R³p±vacarakusalavaººan±

Catukkanayo paµhamajjh±na½

160. Id±ni r³p±vacarakusala½ dassetu½ katame dhamm± kusal±ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha r³p³papattiy± magga½ bh±vet²ti r³pa½ vuccati r³pabhavo. Upapatt²ti nibbatti j±ti sañj±ti. Maggoti up±yo. Vacanattho panettha– ta½ upapatti½ maggati gavesati janeti nipph±det²ti maggo. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yena maggena r³pabhave upapatti hoti nibbatti j±ti sañj±ti, ta½ magga½ bh±vet²ti. Ki½ panetena niyamato r³pabhave upapatti hot²ti? Na hoti. “Sam±dhi½, bhikkhave, bh±vetha, sam±hito yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti passat²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.5; 4.99; 5.1071; netti. 40; mi. pa. 2.1.15) eva½ vuttena hi nibbedhabh±giyena r³pabhav±tikkamopi hoti. R³p³papattiy± pana ito añño maggo n±ma natthi, tena vutta½ ‘r³p³papattiy± magga½ bh±vet²’ti. Atthato c±ya½ maggo n±ma cetan±pi hoti, cetan±ya sampayuttadhamm±pi, tadubhayampi. “Nirayañc±ha½, s±riputta, paj±n±mi nirayag±miñca maggan”ti (ma. ni. 1.153) hi ettha cetan± maggo n±ma.
“Saddh± hiriya½ kusalañca d±na½, dhamm± ete sappuris±nuy±t±;
etañhi magga½ diviya½ vadanti, etena hi gacchati devalokan”ti. (A. ni. 8.32).
Ettha cetan±sampayuttadhamm± maggo n±ma. “Aya½, bhikkhave, maggo, aya½ paµipad±”ti saªkh±rupapattisutt±d²su (ma. ni. 3.161 ±dayo) cetan±pi cetan±sampayuttadhamm±pi maggo n±ma. Imasmi½ pana µh±ne ‘jh±nan’ti vacanato cetan±sampayutt± adhippet±. Yasm± pana jh±nacetan± paµisandhi½ ±ka¹¹hati, tasm± cetan±pi cetan±sampayuttadhamm±pi vaµµantiyeva.
Bh±vet²ti janeti upp±deti va¹¹heti. Aya½ t±va idha bh±van±ya attho. Aññattha pana upasaggavasena sambh±van± paribh±van± vibh±van±ti eva½ aññath±pi attho hoti. Tattha “idhud±yi mama s±vak± adhis²le sambh±venti– s²lav± samaºo gotamo, paramena s²lakkhandhena samann±gato”ti (ma. ni. 2.243) aya½ sambh±van± n±ma; okappan±ti attho. “S²laparibh±vito sam±dhi mahapphalo hoti mah±nisa½so, sam±dhiparibh±vit± paññ± mahapphal± hoti mah±nisa½s±, paññ±paribh±vita½ citta½ sammadeva ±savehi vimuccat²”ti (d². ni. 2.186) aya½ paribh±van± n±ma; v±san±ti attho. “Iªgha r³pa½ vibh±vehi, vedana½… sañña½… saªkh±re… viññ±ºa½ vibh±veh²”ti aya½ vibh±van± n±ma; antaradh±pan±ti attho. “Puna capara½, ud±yi, akkh±t± may± s±vak±na½ paµipad±, yath±paµipann± me s±vak± catt±ro satipaµµh±ne bh±vent²”ti (ma. ni. 2.247), aya½ pana upp±danava¹¹hanaµµhena bh±van± n±ma. Imasmimpi µh±ne ayameva adhippet±. Tena vutta½– ‘bh±vet²ti janeti upp±deti va¹¹het²’ti.
Kasm± panettha, yath± k±m±vacarakusalaniddese dhammapubbaªgam± desan± kat± tath± akatv±, puggalapubbaªgam± kat±ti? Paµipad±ya s±dhetabbato. Idañhi cat³su paµipad±su aññatar±ya s±dhetabba½; na k±m±vacara½ viya vin± paµipad±ya uppajjati. Paµipad± ca n±mes± paµipannake sati hot²ti etamattha½ dassetu½ puggalapubbaªgama½ desana½ karonto ‘r³p³papattiy± magga½ bh±vet²’ti ±ha.
