Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samm±sambuddhassa.

Abhidhammapiµake

Dhammasaªgaº²-m³laµ²k±

V²satig±th±vaººan±

1. Dhammasa½vaººan±ya½ satthari paº±makaraºa½ dhammassa sv±kkh±tabh±vena satthari pas±dajananattha½, satthu ca avitathadesanabh±vappak±sanena dhamme pas±dajananattha½. Tadubhayappas±d± hi dhammasampaµipatti mahato ca atthassa siddhi hot²ti. Atha v± ratanattayapaº±mavacana½ attano ratanattayapas±dassa viññ±panattha½, ta½ pana viññ³na½ citt±r±dhanattha½, ta½ aµµhakath±ya g±haºattha½, ta½ sabbasampattinipph±danatthanti. Ida½ pana ±cariyena adhippetappayojana½ antar±yavisosana½. Vakkhati hi “nipaccak±rassetassa…pe… asesato”ti. Ratanattayapaº±makaraºañhi antar±yakar±puññavigh±takarapuññavisesabh±vato maªgalabh±vato bhay±di-upaddavaniv±raºato ca antar±yavisosane samattha½ hoti. Katha½ panetass±puññavigh±takar±dibh±vo vij±nitabboti? “Yasmi½ mah±n±ma samaye ariyas±vako tath±gata½ anussarati, nevassa tasmi½ samaye r±gapariyuµµhita½ citta½ hot²”ti-±divacanato (a. ni. 6.10; 11.11), “p³j± ca p³janeyy±na½, eta½ maªgalamuttaman”ti (khu. p±. 5.3; su. ni. 262) ca, “eva½ buddha½ sarant±na½, dhamma½ saªghañca bhikkhavo. Bhaya½ v± chambhitatta½ v±, lomaha½so na hessat²”ti (sa½. ni. 1.249) ca vacanatoti.
Tattha yassa satthuno paº±ma½ kattuk±mo, tassa guºavisesadassanattha½ “karuº± viy±”ti-±dim±ha. Guºavisesav± hi paº±m±raho hoti, paº±m±rahe ca kato paº±mo vuttappayojanasiddhikarova hot²ti. Bhagavato ca desan± vinayapiµake karuº±ppadh±n±, suttantapiµake paññ±karuº±ppadh±n±. Teneva ca k±raºena vinayapiµakassa sa½vaººana½ karontena karuº±ppadh±n± bhagavato thoman± kat±, ±gamasa½vaººanañca karontena ubhayappadh±n±, abhidhammadesan± pana paññ±ppadh±n±ti katv± paññ±ppadh±nameva thomana½ karonto “karuº± viya sattes³”ti karuºa½ upam±bh±vena gahetv± paññ±ya thometi.
Tattha karuº± viy±ti nidassanavacanameta½, yassa yath± karuº± sabbesu sattesu pavattittha, eva½ sabbesu ñeyyadhammesu paññ±pi pavattitth±ti attho. Sattes³ti visayanidassanameta½. Paññ±ti nidassetabbadhammanidassana½. Yass±ti tadadhiµµh±napuggalanidassana½. Mahesinoti tabbisesana½. Ñeyyadhammes³ti paññ±visayanidassana½. Sabbes³ti tabbisesana½. Pavattitth±ti kiriy±nidassana½. Yath±ruc²ti vas²bh±vanidassana½.
