yati eten±ti hi pada½, “sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dhamm±”ti etena ca padasamud±yena yath±dhippeto attho samatto viññ±yati, tasm± so padasamud±yo “padan”ti vuccati. Eva½ itarepi veditabb±. Tasm± tesa½ tiººa½ samud±y±na½ avayavena laddhan±mo sabbapadehi laddhan±moti yutto.
Ganthato ca atthato c±ti ettha hetupadasahetukapad±d²hi sambandhatt± ganthato ca hetu-atthasahetukatth±d²hi sambandhatt± atthato ca aññamaññasambandho veditabbo. Sahetukahetusampayuttaduk± hi hetuduke het³hi sambandhatt± hetudukasambandh±, hetusahetukaduko hetudukasahetukadukasambandho ubhayekapadavasena. Tath± hetuhetusampayuttaduko hetudukahetusampayuttadukasambandho nahetusahetukaduko ekadvipadavasena hetudukasahetukadukasambandhoti. Kaººik± viy±ti pupphamayakaººik± viya. Ghaµ± viy±ti pupphahatthak±d²su pupph±d²na½ sam³ho viya. Kaººik±ghaµ±d²su hi pupph±d²ni vaºµ±d²hi aññamaññasambandh±ni hont²ti tath±sambandhat± etesa½ duk±na½ vutt±. Dukas±maññatoti aññehi hetuduk±d²hi dukavasena sam±nabh±v±. Aññeh²ti s±rammaºaduk±d²hi. Asaªgahito padeso yesa½ atthi, te sappades±. Yesa½ pana natthi, te nippades±.
“Kacci nu bhoto kusalan”ti eva½ pucchitamevattha½ p±kaµa½ katv± pucchitu½ “kacci bhoto an±mayan”ti vutta½, tasm± kusalasaddo an±mayattho hoti. B±hitikasutte (ma. ni. 2.361) bhagavato k±yasam±c±r±dayo vaººentena dhammabhaº¹±g±rikena “yo kho, mah±r±ja, k±yasam±c±ro anavajjo”ti kusalo k±yasam±c±ro vutto. Na hi bhagavato sukhavip±ka½ kamma½ atth²ti sabbas±vajjarahit± k±yasam±c±r±dayo kusal±ti vutt±. Kusalesu dhammes³ti ca bodhipakkhiyadhamm± “kusal±”ti vutt±. Te ca vipassan±maggaphalasampayutt± na ekantena sukhavip±k±yev±ti anavajjattho kusalasaddo. Aªgapaccaªg±nanti kusalasaddayogena bhummatthe s±mivacana½, aªgapaccaªg±na½ v± n±makiriy±payojan±d²s³ti attho. Naccag²tass±ti ca s±mivacana½ bhummatthe, naccag²tassa viseses³ti v± yojetabba½. Kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±d±nahetu evamida½ puñña½ pava¹¹hat²ti puññavip±kanibbattakakamma½ “kusalan”ti vutta½. Dhamm± hont²ti suññadhammatt± sabh±vamatt± hont²ti attho. Eva½ dhammesu dhamm±nupass²ti etth±pi suññatattho dhammasaddo daµµhabbo.
Salayanti…pe… viddha½sent²ti ettha purimassa purimassa pacchima½ pacchima½ atthavacana½. Atha v± salanassa atthad²pan±ni calan±d²ni t²ºi tadaªgappah±n±d²hi yojetabb±ni. Appah²nabh±vena sant±ne sayam±n± akusal± dhamm± r±g±di-asucisampayogato n±n±vidhadukkhahetuto ca kucchitena ±k±rena sayanti. ѱºavippayutt±nampi ñ±ºa½ upanissayapaccayo hot²ti sabbepi kusal± dhamm± kusena ñ±ºena pavattetabb±ti kusal±. Uppanna½s±nuppanna½sabh±gesu saªgahitatt± ubhayabh±gagata½ sa½kilesapakkha½ pah±n±nupp±danehi lunanti sammappadh±nadvaya½ viya.
Satt±dig±hak±na½ citt±na½ gocar± satt±dayo viya paññ±ya upaparikkhiyam±n± na nissabh±v±, kintu attano sabh±va½ dh±rent²ti dhamm±. Na ca dh±riyam±nasabh±v± añño dhammo n±ma atthi. Na hi ruppan±d²hi aññe r³p±dayo, kakkha¼±d²hi ca aññe pathav²-±dayo dhamm± vijjant²ti. Aññath± pana avabodhetu½ na sakk±ti n±mavasena viññ±t±viññ±te sabh±vadhamme aññe viya katv± “attano sabh±va½ dh±rent²”ti vutta½. Sappaccayadhammesu visesa½ dassento “dh±r²yanti v± paccayeh²”ti ±ha. Dh±r²yant²ti upadh±r²yanti, lakkh²yant²ti attho.
