Dhammuddesav±ro

Phassapañcamakar±sivaººan±

Tasmi½ samayeti ida½ aniyamaniddiµµhassa samayassa niyamato paµiniddesavacana½. Tasm± ‘yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½yeva samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hot²’ti ayamattho veditabbo. Tattha yatheva citta½ eva½ phass±d²supi phasso hoti. Ki½ hoti? ‘K±m±vacaro hoti, kusalo hoti, uppanno hoti, somanassasahagato hot²’ti-±din± nayena labbham±napadavasena yojan± k±tabb±. Vedan±yañhi ‘somanassasahagat±’ti paññindriye ca ‘ñ±ºasampayuttan’ti na labbhati, tasm± ‘labbham±napadavasen±’ti vutta½. Ida½ aµµhakath±muttaka½ ±cariy±na½ mata½; na paneta½ s±rato daµµhabba½.
Kasm± panettha phassova paµhama½ vuttoti? Cittassa paµham±bhinip±tatt±. ¾rammaºasmiñhi cittassa paµham±bhinip±to hutv± phasso ±rammaºa½ phusam±no uppajjati, tasm± paµhama½ vutto. Phassena pana phusitv± vedan±ya vedayati, saññ±ya sañj±n±ti, cetan±ya ceteti. Tena vutta½– “phuµµho, bhikkhave, vedeti, phuµµho sañj±n±ti phuµµho cetet²”ti.
Apica aya½ phasso n±ma yath± p±s±da½ patv± thambho n±ma sesadabbasambh±r±na½ balavapaccayo, tul±saªgh±µabhittip±dak³µagop±nas²pakkhap±sakamukhavaµµiyo thambh±baddh± thambhe patiµµhit±, evameva sahaj±tasampayuttadhamm±na½ balavapaccayo hoti. Thambhasadiso hi esa. Avases± dabbasambh±rasadis±ti. Tasm±pi paµhama½ vutto. Ida½ pana ak±raºa½. Ekacittasmiñhi uppannadhamm±na½ ‘aya½ paµhama½ uppanno aya½ pacch±’ti ida½ vattu½ na labbh±. Balavapaccayabh±vepi phassassa k±raºa½ na dissati. Desan±v±reneva pana phasso paµhama½ vutto. Vedan± hoti phasso hoti, saññ± hoti phasso hoti, cetan± hoti phasso hoti, citta½ hoti phasso hoti, vedan± hoti saññ± hoti, cetan± hoti vitakko hot²ti ±haritumpi hi vaµµeyya. Desan±v±rena pana phassova paµhama½ vuttoti veditabbo. Yath± cettha eva½ sesadhammesupi pubb±parakkamo n±ma na pariyesitabbo. Vacanatthalakkhaºaras±d²hi pana dhamm± eva pariyesitabb±.
Seyyathida½– phusat²ti phasso. Sv±ya½ phusanalakkhaºo, saªghaµµanaraso, sannip±tapaccupaµµh±no, ±p±thagatavisayapadaµµh±no.
Ayañhi ar³padhammopi sam±no ±rammaºe phusan±k±reneva pavattat²ti phusanalakkhaºo. Ekadesena ca anall²yam±nopi r³pa½ viya cakkhu½, saddo viya ca sota½, citta½ ±rammaºañca saªghaµµet²ti saªghaµµanaraso. Vatth±rammaºasaªghaµµanato v± uppannatt± sampatti-atthenapi rasena saªghaµµanarasoti veditabbo. Vuttañheta½ aµµhakath±ya½– “catubh³makaphasso hi nophusanalakkhaºo n±ma natthi. Saªghaµµanaraso pana pañcadv±rikova hoti. Pañcadv±rikassa hi phusanalakkhaºotipi saªghaµµanarasotipi n±ma½; manodv±rikassa phusanalakkhaºotveva n±ma½, na saªghaµµanaraso”ti.
