Aparampi vutta½–
Kammato liªgato ceva, liªgasaññ± pavattare;
saññ±to bheda½ gacchanti, itth±ya½ purisoti v±.
“Kammun± vattate loko, kammun± vattate paj±;
kammanibandhan± satt±, rathass±º²va y±yato”. (Ma. ni. 2.460; su. ni. 659).
Kammena kitti½ labhate pasa½sa½,
kammena j±niñca vadhañca bandha½;
ta½ kamman±n±karaºa½ viditv±,
kasm± vade natthi kammanti loke. (Kath±. 785).
“Kammassak± m±ºava satt± kammad±y±d± kammayon² kammabandh³ kammapaµisaraº±; kamma½ satte vibhajati yadida½ h²nappaº²tat±y±”ti (ma. ni. 3.289).
Eva½ im±ya karaºacittat±yapi cittassa cittat± veditabb±. Sabb±nipi hi et±ni vicitr±ni citteneva kat±ni. Aladdhok±sassa pana cittassa ya½ v± pana avasesapaccayavikala½ tassa ekaccacittakaraº±bh±vato yadeta½ cittena kata½ ajjhattika½ citta½ vutta½, tatopi cittameva cittatara½. Ten±ha bhagav±–
“N±ha½, bhikkhave, añña½ ekanik±yampi samanupass±mi eva½ citta½ yathayida½, bhikkhave, tiracch±nagat± p±º±… tehipi kho, bhikkhave, tiracch±nagatehi p±ºehi citta½yeva cittataran”ti (sa½. ni. 3.100).
Uppanna½ hot²ti ettha vattam±nabh³t±pagatok±sakatabh³miladdhavasena uppanna½ n±ma anekappabheda½. Tattha sabbampi upp±dajar±bhaªgasamaªg²saªkh±ta½ vattam±nuppanna½ n±ma. ¾rammaºarasa½ anubhavitv± niruddha½, anubh³t±pagatasaªkh±ta½ kusal±kusala½ upp±d±dittaya½ anuppatv± niruddha½, bh³t±pagatasaªkh±ta½, sesasaªkhatañca bh³t±pagatuppanna½ n±ma. “Y±nissa t±ni pubbe kat±ni kamm±n²”ti (ma. ni. 3.248) evam±din± nayena vutta½ kamma½ at²tampi sam±na½, añña½ vip±ka½ paµib±hitv± attano vip±kassok±sa½ katv± µhitatt±, tath± katok±sañca vip±ka½ anuppannampi sam±na½ eva½ kate ok±se ekantena uppajjanato ok±sakatuppanna½ n±ma. T±su t±su bh³m²su asam³hata½ akusala½ bh³miladdhuppanna½ n±ma. Ettha ca bh³miy± bh³miladdhassa ca n±natta½ veditabba½. Bh³m²ti vipassan±ya ±rammaºabh³t± tebh³mak± pañcakkhandh±. Bh³miladdha½ n±ma tesu khandhesu uppatt±raha½ kilesaj±ta½. Tena hes± bh³mi laddh± n±ma hoti, tasm± bh³miladdhanti vuccati. Evametesu cat³su uppannesu idha ‘vattam±nuppanna½’ adhippeta½.
Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– pubbantato uddha½ upp±d±di-abhimukha½ pannanti uppanna½. ‘Uppanna’-saddo panesa at²te paµiladdhe samuµµhite avikkhambhite asamucchinne khaºattayagateti anekesu atthesu dissati. Ayañhi “tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena kakusandho bhagav± araha½ samm±sambuddho loke uppanno”ti (sa½. ni. 2.143) ettha at²te ±gato. “¾yasmato ±nandassa atirekac²vara½ uppanna½ hot²”ti (p±r±. 461) ettha paµiladdhe. “Seyyath±pi, bhikkhave, uppanna½ mah±megha½ tamena½ mah±v±to antar±yeva antaradh±pet²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.157) ettha samuµµhite. “Uppanna½ gamiyacitta½ duppaµivinodan²ya½ (a. ni. 5.160; pari. 325); uppannuppanne p±pake akusale dhamme µh±naso antaradh±pet²”ti (p±r±. 165) ettha avikkhambhite. “Ariya½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½ bh±vento bahul²karonto uppannuppanne p±pake akusale dhamme µh±naso antar±yeva antaradh±pet²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.156-157) ettha asamucchinne. “Uppajjam±na½ uppannanti? ¾mant±”ti (yama. 2.cittayamaka.81) ettha khaºattayagate. Sv±yamidh±pi khaºattayagateva daµµhabbo. Tasm± ‘uppanna½ hot²’ti ettha khaºattayagata½ hoti, vattam±na½ hoti, paccuppanna½ hot²ti. Aya½ saªkhepattho.
Citta½ uppanna½ hot²ti ceta½ desan±s²sameva. Na pana citta½ ekakameva uppajjati. Tasm± yath± r±j± ±gatoti vutte na parisa½ pah±ya ekakova ±gato, r±japaris±ya pana saddhi½yeva ±gatoti paññ±yati evamidampi paropaºº±sakusaladhammehi saddhi½yeva uppannanti veditabba½. Pubbaªgamaµµhena pana “citta½ uppanna½ hoti”cceva vutta½.