Tattha kirat²ti karuº±, paradukkha½ vikkhipati apanet²ti attho. R³p±d²su satt± visatt±ti satt±. Tass± pana paññattiy± khandhasant±ne niru¼habh±vato nicchandar±g±pi “satt±”ti vuccanti. Paj±n±t²ti paññ±, yath±sabh±va½ pak±rehi paµivijjhat²ti attho. Yass±ti aniyamana½. “Tassa p±de namassitv±”ti etena niyamana½ veditabba½. Mahes²ti mahante s²lakkhandh±dayo esi gaves²ti mahesi. ѱtabb±ti ñeyy±, sabh±vadh±raº±din± atthena dhamm±. Tattha “ñeyy±”ti vacanena dhamm±na½ añeyyatta½ paµikkhipati. “Dhamm±”ti vacanena ñeyy±na½ sattaj²v±dibh±va½ paµikkhipati. Ñeyy± ca te dhamm± c±ti ñeyyadhamm±. Sabbes³ti anavasesapariy±d±na½. Tena aññ±t±bh±va½ dasseti. Pavattitth±ti uppajjittha. Yath±ruc²ti y± y± ruci yath±ruci, ruc²ti ca icch±, kattuk±mat± s±. Y± y± pavatt± tappabhed±, yath± v± ruci tath±, ruci-anur³pa½ pavatt± “yath±ruci pavattitth±”ti vuccati. Yath± yath± v± ruci pavatt±, tath± tath± pavatt± paññ± “yath±ruci pavattitth±”ti vuccati.
Tattha bhagavati pavatt±va karuº± bhagavato paññ±ya nidassananti gahetabb±. S± hi as±dh±raº± mah±karuº±, na aññ±. Yass±ti ca karuº±paññ±na½ ubhinnampi ±dh±rapuggalanidassana½. Na hi nir±dh±r± karuº± atth²ti “karuº±”ti vutte tad±dh±rabh³to puggalo nidassetabbo hoti, so ca idha añño vutto natthi, na ca ±sanna½ vajjetv± d³rassa gahaºe payojana½ atth²ti “yass±”ti nidassitapuggalova karuº±ya ±dh±ro. Tena ida½ vutta½ hoti “yassa attano karuº± viya paññ±pi pavattitth±”ti. Katha½ pana karuº± sattesu pavattittha yath± paññ±pi dhammesu pavattitth±ti? Niravasesato yath±ruci ca. Bhagavato hi karuº± kañci satta½ avajjetv± sabbesu sattesu niravasesesu pavattati, pavattam±n± ca rucivasena ekasmi½ anekesu ca aññehi as±dh±raº± pavattati. Na hi aññesa½ “mahoghapakkhand±na½ satt±na½ natthañño koci ogh± uddhat± aññatra may±”ti passant±na½ karuºokkamana½ hoti yath± bhagavatoti. Paññ±pi bhagavato sabbesu dhammesu niravasesesu pavattati, pavattam±n± ca ekasmi½ anekesu ca dhammesu sabh±vakicc±dij±nanena an±varaº± as±dh±raº± pavattati yath±ruci, yath± ca passantassa bhagavato karuº± yath±ruci pavattati. Ta½ sabba½ paµisambhid±magge mah±karuº±ñ±ºavibhaªgavasena j±nitabba½, paññ±ya ca yath±ruci pavatti ses±s±dh±raºañ±ºavibhaªg±divasena. Paññ±gahaºena ca t²su k±lesu appaµihatañ±ºa½ catusaccañ±ºa½ catupaµisambhid±ñ±ºa½, karuº±gahaºena mah±karuº±sam±pattiñ±ºassa gahitatt± ta½ vajjetv± aññ±ni as±dh±raºañ±º±ni catuves±rajjañ±ºa½ dasabal±ni cha abhiññ± catucatt±l²sa ñ±ºavatth³ni sattasattati ñ±ºavatth³n²ti evam±dayo aneke paññ±ppabhed± saªgayhanti, tasm± tass± tass± paññ±ya pavattivasena yath±ruci pavatti veditabb±. Ten±ha “karuº± viya…pe… yath±ruc²”ti.
Tattha karuº±gahaºena mah±bodhiy± m³la½ dasseti. Mah±dukkhasamb±dhappaµipannañhi sattanik±ya½ disv± “tassa natthañño koci saraºa½, ahameta½ mutto mocess±m²”ti karuº±ya sañcoditam±naso abhin²h±ra½ d²paªkarassa bhagavato p±dam³le katv± bodhisambh±re samodh±netv± anupubbena sambodhi½ pattoti karuº± mah±bodhiy± m³lanti. Sattes³ti etena mah±bodhiy± payojana½ dasseti. Satt± hi mah±bodhi½ payojenti. Sattasant±raºatthañhi sabbaññut± abhipatthit±. Yath±ha–
“Ki½ me ekena tiººena, purisena th±madassin±;
sabbaññuta½ p±puºitv±, sant±ressa½ sadevakan”ti. (Bu. va½. 2. 56).