Idañca vatv± ida½ sutta½ ±bhata½– “yath±, mah±r±ja, dve meº¹± yujjheyyu½, tesu yath± eko meº¹o eva½ cakkhu daµµhabba½, yath± dutiyo meº¹o eva½ r³pa½ daµµhabba½; yath± tesa½ sannip±to eva½ phasso daµµhabbo”. Eva½ phusanalakkhaºo ca phasso, saªghaµµanaraso ca. “Yath±, mah±r±ja, dve samm± vajjeyyu½…pe… dve p±º² vajjeyyu½, yath± eko p±ºi eva½ cakkhu daµµhabba½, yath± dutiyo p±ºi eva½ r³pa½ daµµhabba½, yath± tesa½ sannip±to eva½ phasso daµµhabbo. Eva½ phusanalakkhaºo ca phasso saªghaµµanaraso c±”ti (mi. pa. 2.3.8) vitth±ro.
Yath± v± “cakkhun± r³pa½ disv±”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 1352, 1354) cakkhuviññ±º±d²ni cakkhu-±din±mena vutt±ni, evamidh±pi t±ni cakkhu-±din±mena vutt±n²ti veditabb±ni. Tasm± ‘eva½ cakkhu daµµhabban’ti-±d²su eva½ cakkhuviññ±ºa½ daµµhabbanti imin± nayena attho veditabbo. Eva½ sante citt±rammaºasaªghaµµanato imasmimpi sutte kiccaµµheneva rasena saªghaµµanarasoti siddho hoti.
Tikasannip±tasaªkh±tassa pana attano k±raºassa vasena paveditatt± sannip±tapaccupaµµh±no. Ayañhi tattha tattha “tiººa½ saªgati phasso”ti eva½ k±raºassa vasena paveditoti. Imassa ca suttapadassa tiººa½ saªgatiy± phassoti ayamattho; na saªgatimattameva phassoti.
Eva½ paveditatt± pana tenev±k±rena paccupaµµh±t²ti sannip±tapaccupaµµh±noti vutto. Phalaµµhena pana paccupaµµh±nenesa vedan±paccupaµµh±no n±ma hoti. Vedanañhesa paccupaµµh±peti upp±det²ti attho. Upp±dayam±no ca yath± bahiddh± uºhapaccay±pi l±kh±saªkh±tadh±tunissit± usm± attano nissaye mudubh±vak±r² hoti, na attano paccayabh³tepi bahiddh± v²taccitaªg±rasaªkh±te uºhabh±ve, eva½ vatth±rammaºasaªkh±ta-aññapaccayopi sam±no, cittanissitatt± attano nissayabh³te citte eva esa vedanupp±dako hoti, na attano paccayabh³tepi vatthumhi ±rammaºe v±ti veditabbo. Tajj±samann±h±rena pana indriyena ca parikkhate visaye anantar±yena uppajjanato esa ±p±thagatavisayapadaµµh±noti vuccati.
Vedayat²ti vedan±. S± vedayitalakkhaº±, anubhavanaras± iµµh±k±rasambhogaras± v±, cetasika-ass±dapaccupaµµh±n±, passaddhipadaµµh±n±.
‘Catubh³mikavedan± hi novedayitalakkhaº± n±ma natthi. Anubhavanarasat± pana sukhavedan±yameva labbhat²’ti vatv± puna ta½ v±da½ paµikkhipitv± ‘sukhavedan± v± hotu, dukkhavedan± v±, adukkhamasukhavedan± v±, sabb± anubhavanaras±’ti vatv± ayamattho d²pito– ±rammaºaras±nubhavanaµµh±na½ patv± sesasampayuttadhamm± ekadesamattakameva anubhavanti. Phassassa hi phusanamattakameva hoti, saññ±ya sañj±nanamattakameva, cetan±ya cetan±mattakameva, viññ±ºassa vij±nanamattakameva. Eka½sato pana issaravat±ya vissavit±ya s±mibh±vena vedan±va ±rammaºarasa½ anubhavati.