Akusal±ti kusalapaµisedhanamatta½ kusal±bh±vamattavacana½ tadaññamattavacana½ v± eta½ na hoti, kintu tappaµipakkhavacananti dassetu½ “mittapaµipakkh± amitt± viy±”ti-±di vutta½. Tappaµipakkhavacanat± ca aby±katatatiyar±sivacanena viññ±yati. Yadi hi kusal±bh±vamattavacana½ akusalasaddo, tena na koci dhammo vuttoti aby±katavacaneneva ca tatiyo r±si vutto na siy±, kusal± ceva dhamm± aby±kat± c±ti dukov±ya½ ±pajjati, na tiko, evañca sati akusalavacanena na koci attho. Atha siy±, “anaby±kat±”ti ca vattabba½ siy± kusal±na½ viya aby±kat±nañca abh±vamattasambhav±, tasm± abh±vamattavacane aby±katabh±vamatta½ viya kusal±bh±vamatta½ akusala½ na koci r±s²ti “aby±kat±”ti tatiyo r±si na siy±. Tatiyar±sibh±vena ca aby±kat± vutt±ti akusalo ca eko r±s²ti viññ±yati. Tasm± n±bh±vavacanat±, sabh±vadh±raº±di-atthena dhammasaddena sam±n±dhikaraºabh±vato ca akusalasaddassa kusal±bh±vamattavacanat± na hoti, n±pi tadaññamattavacanat± tatiyar±sivacanato eva. Yadi hi kusalehi aññe akusal± cetasikehi aññe acetasik± viya, kusal±kusalavacanehi sabbesa½ dhamm±na½ saªgahitatt± asaªgahitassa tatiyar±sissa abh±v± cetasikaduko viya ayañca duko vattabbo siy± “kusal± dhamm± akusal± dhamm±”ti, na “aby±kat±”ti tatiyo r±si vattabbo, vutto ca so, tasm± na tadaññamattavacana½ akusalasaddo, p±risesena tappaµipakkhesu a-k±rassa payogadassanato loke “amitt±”ti s±sane “alobho”ti idh±pi tappaµipakkhavacanat± akusalasaddassa siddh±, tattha niru¼hatt± ca na itaravacanat±, tappaµipakkhabh±vo ca viruddhasabh±vatt± tappaheyyabh±vato ca veditabbo, na kusalavin±sanato. Na hi kusal± akusalehi pah±tabb±, mah±balavat±ya pana kusal±yeva payoganipph±dit± sad±nusayite akusale tadaªgavikkhambhanasamucchedavasena pajahant²ti.
Na by±kat±ti akathit±. Katha½ panete akathit± honti, nanu “sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt±”ti-±d²hi tikadukapadehi cakkhuviññ±º±divacanehi phass±divacanehi ca kathit±ti? No na kathit±, t±ni pana vacan±ni idha anadhippet±ni avuttatt± ananuvattanato. Na hi “sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dhamm±”ti-±di½ vatv± “aby±kat±”ti vutta½, tasm± na t±ni idha anuvattant²ti tabbacan²yabh±vena akathitat± na hoti, kusal±kusalavacan±ni pana idha vuttatt± anuvattant²ti tabbacan²yabh±vena akathitat± ñ±yat²ti “kusal±kusalabh±vena akathit±ti attho”ti ±ha. Na by±kat±ti v± avip±k±, aby±katavacaneneva ca avip±katth± ñ±yanti. Na hi bhagavato vacana½ ñ±pakas±dhan²ya½, ±say±nusayacariy±dikusalena bhagavat± yesa½ avabodhanattha½ dhamm± vutt± tesa½ vacan±nantara½ tadatthapaµivedhato, pacchimehi pana yath± tesa½ avabodhanattha½ bhagavat± ta½ ta½ vacana½ vutta½, yath± ca tehi tadattho paµividdho, ta½ sabba½ ±cariye payirup±sitv± sutv± veditabba½ hoti, tasm± k±raºa½ avatv± “kusal±kusalabh±vena akathit±ti attho”ti ±ha. Yo ca vadeyya “akusalavip±kabh±vena akathitatt±, kusal± aby±kat±ti ±pajjanti, kusalavip±kabh±vena akathitatt± akusal±p²”ti, sopi “aññ±pakas±dhan²yavacano bhagav±”ti niv±retabbo anuvattam±navacanavacan²yabh±vena akathitassa ca aby±katabh±vato. Na hi avip±kavacana½ vutta½ kusalavacanañca avutta½, yato avip±kavacanassa adhikatabh±vo kusalassa ca tabbacan²yabh±vena akathitabh±vo siy±, tasm± na kusal±na½ aby±katat±, eva½ akusal±nañca anaby±katabh±ve yojan± k±tabb±.