Paññ±gahaºena mah±bodhi½ dasseti. Sabbaññut±ya hi padaµµh±nabh³ta½ maggañ±ºa½, maggañ±ºapadaµµh±nañca sabbaññutaññ±ºa½ “mah±bodh²”ti vuccat²ti. Ñeyyadhammesu sabbes³ti etena sant±retabb±na½ satt±na½ abhiññeyyapariññeyyapah±tabbabh±vetabbasacchik±tabbe khandh±yatanadh±tusaccindriyapaµiccasamupp±dasatipaµµh±n±dibhede kusal±dibhede ca sabbadhamme dasseti. Pavattittha yath±ruc²ti etena paµivedhapaccavekkhaºapubbaªgamadesan±ñ±ºappavattid²panena payojanasampatti½ dasseti. Sabbadhamm±nañhi paµivedhañ±ºa½ bodhipallaªke ahosi. Maggañ±ºameva hi tanti. Paccavekkhaºañ±ºañca visesena ratanagharasatt±he ahosi. Eva½ paµividdhapaccavekkhit±na½ dhamm±na½ dhammacakkappavattan±d²su desan±ñ±ºa½ ahosi, visesena ca paº¹ukambalasil±ya½ sattappakaraºadesan±yanti. Desan±ñ±ºena ca desento bhagav± sattesu hitapaµipatti½ paµipajjat²ti. Etena sabbena attahitapaµipatti½ parahitapaµipattiñca dasseti. Mah±bodhidassanena hi attahitapaµipatti, itarehipi parahitapaµipatti dassit±ti. Tena attahitapaµipann±d²su cat³su puggalesu bhagavato catutthapuggalabh±va½ dasseti, tena ca anuttaradakkhiºeyyabh±va½ niratisayapaº±m±rahabh±vañca attano ca kiriy±ya khettaªgatabh±va½ dasseti.
Ettha ca karuº±gahaºena lokiyesu mahaggatabh±vappatt±s±dh±raºaguºad²panato sabbalokiyaguºasampatti bhagavato dassit± hoti, paññ±gahaºenapi sabbaññutaññ±ºapadaµµh±namaggañ±ºad²panato sabbalokuttaraguºasampatti. Karuº±vacanena ca upagamana½ nirupakkilesa½, paññ±vacanena apagamana½ dasseti. Upagamana½ dassento ca loke sañj±tasa½va¹¹habh±va½ dasseti, apagamana½ dassento lokena anupalittata½. “Karuº± viya sattes³”ti ca lokasamaññ±nur³pa½ bhagavato pavatti½ dasseti, “ñeyyadhammesu sabbesu yath±ruci paññ± pavattitth±”ti etena samaññ±ya anatidh±vana½. Sabbadhammasabh±v±navabodhe hi sati samañña½ atidh±vitv± “satto j²vo atth²”ti par±masana½ hot²ti. Sabbesañca buddhaguº±na½ karuº± ±di tannid±nabh±vato, paññ± pariyos±na½ tato uttarikaraº²y±bh±vato. ¾dipariyos±nadassanena ca sabbe buddhaguº± dassit±va honti. Karuº±gahaºena ca s²lakkhandhapubbaªgamo sam±dhikkhandho dassito hoti. Karuº±nid±nañhi s²la½ tato p±º±tip±t±diviratippavattito tass± ca jh±nattayasampayogato. Paññ±vacanena paññ±kkhandho. S²lañca sabbabuddhaguº±na½ ±di, sam±dhi majjha½, paññ± pariyos±nanti evampi ±dimajjhapariyos±nakaly±º± sabbe buddhaguº± dassit± honti.
