K±m±vacarakusalapadabh±jan²yavaººan±

1. “Ye v± pana…pe… ar³pino dhamm±”ti ida½ “phasso hot²”ti evam±dika½ viya na visu½ “tepi hont²”ti hoti-saddena sambandha½ katv± vutta½, uddiµµh±vasese ca pana gahetv± “ime dhamm± kusal±”ti appetu½ vuttanti appan±ya avarodhita½. Evañca katv± niddesepi etassa padabh±jan²ya½ na vuttanti. Sar³pena pana adassitatt± “atth²”ti vatv± dutiyena hoti-saddena sambandho niddeso ca na kato, saªkhepena pana uddisitv± saªkhepeneva ye v± pana dhamm± niddiµµh±ti etassa dhammassa uddese avarodho yutto. Dhammaniddese ca niddes±vas±ne vuttass±ti.
Pucch±paricchedavacaneneva pucch±bh±ve viññ±te pucch±visesañ±panattha½ ±ha “aya½ kathetukamyat±pucch±”ti. Pañcavidh± h²ti mah±niddese (mah±ni. 150; c³¼ani. puººakam±ºavapucch±niddesa 12; mettag³m±ºavapucch±niddesa 18) ±gat± pucch± dasseti. Lakkhaºanti ñ±tu½ icchito yo koci sabh±vo. Aññ±tanti yena kenaci ñ±ºena aññ±tabh±va½ ±ha. Adiµµhanti dassanabh³tena ñ±ºena paccakkha½ viya adiµµhata½. Atulitanti “ettaka½ idan”ti tul±bh³t±ya paññ±ya atulitata½. At²ritanti t²raºabh³t±ya paññ±ya akatañ±ºakiriy±sam±panata½. Avibh³tanti ñ±ºassa ap±kaµabh±va½ Avibh±vitanti ñ±ºena ap±kaµ²katabh±va½. Adiµµha½ jot²yati et±y±ti adiµµhajotan±. Anumatiy± pucch± anumatipucch± “Ta½ ki½ maññatha, bhikkhave”ti-±dipucch±ya hi “k± tumh±ka½ anumat²”ti anumati pucchit± hoti. Kathetukamyat±ti kathetukamyat±ya.
Pabhedato dhamm±na½ desananti m±tik±desana½ ±ha. Tattha hi purato kusal±dike pabhede vatv± pacchato dhamm± vutt±ti “pabhedavantadassanatthan”ti niddesa½ ±ha. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– m±tik±ya savisesan± dhamm± vutt±, te ca visesitabbatt± padh±n±, padh±nañca itikattabbat±ya yujjat²ti dhamm±nameva padh±n±na½ pucchitabbat± vissajjitabbat± ca hoti, tasm± te pucchitabbe dassetu½ “katame dhamm±”ti vutta½, te pana visesavanto pucchit±ti dassetu½ puna “kusal±”ti vuttanti eva½ pabhedavantadassanattha½ aya½ pad±nukkamo katoti. “Ime dhamm± kusal±”ti vissajjanepi evameva yojan± k±tabb±. “Pabhedato dhamm±na½ desana½ d²petv±”ti etassa attha½ vivaritu½ “imasmiñh²”ti-±dim±ha. Anekappabhed± desetabb±ti sambandho. Tasm±ti avoh±radesanato dhamm±nameva desetabbatt± tesañca ghanavinibbhogapaµisambhid±ñ±º±vahanato pabhedavant±na½ desetabbatt± “kusal±…pe… d²petv±”ti etena sambandho. Evameva hi yath±vuttad²panassa hetu½ sak±raºa½ pak±setu½ puna “dhamm±yev±”ti-±di vuttanti. Dhamm±ti s±maññamattavacanena sam³h±dighanavasena ekattaggahaºa½ hot²ti ekattavinibbhogakaraºa½ ghanavinibbhogañ±ºa½ ±vahati pabhedadesan±, tath± kusal±didhamm±na½ aby±kat±di-atth±nañca d²panato dhammapaµisambhid±diñ±ºañca ±vahati. “Pabhedavantadassanatthan”ti eta½ vivaritu½ “id±ni ye ten±”ti-±dim±ha. Pabheda…pe… yujjati itikattabbat±yuttassa visesanatt±. Atha v± uddeso dhammappadh±no, pucch± sa½sayitappadh±n±, na ca dhammabh±vo sa½sayito, kusal±dibhedo pana sa½sayitoti nicchitasa½sayitavasen±ya½ pad±nukkamo kato.