Atha v± vi-saddo virodhavacano, ±-saddo abhimukhabh±vappak±sano, tasm± attano paccayehi aññamaññavirodh±bhimukh± kat±, lakkhaºavirodhato vin±sakavin±sitabbato c±ti by±kat±, kusal±kusal±. Na by±kat±ti aby±kat±. Te hi lakkhaºato kusal±kusal± viya viruddh± na honti. Na hi avip±kat± dukkhavip±kat± viya sukhavip±kat±ya sukhavip±kat± viya ca dukkhavip±kat±ya sukhadukkhavip±kat±hi virujjhat²ti n±pi te kiñci pajahanti, na ca te kenaci pah±tabb±ti ayamettha attanomati.
Anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaº±ti ettha natthi etesa½ avajjanti anavajj±, garahitabbabh±varahit± niddos±ti attho. Tena nesa½ agarahitabbabh±va½ dasseti, na g±rayhavirahamatta½ Aññepi atthi niddos± aby±kat±ti anavajjavacanamattena tesampi kusalat±pattidosa½ disv± ta½ pariharitu½ sukhavip±kavacana½ ±ha. Avajjapaµipakkh± v± idha anavajj±ti vutt±, na b±hitikasutte (ma. ni. 2.361) viya paµippassaddh±vajj± virahit±vajjamatt± v±, tasm± anavajjavacanena avajjavin±sanabh±vo dassito. Aby±katehi pana visiµµha½ kusal±kusal±na½ s±dh±raºa½ savip±kat±lakkhaºanti tasmi½ lakkhaºe visesadassanatta½ sukhavip±kavacana½ avoca. Siddho hi purimeneva akusal±by±katehi kusal±na½ visesoti. Sukho vip±ko etesanti sukhavip±k±. Tena kusal±kusal±na½ s±maññe vip±kadhammabh±ve sukhavip±kavipaccanasabh±va½ dasseti, na tesa½ sukhavip±kasabbh±vameva. Anavajj± ca te sukhavip±k± c±ti anavajjasukhavip±k±. Kusal± lakkh²yanti eten±ti lakkhaºa½, anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaºa½ etesanti anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaº±. Nanu te eva kusal± anavajjasukhavip±k±, katha½ te sayameva attano lakkhaºa½ hont²ti? Viññ±t±viññ±tasaddatthabh±vena lakkhaºalakkhitabbabh±vayuttito. Kusalasaddatthavasena hi aviññ±t± kusal± lakkhitabb± honti, anavajjasukhavip±kasaddatthabh±vena viññ±t± lakkhaºanti yuttameta½. Atha v± lakkh²yat²ti lakkhaºa½, sabh±vo. Anavajjasukhavip±k± ca te lakkhaºañc±ti anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaº±, anavajjasukhavip±k± hutv± lakkhiyam±n± sabh±v± kusal± n±m±ti attho.
Atha v± anavajjavacanena anavajjatta½ ±ha, sukhavip±kavacanena sukhavip±katta½, tasm± anavajjañca sukhavip±ko ca anavajjasukhavip±ka½, ta½ lakkhaºa½ etesa½ karaºatthe ca kammatthe ca lakkhaºasadde sabh±vabh³tanti anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaº±, anavajjasukhavip±kasabh±vena lakkhiyam±n± ta½sabh±vavanto ca kusal±ti vutta½ hoti. Tattha anavajjavacanena pavattisukhata½ kusal±na½ dasseti, sukhavip±kavacanena vip±kasukhata½. Purimañhi attano pavattisabh±vavasena lakkhaºat±vacana½, pacchima½ k±lantare vip±kupp±danasamatthat±y±ti. Tath± purimena kusal±na½ attasuddhi½ dasseti pacchimena visuddhavip±kata½. Purimena ca kusala½ akusalasabh±vato nivatteti, pacchimena aby±katasabh±vato savip±kattad²pakatt± pacchimassa. Purimena v± vajjapaµipakkhabh±vadassanato kiccaµµhena rasena akusalaviddha½sanarasata½ d²peti, pacchimena sampatti-atthena iµµhavip±karasata½. Purimena ca upaµµh±n±k±raµµhena paccupaµµh±nena vod±napaccupaµµh±nata½ dasseti, pacchimena phalatthena sukhavip±kapaccupaµµh±nata½. Purimena ca yonisomanasik±ra½ kusal±na½ padaµµh±na½ vibh±veti. Tato hi te anavajj± j±t±ti. Pacchimena kusal±na½ aññesa½ padaµµh±nabh±va½ dasseti. Te hi sukhavip±kassa k±raºa½ hont²ti. Ettha ca sukhavip±kasadde sukhasaddo iµµhapariy±yavacananti daµµhabbo. Iµµhacatukkhandhavip±k± hi kusal±, na sukhavedan±vip±k±va. Saªkh±radukkhopasamasukhavip±kat±ya ca sambhavo eva natthi. Na hi ta½vip±koti. Yadi pana vip±kasaddo phalapariy±yavacana½, nissandavip±kena iµµhar³pen±pi sukhavip±kat± yojetabb±.