Vivicceva k±meh²ti k±mehi viviccitv±, vin± hutv±, apakkamitv±. Yo pan±yamettha ‘eva’-k±ro so niyamatthoti veditabbo. Yasm± ca niyamattho, tasm± tasmi½ paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharaºasamaye avijjam±n±nampi k±m±na½ tassa paµhamajjh±nassa paµipakkhabh±va½, k±maparicc±geneva cassa adhigama½ d²peti. Katha½? ‘Vivicceva k±meh²’ti evañhi niyame kariyam±ne ida½ paññ±yati– n³nimassa k±m± paµipakkhabh³t± yesu sati ida½ na pavattati, andhak±re sati pad²pobh±so viya? Tesa½ paricc±geneva cassa adhigamo hoti orimat²raparicc±gena p±rimat²rasseva. Tasm± niyama½ karot²ti.
Tattha siy±– ‘kasm± panesa pubbapadeyeva vutto, na uttarapade? Ki½ akusalehi dhammehi avivicc±pi jh±na½ upasampajja vihareyy±’ti? Na kho paneta½ eva½ daµµhabba½. Ta½nissaraºato hi pubbapade esa vutto. K±madh±tusamatikkamanato hi k±mar±gapaµipakkhato ca ida½ jh±na½ k±m±nameva nissaraºa½. Yath±ha– “k±m±nameta½ nissaraºa½ yadida½ nekkhamman”ti (itivu. 72; d². ni. 3.353). Uttarapadepi pana, yath± “idheva, bhikkhave, samaºo, idha dutiyo samaºo”ti (ma. ni. 1.139; a. ni. 4.241) ettha ‘eva’-k±ro ±netv± vuccati, eva½ vattabbo. Na hi sakk± ito aññehipi n²varaºasaªkh±tehi akusalehi dhammehi avivicca jh±na½ upasampajja viharitu½, tasm± ‘vivicceva k±mehi vivicceva akusalehi dhammeh²’ti eva½ padadvayepi esa daµµhabbo. Padadvayepi ca kiñc±pi vivicc±ti imin± s±dh±raºavacanena tadaªgavivek±dayo k±yavivek±dayo ca sabbepi vivek± saªgaha½ gacchanti, tath±pi k±yaviveko cittaviveko vikkhambhanavivekoti tayo eva idha daµµhabb±.
K±meh²ti imin± pana padena ye ca niddese “katame vatthuk±m±? Man±piy± r³p±”ti-±din± (mah±ni. 1) nayena vatthuk±m± vutt±, ye ca tattheva vibhaªge ca “chando k±mo, r±go k±mo, chandar±go k±mo; saªkappo k±mo, r±go k±mo, saªkappar±go k±mo; ime vuccanti k±m±”ti (mah±ni. 1; vibha. 564) eva½ kilesak±m± vutt±, te sabbepi saªgahit±-icceva daµµhabb±. Evañhi sati vivicceva k±meh²ti vatthuk±mehipi viviccev±ti attho yujjati. Tena k±yaviveko vutto hoti.
Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²ti kilesak±mehi sabb±kusalehi v± vivicc±ti attho yujjati. Tena cittaviveko vutto hoti. Purimena cettha vatthuk±mehi vivekavacanato eva k±masukhaparicc±go, dutiyena kilesak±mehi vivekavacanato nekkhammasukhapariggaho vibh±vito hoti. Eva½ vatthuk±makilesak±mavivekavacanatoyeva ca etesa½ paµhamena sa½kilesavatthuppah±na½, dutiyena sa½kilesappah±na½; paµhamena lolabh±vassa hetuparicc±go, dutiyena b±labh±vassa; paµhamena ca payogasuddhi, dutiyena ±sayaposana½ vibh±vita½ hot²ti ñ±tabba½. Esa t±va nayo ‘k±meh²’ti ettha vuttak±mesu vatthuk±mapakkhe.
Kilesak±mapakkhe pana ‘chandoti ca r±go’ti ca evam±d²hi anekabhedo k±macchandoyeva k±moti adhippeto. So ca akusalapariy±pannopi sam±no “tattha katamo k±macchando k±mo”ti-±din± nayena vibhaªge (vibha. 564) jh±napaµipakkhato visu½ vutto. Kilesak±matt± v± purimapade vutto, akusalapariy±pannatt± dutiyapade. Anekabhedato cassa ‘k±mato’ti avatv± ‘k±meh²’ti vutta½. Aññesampi ca dhamm±na½ akusalabh±ve vijjam±ne “tattha katame akusal± dhamm±? K±macchando”ti-±din± nayena vibhaªge uparijh±naªgapaccan²kapaµipakkhabh±vadassanato n²varaº±neva vutt±ni. N²varaº±ni hi jh±naªgapaccan²k±ni. Tesa½ jh±naªg±neva paµipakkh±ni, viddha½sak±ni, vigh±tak±n²ti vutta½ hoti. Tath± hi “sam±dhi k±macchandassa paµipakkho, p²ti by±p±dassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sukha½ uddhaccakukkuccassa, vic±ro vicikicch±y±”ti peµake vutta½.