Lokiyadhammañhi patv± citta½ jeµµhaka½ citta½ dhura½ citta½ pubbaªgama½ hoti. Lokuttaradhamma½ patv± paññ± jeµµhik± paññ± dhur± paññ± pubbaªgam±. Teneva bhagav± vinayapariy±ya½ patv± pañha½ pucchanto ‘ki½phassosi, ki½vedanosi, ki½saññosi, ki½cetanos²’ti apucchitv± “ki½citto tva½ bhikkh³”ti cittameva dhura½ katv± pucchati. “Atheyyacitto aha½ bhagav±”ti ca vutte ‘an±patti atheyyaphassass±’ti-±d²ni avatv± “an±patti bhikkhu atheyyacittass±”ti vadati.
Na kevalañca vinayapariy±ya½, aññampi lokiyadesana½ desento cittameva dhura½ katv± deseti. Yath±ha– “ye keci, bhikkhave, dhamm± akusal± akusalabh±giy± akusalapakkhik± sabbete manopubbaªgam±. Mano tesa½ dhamm±na½ paµhama½ uppajjati” (a. ni. 1.56).
“Manopubbaªgam± dhamm±, manoseµµh± manomay±;
manas± ce paduµµhena, bh±sati v± karoti v±;
tato na½ dukkhamanveti, cakka½va vahato pada½.
“Manopubbaªgam± dhamm±, manoseµµh± manomay±;
manas± ce pasannena, bh±sati v± karoti v±;
tato na½ sukhamanveti, ch±y±va anap±yin²”. (Dha. pa. 1,2).
“Cittena n²yati loko, cittena parikassati;
cittassa ekadhammassa, sabbeva vasamanvag³”. (Sa½. ni. 1.62).
“Cittasa½kiles±, bhikkhave, satt± sa½kilissanti cittavod±n± visujjhanti” (sa½. ni. 3.100);
“Pabhassaramida½, bhikkhave, citta½, tañca kho ±gantukehi upakkilesehi upakkiliµµha½” (a. ni. 1.49);
“Citte gahapati, arakkhite k±yakammampi arakkhita½ hoti, vac²kammampi arakkhita½ hoti, manokammampi arakkhita½ hoti; citte, gahapati, rakkhite…pe… citte, gahapati, by±panne…pe… citte, gahapati, aby±panne…pe… citte, gahapati, avassute…pe… citte, gahapati, anavassute k±yakammampi anavassuta½ hoti, vac²kammampi anavassuta½ hoti, manokammampi anavassuta½ hot²”ti (a. ni. 3.110).
Eva½ lokiyadhamma½ patv± citta½ jeµµhaka½ hoti, citta½ dhura½ hoti, citta½ pubbaªgama½ hot²ti veditabba½. Imesu pana suttesu eka½ v± dve v± aggahetv± sutt±nurakkhaºatth±ya sabb±nipi gahit±n²ti veditabb±ni.
Lokuttaradhamma½ pucchanto pana ‘kataraphassa½ adhigatosi, kataravedana½ katarasañña½ kataracetana½ kataracittan’ti apucchitv±, ‘katarapañña½ tva½ bhikkhu adhigato’si, ‘ki½ paµhama½ maggapañña½, ud±hu dutiya½…pe… tatiya½…pe… catuttha½ maggapañña½ adhigato’ti pañña½ jeµµhika½ pañña½ dhura½ katv± pucchati. Paññuttar± sabbe kusal± dhamm± na parih±yanti. Paññ± pana kimatthiy± (ma. ni. 1.451)? “Paññavato, bhikkhave, ariyas±vakassa tadanvay± saddh± saºµh±ti, tadanvaya½ v²riya½ saºµh±ti, tadanvay± sati saºµh±ti, tadanvayo sam±dhi saºµh±t²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.515) evam±d²ni panettha sutt±ni daµµhabb±ni. Iti lokuttaradhamma½ patv± paññ± jeµµhik± hoti paññ± dhur± paññ± pubbaªgam±ti veditabb±. Aya½ pana lokiyadesan±. Tasm± citta½ dhura½ katv± desento “citta½ uppanna½ hot²”ti ±ha.
Somanassasahagatanti s±tamadhuravedayitasaªkh±tena somanassena saha ekupp±d±dibh±va½ gata½. Aya½ pana ‘sahagata’-saddo tabbh±ve vokiººe nissaye ±rammaºe sa½saµµheti imesu atthesu dissati. Tattha “y±ya½ taºh± ponobbhavik± nandir±gasahagat±”ti (vibha. 203) tabbh±ve veditabbo; nandir±gabh³t±ti attho. “Y±, bhikkhave, v²ma½s± kosajjasahagat± kosajjasampayutt±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.832) vokiººe veditabbo; antarantar± uppajjam±nena kosajjena vokiºº±ti ayamettha attho. “Aµµhikasaññ±sahagata½ satisambojjhaªga½ bh±vet²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.238) nissaye veditabbo; aµµhikasañña½ niss±ya aµµhikasañña½ bh±vetv± paµiladdhanti attho. “L±bh² hoti r³pasahagat±na½ v± sam±patt²na½ ar³pasahagat±na½ v±”ti (pu. pa. 3-5) ±rammaºe; veditabbo r³p±r³p±rammaº±nanti attho. “Ida½ sukha½ im±ya p²tiy± sahagata½ hoti sahaj±ta½ sa½saµµha½ sampayuttan”ti (vibha. 578) sa½saµµhe. Imasmimpi pade ayamevattho adhippeto. Somanassasa½saµµhañhi idha somanassasahagatanti vutta½.