2. Eva½ saªkhepena sabbabuddhaguºehi bhagavanta½ thometv± yass± sa½vaººana½ kattuk±mo, t±ya abhidhammadesan±ya aññehi as±dh±raº±ya thometu½ “day±ya t±y±”ti-±dim±ha. Tass± pana desan±ya nid±nañca samuµµh±nañca dassetu½ “day±ya t±y±”ti-±di vutta½. Nid±nañca duvidha½ abbhantara½ b±hirañc±ti. Abbhantara½ karuº±, b±hira½ desak±l±di. Samuµµh±na½ desan±paññ±. Tattha abbhantaranid±na½ dassento “day±ya t±ya sattesu, samuss±hitam±naso”ti ±ha. Tattha day±ti karuº± adhippet±. T±ya hi samuss±hito abhidhammakath±magga½ sampavattay²ti. T±y±ti aya½ ta-saddo pubbe vuttassa paµiniddeso hoti.
Purimag±th±ya ca padh±nabh±vena paññ± niddiµµh±, tabbisesanabh±vena karuº±. S± hi tass± nidassanabh³t± appadh±n± ta½ visesetv± vinivatt±, tasm± “t±y±”ti paµiniddesa½ n±rahati. Y± ca padh±nabh³t± paññ±, s± desan±ya samuµµh±na½, na samuss±hin²ti tass± ca paµiniddeso na yuttoti? Paññ±ya t±va paµiniddeso na yuttoti suvuttameta½, karuº±ya pana paµiniddeso no na yutto “day±ya t±y±”ti dvinna½ pad±na½ sam±n±dhikaraºabh±vato. Sam±n±dhikaraº±nañhi dvinna½ pad±na½ r³pakkhandh±d²na½ viya visesanavisesitabbabh±vo hoti. R³pa-saddo hi aññakkhandhanivattanattha½ vuccam±no visesana½ hoti, khandha-saddo ca nivattetabbagahetabbas±dh±raºavacanabh±vato visesitabbo, evamidh±pi “day±ya t±y±”ti dvinna½ pad±na½ ekavibhattiyutt±na½ sam±n±dhikaraºabh±vato visesanavisesitabbabh±vo hoti. Tattha day± samuss±hin²ti padh±n±, nivattetabbagahetabbas±dh±raºavacanañcida½. Tasm± “day±y±”ti visesitabbavacanameta½, tassa ca yath± visesana½ hoti “t±y±”ti ida½ vacana½, tath± tassa paµiniddesabh±vo yojetabbo. Na hi paññ±paµiniddesabh±ve day±visesana½ ta-saddo hoti, karuº±paµiniddesabh±ve ca hot²ti. Padh±nañca pañña½ vajjetv± “day±y±”ti etena sambajjham±no “t±y±”ti aya½ ta-saddo appadh±n±ya karuº±ya paµiniddeso bhavitumarahati. Ayamettha attho– y±ya day±ya samuss±hito, na s± y± k±ci, sabbaññutaññ±ºassa pana nidassanabh³t± mah±karuº±, t±ya samuss±hitoti.
Katha½ pana karuº± “day±”ti ñ±tabb±, nanu vutta½ “day±panno”ti etassa aµµhakath±ya½ (d². ni. aµµha. 1.8) “mettacittata½ ±panno”ti, tasm± day± mett±ti yujjeyya, na karuº±ti? Yadi eva½ “aday±panno”ti etassa aµµhakath±ya½ “nikkaruºata½ ±panno”ti vuttanti day± mett±ti ca na yujjeyya, tasm± day±-saddo yattha yattha pavattati, tattha tattha adhipp±yavasena yojetabbo. Day±-saddo hi anurakkhaºattha½ anton²ta½ katv± pavattam±no mett±ya ca karuº±ya ca pavattat²ti no na yujjati. Evañhi aµµhakath±na½ avirodho hot²ti. Karuº± ca desan±ya nid±nabh±vena vutt±, na mett± “accantameva hi ta½ samaya½ bhagav± karuº±vih±rena vih±s²”ti (d². ni. aµµha. 1.1; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.1 m³lapariy±yasuttavaººan±; sa½. ni. aµµha. 1.1.1; a. ni. aµµha. 1.1.1) evam±d²su, tasm± idha karuº±va day±vacanena gahit±ti veditabb±. S± hi samuss±hin², na mett±, mett± pana paññ±gatikapavattin² hot²ti.