Evamettha ‘vivicceva k±meh²’ti imin± k±macchandassa vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hoti. ‘Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²’ti imin± pañcannampi n²varaº±na½. Aggahitaggahaºena pana paµhamena k±macchandassa, dutiyena sesan²varaº±na½; tath± paµhamena t²su akusalam³lesu pañcak±maguºabhedavisayassa lobhassa, dutiyena ±gh±tavatthubhed±divisay±na½ dosamoh±na½. Ogh±d²su v± dhammesu paµhamena k±moghak±mayogak±m±savak±mup±d±na-abhijjh±k±yaganthak±mar±gasa½yojan±na½, dutiyena avasesa-oghayog±sava-up±d±naganthasa½yojan±na½. Paµhamena ca taºh±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca, dutiyena avijj±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca. Apica paµhamena lobhasampayutta-aµµhacittupp±d±na½, dutiyena ses±na½ catunna½ akusalacittupp±d±na½ vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hot²ti veditabbo. Aya½ t±va ‘vivicceva k±mehi vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²’ti ettha atthappak±san±.
Ett±vat± ca paµhamassa jh±nassa pah±naªga½ dassetv± id±ni sampayogaªga½ dassetu½ savitakka½ savic±ranti-±di vutta½. Tattha heµµh± vuttalakkhaº±divibh±gena appan±sampayogato r³p±vacarabh±vappattena vitakkena ceva vic±rena ca saha vattati. Rukkho viya pupphena ca phalena c±ti ida½ jh±na½ savitakka½ savic±ranti vuccati. Vibhaªge pana “imin± ca vitakkena imin± ca vic±rena upeto hoti samupeto”ti-±din± (vibha. 565) nayena puggal±dhiµµh±n± desan± kat±. Attho pana tatrapi evameva daµµhabbo.
Vivekajanti– ettha vivitti viveko. N²varaºavigamoti attho. Vivittoti v± viveko, n²varaºavivitto jh±nasampayuttadhammar±s²ti attho. Tasm± vivek±, tasmi½ v± viveke, j±tanti vivekaja½. P²tisukhanti– ettha p²tisukh±ni heµµh± pak±sit±neva. Tesu pana vuttappak±r±ya pañcavidh±ya p²tiy± y± appan±sam±dhissa m³la½ hutv± va¹¹ham±n± sam±dhisampayoga½ gat± pharaº±p²ti– aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippet± p²t²ti. Ayañca p²ti idañca sukha½ assa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti ida½ jh±na½ p²tisukhanti vuccati. Atha v± p²ti ca sukhañca p²tisukha½, dhammavinay±dayo viya. Vivekaja½ p²tisukhamassa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne, atth²ti evampi vivekaja½ p²tisukha½. Yatheva hi jh±na½ eva½ p²tisukhampettha vivekajameva hoti. Tañcassa atthi. Tasm± ekapadeneva ‘vivekaja½ p²tisukhan’ti vattu½ yujjati. Vibhaªge pana “ida½ sukha½ im±ya p²tiy± sahagatan”ti-±din± nayena vutta½. Attho pana tatth±pi evameva daµµhabbo.
Paµhama½ jh±nanti– ettha gaºan±nupubbat± paµhama½. Paµhama½ uppannanti paµhama½. Paµhama½ sam±pajjitabbantipi paµhama½. Ida½ pana na ekantalakkhaºa½. Ciººavas²bh±vo hi aµµhasam±pattil±bh² ±dito paµµh±ya matthaka½ p±pentopi sam±pajjitu½ sakkoti. Matthakato paµµh±ya ±di½ p±pentopi sam±pajjitu½ sakkoti. Antarantar± okkamantopi sakkoti. Eva½ pubbuppattiyaµµhena pana paµhama½ n±ma hoti.