Etth±ti etasmi½ vacane. Kimattham±ha bhagav±ti ta½ dassetu½ ±ha “samaye niddisi cittan”ti. Pariyos±neti samaye cittaniddesassa “yasmi½…pe… ±rabbh±”ti etassa pariyos±ne. Tasmi½ samayeti tasmi½ cittupp±dasamaye Cittena samaya½ niyametv±na atha pacch± bodhetunti sambandho. Vijjam±nepi bhojanagaman±disamayan±natte samav±y±din±natte ca yath±vuttacittaniyamit± visesit± aññasmi½ samaye yath±dhippet±na½ phass±d²na½ abh±v± cittaniyamite samaye phass±dayo bodhetu½ visesanameva t±va citta½ dassetu½ samaye citta½ niddis²ti attho. Visesitabbopi hi samayo attano upak±rattha½ visesanabh±va½ ±pajjati, visesanabh³tañca citta½ tadupak±rattha½ visesitabbabh±vanti. Santatighan±d²na½ aya½ viseso– purimapacchim±na½ nirantarat±ya ek²bh³t±namiva pavatti santatighanat±, tath± phass±d²na½ ekasam³havasena dubbiññeyyakiccabhedavasena ek±rammaºat±vasena ca ek²bh³t±namiva pavatti sam³h±dighanat±ti.
K±lañca samayañc±ti yuttak±lañca paccayas±maggiñca. Khaºoti ok±so. Tath±gatupp±d±diko hi maggabrahmacariyassa ok±so tappaccayapaµil±bhahetutt±. Khaºo eva ca samayo. Yo “khaºo”ti ca “samayo”ti ca vuccati, so ekov±ti attho. Mah±samayoti mah±sam³ho. Samayopi khoti sikkh±parip³raºassa hetupi. Samayappav±daketi diµµhippav±dake. Tattha hi nisinn± titthiy± attano attano samaya½ pavadant²ti. Atth±bhisamay±ti hitapaµil±bh±. Abhisametabboti abhisamayo, abhisamayo attho abhisamayaµµhoti p²¼an±d²ni abhisamitabbabh±vena ek²bh±va½ upanetv± vutt±ni, abhisamayassa v± paµivedhassa visayabh³to attho abhisamayaµµhoti t±neva tath± ekattena vutt±ni. Tattha p²¼ana½ dukkhasaccassa ta½samaªgino hi½ sana½ avipph±rikat±karaºa½. Sant±po dukkhadukkhat±dibh±vena sant±pana½ paridahana½.
“Idh±”ti vacana½ akusalesu aby±katesu ca kesuci khaºassa asambhavato. Nanu kusal±nañca navamena khaºena vin± uppatti hot²ti? No na hoti, na pana navamo eva khaºo, catucakk±nipi khaºoti vutt±ni. Sabbantimena paricchedena attasamm±paºidhikhaºamantarena natthi kusalassa uppatt²ti khaºo idha gahito. Indriyavisayamanasik±r±dh²na½ viññ±ºanti evam±di s±dh±raºaphala½ daµµhabba½. Navamoti aµµhakkhaºe up±d±ya vutta½. Catucakka½ vattat²ti puna patir³padesav±s±disampatti catucakka½ viparivattat²ti attho. Ok±sabh³t±n²ti attano nibbattiy± “id±ni uppajjantu kusal±n²”ti anumatid±na½ viya bh³t±ni.
Cittak±loti dhammeneva sat± k±lo visesito, na tassa pavattittha pavattissati pavattat²ti etena avatth±visesena, n±pi tassa vij±nanakiccena, tasm± eva½vidhe dhamme up±d±ya paññattoti vutto. Kamappavatt± vises± eva paµip±µ²ti b²jabh±vo ca paµip±µ²ti vattumarahat²ti imin±dhipp±yena “b²jak±loti dhammapaµip±µi½ up±d±ya paññatto”ti ±ha. Dhammapaµip±µi½ v±ti aµµhakal±padhamme sandh±y±ha. Sañcit± viya gayham±nak±l± eva k±lasañcayo yath± v± tath± v± k±loti eka½ sabh±va½ gahetv± abhinivesa½ karontassa tadabhinivesanisedhanattha½ “so panesa sabh±vato avijjam±natt± paññattimattako”ti ±ha. Ñatv± viññeyyoti sambandho. Itaro pana het³ti esa samayo paccayova viññeyyo. Etth±ti etasmi½ adhik±re na hetuhetu s±dh±raºahetu c±ti attho. Samav±yo paccayas±magg², hetu pana ekeko paccayoti ayametesa½ viseso veditabbo. Cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ anekapaccayadassanena ta½ta½dv±rik±na½ kusal±nañca tappaccayata½ dasseti.
Pariggaho kato aµµhakath±cariyehi. Ekak±raºav±doti pakatik±raºav±do, issarak±raºav±do v±. Aññamaññ±pekkhoti avayav±na½ aññamaññ±pekkhat±ya samud±yo vutto. Apekkh± ca y±va sah±yak±raºasam±gamo na hoti, t±va phalassa anipph±dana½ sam±game nipph±danasamatthassa nipph±danañca. Sam±gamo ca yesu yujjam±nesu niby±p±resupi phalassa pavatti, tesa½ sabbh±voti.