‘Sa½saµµha’-saddopi cesa sadise avassute mittasanthave sahaj±teti bah³su atthesu dissati. Ayañhi “kise th³le vivajjetv± sa½saµµh± yojit± hay±”ti (j±. 2.22.70) ettha sadise ±gato. “Sa½saµµh±va tumhe ayye viharath±”ti (p±ci. 727) avassute. “Gihi sa½saµµho viharat²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.3) mittasanthave. “Ida½ sukha½ im±ya p²tiy± sahagata½ hoti sahaj±ta½ sa½saµµha½ sampayuttan”ti sahaj±te. Idh±pi sahaj±te adhippeto. Tattha ‘sahagata½’ asahaj±ta½ asa½saµµha½ asampayutta½ n±ma natthi. Sahaj±ta½ pana sa½saµµha½ sampayutta½ hotipi, na hotipi R³p±r³padhammesu hi ekato j±tesu r³pa½ ar³pena sahaj±ta½ hoti, na sa½saµµha½, na sampayutta½; tath± ar³pa½ r³pena; r³pañca r³pena; ar³pa½ pana ar³pena saddhi½ niyamatova sahagata½ sahaj±ta½ sa½saµµha½ sampayuttameva hot²ti. Ta½ sandh±ya vutta½ ‘somanassasahagatan’ti.
ѱºasampayuttanti ñ±ºena sampayutta½, sama½ ekupp±d±dippak±rehi yuttanti attho. Ya½ panettha vattabba½ siy± ta½ m±tik±vaººan±ya vedan±ttike vuttanayameva. Tasm± ekupp±d± ekanirodh± ekavatthuk± ek±rammaº±ti imin± lakkhaºeneta½ sampayuttanti veditabba½. Ukkaµµhaniddeso cesa. Ar³pe pana vin±pi ekavatthukabh±va½ sampayogo labbhati.
Ett±vat± ki½ kathita½? K±m±vacarakusalesu somanassasahagata½ tihetuka½ ñ±ºasampayutta½ asaªkh±rika½ mah±citta½ kathita½. “Katame dhamm± kusal±”ti hi aniyamitapucch±ya catubh³makakusala½ gahita½. ‘K±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hot²’ti vacanena pana tebh³maka½ kusala½ pariccajitv±, aµµhavidha½ k±m±vacarakusalameva gahita½. ‘Somanassasahagatan’ti vacanena tato catubbidha½ upekkh±sahagata½ pariccajitv± catubbidha½ somanassasahagatameva gahita½. ‘ѱºasampayuttan’ti vacanena tato duvidha½ ñ±ºavippayutta½ pariccajitv± dve ñ±ºasampayutt±neva gahit±ni. Asaªkh±rikabh±vo pana an±bhaµµhat±yeva na gahito. Kiñc±pi na gahito, parato pana ‘sasaªkh±ren±’ti vacanato idha ‘asaªkh±ren±’ti avuttepi asaªkh±rikabh±vo veditabbo. Samm±sambuddho hi ±ditova ida½ mah±citta½ bh±jetv± dassetu½ niyametv±va ima½ desana½ ±rabh²ti evamettha sanniµµh±na½ katanti veditabba½.
Id±ni tameva citta½ ±rammaºato dassetu½ r³p±rammaºa½ v±ti-±dim±ha. Bhagav± hi ar³padhamma½ dassento vatthun± v± dasseti, ±rammaºena v±, vatth±rammaºehi v±, sarasabh±vena v±. “Cakkhusamphasso…pe… manosamphasso; cakkhusamphassaj± vedan±…pe… manosamphassaj± vedan±; cakkhuviññ±ºa½…pe… manoviññ±ºan”ti-±d²su hi vatthun± ar³padhamm± dassit±. “R³pasaññ±…pe… dhammasaññ±, r³pasañcetan±…pe… dhammasañcetan±”ti-±d²su ±rammaºena. “Cakkhuñca paµicca r³pe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññ±ºa½, tiººa½ saªgati phasso…pe… manañca paµicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññ±ºa½, tiººa½ saªgati phasso”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.60) vatth±rammaºehi. “Avijj±paccay± bhikkhave, saªkh±r±, saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºan”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 2.1) sarasabh±vena ar³padhamm± dassit±. Imasmi½ pana µh±ne ±rammaºena dassento ‘r³p±rammaºa½’ v±ti-±dim±ha.