Jh±nanti duvidha½ jh±na½– ±rammaº³panijjh±na½ lakkhaº³panijjh±nanti. Tattha aµµha sam±pattiyo pathavikasiº±di-±rammaºa½ upanijjh±yant²ti ±rammaº³panijjh±nanti saªkhya½ gat±. Vipassan±maggaphal±ni pana lakkhaº³panijjh±na½ n±ma. Tattha vipassan± anicc±dilakkhaºassa upanijjh±nato lakkhaº³panijjh±na½. Vipassan±ya katakiccassa maggena ijjhanato maggo lakkhaº³panijjh±na½. Phala½ pana nirodhasacca½ tathalakkhaºa½ upanijjh±yat²ti lakkhaº³panijjh±na½ n±ma. Tesu imasmi½ atthe ±rammaº³panijjh±na½ adhippeta½. Tasm± ±rammaº³panijjh±nato paccan²kajjh±panato v± jh±nanti veditabba½.
Upasampajj±ti upagantv±, p±puºitv±ti vutta½ hoti. Upasamp±dayitv± v± nipph±detv±ti vutta½ hoti. Vibhaªge pana “upasampajj±ti paµhamassa jh±nassa l±bho paµil±bho patti sampatti phusan± sacchikiriy± upasampad±”ti (vibha. 570) vutta½. Tass±pi evamevattho daµµhabbo. Viharat²ti tadanur³pena iriy±pathavih±rena itivuttappak±rajjh±nasamaªg² hutv± attabh±vassa iriyana½ vutti½ p±lana½ yapana½ y±pana½ c±ra½ vih±ra½ abhinipph±deti. Vuttañheta½ vibhaªge– “viharat²ti iriyati vattati p±leti yapeti y±peti carati viharati, tena vuccati viharat²”ti (vibha. 512, 571).
Pathavikasiºanti ettha pathavimaº¹alampi sakalaµµhena pathavikasiºanti vuccati. Ta½ niss±ya paµiladdha½ nimittampi. Pathavikasiºanimitte paµiladdhajjh±nampi. Tattha imasmi½ atthe jh±na½ pathav²kasiºanti veditabba½. Pathavikasiºasaªkh±ta½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharat²ti ayañhettha saªkhepattho. Imasmi½ pana pathavikasiºe parikamma½ katv± catukkapañcakajjh±n±ni nibbattetv± jh±napadaµµh±na½ vipassana½ va¹¹hetv± arahatta½ pattuk±mena kulaputtena ki½ kattabbanti? ¾dito t±va p±timokkhasa½vara-indriyasa½vara-±j²vap±risuddhipaccayasannissitasaªkh±t±ni catt±ri s²l±ni visodhetv± suparisuddhe s²le patiµµhitena, yv±ssa ±v±s±d²su dasasu palibodhesu palibodho atthi, ta½ upacchinditv± kammaµµh±nad±yaka½ kaly±ºamitta½ upasaªkamitv± p±¼iy± ±gatesu aµµhati½s±ya kammaµµh±nesu attano cariy±nuk³la½ kammaµµh±na½ upaparikkhantena sacassa ida½ pathavikasiºa½ anuk³la½ hoti, idameva kammaµµh±na½ gahetv± jh±nabh±van±ya ananur³pa½ vih±ra½ pah±ya anur³pe vih±re viharantena khuddakapalibodhupaccheda½ katv± kasiºaparikammanimitt±nurakkhaºasatta-asapp±yaparivajjanasattasapp±yasevanadasavidha-appan±kosallappabheda½ sabba½ bh±van±vidh±na½ aparih±pentena jh±n±dhigamatth±ya paµipajjitabba½. Ayamettha saªkhepo. Vitth±ro pana visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.51 ±dayo) vuttanayeneva veditabbo. Yath± cettha eva½ ito paresupi. Sabbakammaµµh±n±nañhi bh±van±vidh±na½ sabba½ aµµhakath±nayena gahetv± visuddhimagge vitth±rita½. Ki½ tena tattha tattha puna vutten±ti na na½ puna vitth±ray±ma. P±¼iy± pana heµµh± an±gata½ attha½ aparih±pent± nirantara½ anupadavaººanameva kariss±ma.
Tasmi½ samayeti tasmi½ paµhamajjh±na½ upasampajja viharaºasamaye. Phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hot²ti ime k±m±vacarapaµhamakusalacitte vuttappak±r±ya padapaµip±µiy± chapaºº±sa dhamm± honti. Kevalañhi te k±m±vacar±, ime bh³mantaravasena mahaggat± r³p±vacar±ti ayamettha viseso. Sesa½ t±disameva. Yev±panak± panettha chand±dayo catt±rova labbhanti. Koµµh±sav±rasuññatav±r± p±katik± ev±ti.

Paµhama½.