As±magg²…pe… pattitoti cakkhur³p±lokamanasik±r±na½ asamavet±na½ cakkhuviññ±ºassa ahetubh±ve sati samavet±nañca ta½sabh±v±vinivattito hetubh±v±n±pattitoti attho. Na hi sabh±vantara½ aññena sahita½ sabh±vantara½ hot²ti. Ekasminti andhasate ekekasmi½ andheti adhipp±yo. Aññath± yath±rutavasena atthe gayham±ne ekassa andhassa dassan±samatthat± sabbesampi na hoti, n±pi ekassa asamatthat±ya sabbesampi asamatthat± vutt±, kintu sabbesa½ visu½ asamatthat±ya ev±ti upam±vacana½ na yujjeyya, n±pi upamopamitabbasambandho. Na hi upamitabbesu cakkh±d²su ekassa asamatthat±ya sabbesampi asamatthat± vutt±, kintu sabbesa½ visu½ asamatthat±ya sahit±na½ asamatthat±ti. Andhasata½ passat²ti ca andhasata½ sahita½ passat²ti adhipp±yo aññath± vuttanayena upamitabb±sam±nat±pattito. S±dh±…pe… µhitabh±voti yesu vijjam±nesu phalappavatti tesa½ samodh±ne, yath± pavattam±nesu tesu phalappavatti, tath± pavattim±ha. Na yesa½ kesañci anekesa½ samodh±namatta½ s±magg². Na hi saddagandharasaphoµµhabbasamodh±na½ cakkhuviññ±ºassa, kaµµhakap±lap±s±ºasamodh±na½ v± sotaviññ±ºassa het³ti. Tanti ta½ dassana½. As±…pe… siddhoti n±yamattho s±dhetabbo visu½ ahet³na½ cakkh±d²na½ sahit±na½ hetubh±vassa paccakkhasiddhatt±ti attho. Na hi paccakkhasiddhe yuttimaggana½ yuttanti.
Manussatt±d²na½ khaº±vayav±na½ s±magg² khaºas±magg², ta½ vin± so navamacakkasampattisaªkh±to khaºo natthi. S± eva hi khaºas±magg² so khaºoti attho. Khaºa…pe… d²peti attano dullabhat±y±ti attho. Khaºattho v± samayasaddo khaºasaªkh±to samayoti vutto. So yasmi½ dullabhe khaºe sat²ti imassatthassa vibh±vanavasena tad±yatt±ya kusaluppattiy± dullabhabh±va½ d²peti. Etenup±yena samav±ya…pe… vutti½ d²pet²ti ettha ito paresu ca yojan± tassa tassa ta½ta½d²pane k±tabb±.
Tassa purisass±ti “seyyath±pi bhikkhave catt±ro da¼hadhamm± dhanuggah± sikkhit± katahatth± katup±san± catuddis± µhit± assu, atha puriso ±gaccheyya ‘aha½ imesa½…pe… katup±san±na½ kaº¹e khitte khitte appatiµµhite pathaviya½ gahetv± ±hariss±m²”’ti (sa½. ni. 2.228) eva½ vuttajavanapurisassa. T±va parittakoti gamanass±d±na½ devaputt±na½ heµµhupariy±yena paµimukha½ dh±vant±na½ sirasi p±de ca baddhakhuradh±r±sannip±tato ca parittataro k±lo. K±lasaªkh±to samayo cittaparicchinno vuccam±no teneva paricchedakacittena “eva½ paritto ahan”ti attano parittata½ d²peti. Yath± c±ha½, eva½ sabbo kusalacittappavattik±loti tassa parittata½ d²peti. Saddassa d²pan± vuttanay±nus±rena veditabb±.
Pakativ±d²na½ mahato viya aºuv±d²na½ dvi-aºukassa viya ca ekasseva. Hetu…pe… vuttita½ d²pet²ti paccay±yattavuttid²panato tapparabh±v± hetusaªkh±tassa par±yattavuttid²panat± vutt±. Sati pana paccay±yattabh±ve paccayas±magg²-±yattat± samav±yasaªkh±tena d²piyat²ti atapparabh±vato tassa ta½d²panat± na vutt±. Anena samayena kattubh³tena, anena samayena v± karaºabh³tena bhagavat± paµisedhitoti attho. Esa nayo purim±su d²pan±su.
Adhikaraºavasen±ti ±dh±ravasena. Etth±ti k±lasam³hasaªkh±te samaye gahiteti attho. K±lopi hi cittaparicchinno sabh±vato avijjam±nopi ±dh±rabh±veneva saññ±to “adhikaraºan”ti vutto ta½khaºappavatt±na½ tato pubbe parato ca abh±v±. Bh±voti kiriy±. Kiriy±ya kiriyantaralakkhaºa½ bh±venabh±valakkhaºa½. Yath± g±v²su duyham±n±su gato, duddh±su ±gatoti dohanakiriy± gamanakiriy±ya lakkhaºa½ hoti, evamih±pi “yasmi½ samaye tasmi½ samaye”ti ca vutte sat²ti ayamattho viññ±yam±no eva hoti aññakiriy±sambandh±bh±vena padatthassa satt±virah±bh±vatoti samayassa satt±kiriy±ya cittupp±dakiriy± phass±dibhavanakiriy± ca lakkh²yat²ti ubhayattha samayasadde bhummaniddeso kato lakkhaºabh³tabh±vayuttoti.