R±j± viya hi vedan±, s³do viya sesadhamm±. Yath± s³do n±n±rasabhojana½ samp±detv± pe¼±ya pakkhipitv± lañchana½ datv± rañño santike ot±retv± lañchana½ bhinditv± pe¼a½ vivaritv± sabbas³pabyañjanehi aggagga½ ±d±ya bh±jane pakkhipitv± sadosaniddosabh±vav²ma½sanattha½ ajjhoharati, tato rañño n±naggarasabhojana½ upan±meti. R±j± issaravat±ya vissavit±ya s±m² hutv± icchiticchita½ bhuñjati. Tattha hi s³dassa bhattav²ma½sanamattamiva avasesadhamm±na½ ±rammaºarasassa ekades±nubhavana½. Yath± hi s³do bhattekadesamattameva v²ma½sati eva½ sesadhamm±pi ±rammaºarasekadesameva anubhavanti. Yath± pana r±j± issaravat±ya vissavit±ya s±m² hutv± yadicchaka½ bhuñjati, eva½ vedan±pi issaravat±ya vissavit±ya s±mibh±vena ±rammaºarasa½ anubhavati. Tasm± anubhavanaras±ti vuccati.
Dutiye atthavikappe aya½ idha adhippet± vedan± yath± v± tath± v± ±rammaºassa iµµh±k±rameva sambhuñjat²ti iµµh±k±rasambhogaras±ti vutt±. Cetasika-ass±dato panes± attano sabh±veneva upaµµh±na½ sandh±ya cetasika-ass±dapaccupaµµh±n±ti vutt±. Yasm± pana “passaddhik±yo sukha½ vedeti” tasm± passaddhipadaµµh±n±ti veditabb±.
N²l±dibheda½ ±rammaºa½ sañj±n±t²ti saññ±. S± sañj±nanalakkhaº± pacc±bhiññ±ºaras±. Catubh³mikasaññ± hi nosañj±nanalakkhaº± n±ma natthi Sabb± sañj±nanalakkhaº±va. Y± panettha abhiññ±ºena sañj±n±ti s± pacc±bhiññ±ºaras± n±ma hoti.
Tass±, va¹¹hakissa d±rumhi abhiññ±ºa½ katv± puna tena abhiññ±ºena ta½ pacc±bhij±nanak±le, purisassa k±¼atilak±di-abhiññ±ºa½ sallakkhetv± puna tena abhiññ±ºena asuko n±ma esoti tassa pacc±bhij±nanak±le, rañño pi¼andhanagopakabhaº¹±g±rikassa tasmi½ tasmi½ pi¼andhane n±mapaººaka½ bandhitv± ‘asuka½ pi¼andhana½ n±ma ±har±’ti vutte d²pa½ j±letv± ratanagabbha½ pavisitv± paººa½ v±cetv± tassa tasseva pi¼andhanassa ±haraºak±le ca pavatti veditabb±.
Aparo nayo– sabbasaªg±hikavasena hi sañj±nanalakkhaº± saññ±. Punasañj±nanapaccayanimittakaraºaras±, d±ru-±d²su tacchak±dayo viya. Yath±gahitanimittavasena abhinivesakaraºapaccupaµµh±n±, hatthidassaka-andh± viya. ¾rammaºe anog±¼havuttit±ya aciraµµh±napaccupaµµh±n± v±, vijju viya. Yath±-upaµµhitavisayapadaµµh±n±, tiºapurisakesu migapotak±na½ ‘puris±’ti uppannasaññ± viya. Y± panettha ñ±ºasampayutt± hoti s± saññ± ñ±ºameva anuvattati. Sasambh±rapathav²-±d²su sesadhamm± pathav²-±d²ni viy±ti veditabb±.
Cetayat²ti cetan± saddhi½ attan± sampayuttadhamme ±rammaºe abhisandahat²ti attho. S± cetayitalakkhaº±, cetan±bh±valakkhaº±ti attho. ¾y³hanaras±. Catubh³mikacetan± hi nocetayitalakkhaº± n±ma natthi. Sabb± cetayitalakkhaº±va. ¾y³hanarasat± pana kusal±kusalesu eva hoti. Kusal±kusalakamm±y³hanaµµh±nañhi patv± sesasampayuttadhamm±na½ ekadesamattakameva kicca½ hoti. Cetan± pana atireka-uss±h± atirekav±y±m±, diguºuss±h± diguºav±y±m±. Ten±hu por±º±– “th±variyasabh±vasaºµhit± ca panes± cetan±”ti. Th±variyoti khettas±m² vuccati. Yath± khettas±m² puriso pañcapaºº±sa balipurise gahetv± ‘l±yiss±m²’ti ekato khetta½ otarati. Tassa atireko uss±ho atireko v±y±mo, diguºo uss±ho diguºo v±y±mo hoti, ‘nirantara½ gaºhath±’ti-±d²ni vadati, s²ma½ ±cikkhati, tesa½ sur±bhattagandham±l±d²ni j±n±ti, magga½ samaka½ harati. Eva½sampadamida½ veditabba½ Khettas±mipuriso viya hi cetan±. Pañcapaºº±sa balipuris± viya cittaªgavasena uppann± pañcapaºº±sa kusal± dhamm±. Khettas±mipurisassa diguºuss±hadiguºav±y±makaraºak±lo viya kusal±kusalakamm±y³hanaµµh±na½ patv± cetan±ya diguºuss±ho diguºav±y±mo hoti. Evamass± ±y³hanarasat± veditabb±.
S± panes± sa½vidahanapaccupaµµh±n±. Sa½vidaham±n± hi aya½ upaµµh±ti, sakiccaparakiccas±dhak±, jeµµhasissamah±va¹¹hak²-±dayo viya. Yath± hi jeµµhasisso upajjh±ya½ d³ratova ±gacchanta½ disv± saya½ adh²yam±no itarepi d±rake attano attano ajjhayanakamme pavattayati, tasmiñhi adh²yitu½ ±raddhe tepi adh²yanti, tadanuvattit±ya. Yath± ca mah±va¹¹hak² saya½ tacchanto itarepi tacchake attano attano tacchanakamme pavattayati, tasmiñhi tacchitu½ ±raddhe tepi tacchanti, tadanuvattit±ya. Yath± ca yodhan±yako saya½ yujjham±no itarepi yodhe sampah±ravuttiya½ pavattayati, tasmiñhi yujjhitu½ ±raddhe tepi anivattam±n± yujjhanti, tadanuvattit±ya. Evames±pi attano kiccena ±rammaºe pavattam±n± aññepi sampayuttadhamme attano attano kiriy±ya pavatteti. Tass± hi attano kicca½ ±raddh±ya, ta½sampayutt±pi ±rabhanti. Tena vutta½– ‘sakiccaparakiccas±dhak±, jeµµhasissamah±va¹¹hak²-±dayo viy±’ti. Acc±yikakamm±nussaraº±d²su ca pan±ya½ sampayutt±na½ uss±hanabh±vena pavattam±n± p±kaµ± hot²ti veditabb±.
‘¾rammaºa½ cintet²’ti cittanti nayena cittassa vacanattho vutto eva. Lakkhaº±dito pana vij±nanalakkhaºa½ citta½, pubbaªgamarasa½, sandahanapaccupaµµh±na½, n±mar³papadaµµh±na½. Catubh³makacittañhi novij±nanalakkhaºa½ n±ma natthi. Sabba½ vij±nanalakkhaºameva. Dv±ra½ pana patv± ±rammaºavibh±vanaµµh±ne citta½ pubbaªgama½ purec±rika½ hoti. Cakkhun± hi diµµha½ r³p±rammaºa½ citteneva vij±n±ti…pe… manena viññ±ta½ dhamm±rammaºa½ citteneva vij±n±ti. Yath± hi nagaraguttiko n±ma nagaramajjhe siªgh±µake nis²ditv± ‘aya½ nev±siko aya½ ±gantuko’ti ±gat±gata½ jana½ upadh±reti vavatthapeti– eva½sampadamida½ daµµhabba½. Vuttampi ceta½ mah±therena– “yath±, mah±r±ja nagaraguttiko n±ma majjhe nagarassa siªgh±µake nisinno puratthimato disato purisa½ ±gacchanta½ passeyya… pacchimato… dakkhiºato… uttarato disato purisa½ ±gacchanta½ passeyya, evameva kho, mah±r±ja, ya½ cakkhun± r³pa½ passati ta½ viññ±ºena vij±n±ti, ya½ sotena sadda½ suº±ti, gh±nena gandha½ gh±yati, jivh±ya rasa½ s±yati, k±yena phoµµhabba½ phusati, manas± dhamma½ vij±n±ti, ta½ viññ±ºena vij±n±t²”ti (mi. pa. 2.3.12). Eva½ dv±ra½ patv± ±rammaºavibh±vanaµµh±ne cittameva pubbaªgama½ purec±rika½. Tasm± pubbaªgamarasanti vuccati.
Tadeta½ pacchima½ pacchima½ uppajjam±na½ purima½ purima½ nirantara½ katv± sandahanameva upaµµh±t²ti sandahanapaccupaµµh±na½. Pañcavok±rabhave panassa niyamato n±mar³pa½, catuvok±rabhave n±mameva padaµµh±na½. Tasm± n±mar³papadaµµh±nanti vutta½.
Ki½ paneta½ citta½ purimaniddiµµhacittena saddhi½ ekameva ud±hu aññanti? Ekameva. Atha kasm± purimaniddiµµha½ puna vuttanti? Avic±rita½ eta½ aµµhakath±ya½. Aya½ panettha yutti– yath± hi r³p±d²ni up±d±ya paññatt± s³riy±dayo na atthato r³p±d²hi aññe honti, teneva yasmi½ samaye s³riyo udeti tasmi½ samaye tassa tejasaªkh±ta½ r³pamp²ti. Eva½ vuccam±nepi na r³p±d²hi añño s³riyo n±ma atthi. Na tath± citta½; phass±dayo dhamme up±d±ya paññ±piyati; atthato paneta½ tehi aññameva. Tena ‘yasmi½ samaye citta½ uppanna½ hoti eka½seneva tasmi½ samaye phass±d²hi atthato aññameva ta½ hot²’ti imassatthassa d²panatth±ya eta½ puna vuttanti veditabba½.
Yath± ca “yasmi½ samaye r³p³papattiy± magga½ bh±veti…pe… pathav²kasiºa½, tasmi½ samaye phasso hoti vedan± hot²”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 160) pana bh±ventena vavatth±pite samaye yo bh±veti na so atthato uppajjati n±ma, teneva tattha yath± “phasso hoti vedan± hot²”ti vutta½, na eva½ “yo bh±veti so hot²”ti vutta½. “Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hot²”ti-±d²su pana cittena vavatth±pite samaye samayavavatth±pita½ citta½ na tath± atthato nuppajjati Yatheva pana tad± ‘phasso hoti vedan± hoti’, tath± ‘cittampi hot²’ti imassapi atthassa d²panatthamida½ puna vuttanti veditabba½. Ida½ panettha sanniµµh±na½– uddesav±re saªgaºhanattha½ niddesav±re ca vibhajanattha½ purimena hi ‘citta’-saddena kevala½ samayo vavatth±pito. Tasmi½ pana cittena vavatth±pitasamaye ye dhamm± honti tesa½ dassanattha½ “phasso hot²”ti-±di ±raddha½. Cittañc±pi tasmi½ samaye hotiyeva. Tasm± tass±pi saªgaºhanatthameta½ puna vutta½. Imasmiñca µh±ne etasmi½ avuccam±ne “katama½ tasmi½ samaye cittan”ti na sakk± bhaveyya niddesav±re vibhajitu½. Evamassa vibhajana½yeva parih±yetha. Tasm± tassa niddesav±re vibhajanatthampi etañca vuttanti veditabba½.
Yasm± v± “uppanna½ hot²”ti ettha citta½ uppannanti eta½ desan±s²sameva, ‘na pana citta½ ekameva uppajjat²’ti aµµhakath±ya½ vic±rita½, tasm± citta½ “uppannan”ti etth±pi cittamattameva aggahetv± paropaºº±sakusaladhammehi saddhi½yeva citta½ gahita½. Eva½ tattha saªkhepato sabbepi cittacetasikadhamme gahetv± idha sar³pena pabhedato dassetu½ “phasso hot²”ti-±di ±raddha½. Iti phass±dayo viya cittampi vuttamev±ti veditabba½.