Yo panesa aµµhahi akkhaºehi parivajjito navamo khaºo, patir³padesav±s±diko ca catucakkasaªkh±to ok±saµµhena khaºo vutto, so manussattabuddhupp±dasaddhammaµµhiti-±dika½ khaºas±maggi½ vin± natthi. Manussatt±d²nañca k±ºakacchapopam±d²hi (ma. ni. 3.252) dullabhabh±vo. Iti khaºassa dullabhatt± suµµhutara½ khaº±yatta½ lokuttaradhamm±na½ upak±rabh³ta½ kusala½ dullabhameva Evametesu khaºasaªkh±to samayo kusaluppattiy± dullabhabh±va½ d²peti. Eva½ d²pentena anena adhigatakhaº±na½ khaº±yattasseva tassa kusalassa ananuµµh±nena moghakhaºa½ kurum±n±na½ pam±davih±ro paµisedhito hoti. Aya½ khaºasaªkh±tena samayena attho d²pito.
Yo panetassa kusalacittassa pavattik±lo n±ma hoti, so atiparitto. S± cassa atiparittat± “yath± ca, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa javo, yath± ca candimas³riy±na½ javo, yath± ca y± devat± candimas³riy±na½ purato dh±vanti t±sa½ devat±na½ javo, tato s²ghatara½ ±yusaªkh±r± kh²yant²”ti (sa½. ni. 2.228)– imassa suttassa aµµhakath±vasena veditabb±. Tatra hi so r³paj²vitindriyassa t±va parittako k±lo vutto. Y±va paµuppanna½ r³pa½ tiµµhati t±va so¼asa citt±ni uppajjitv± bhijjanti. Iti tesa½ k±laparittat±ya upam±pi natthi. Tenev±ha– “y±vañcida½, bhikkhave, upam±pi na sukar± y±va lahuparivatta½ cittan”ti (a. ni. 1.48). Evametesu k±lasaªkh±to samayo kusalacittappavattik±lassa atiparittata½ d²peti. Eva½ d²pentena c±nena atiparittak±lat±ya, vijjulatobh±sena mutt±vuºana½ viya, duppaµivijjhamida½ citta½, tasm± etassa paµivedhe mah±-uss±ho ca ±daro ca kattabboti ov±do dinno hoti. Aya½ k±lasaªkh±tena samayena attho d²pito.
Sam³hasaªkh±to pana samayo anekesa½ sahuppatti½ d²peti. Phass±d²nañhi dhamm±na½ puñjo sam³hoti vutto. Tasmiñca uppajjam±na½ citta½ saha tehi dhammehi uppajjat²ti anekesa½ sahuppatti d²pit±. Eva½ d²pentena c±nena ekasseva dhammassa uppatti paµisedhit± hoti. Aya½ sam³hasaªkh±tena samayena attho d²pito.
Hetusaªkh±to pana samayo par±yattavuttita½ d²peti. ‘Yasmi½ samaye’ti hi padassa yasm± ‘yasmi½ hetumhi sati’ uppanna½ hot²ti ayamattho, tasm± ‘hetumhi sati’ pavattito par±yattavuttit± d²pit±. Eva½ d²pentena c±nena dhamm±na½ savasavattit±bhim±no paµisedhito hoti. Aya½ hetusaªkh±tena samayena attho d²pito.
Tattha ‘yasmi½ samaye’ti k±lasaªkh±tassa samayassa vasena ‘yasmi½ k±le’ti attho; sam³hasaªkh±tassa ‘yasmi½ sam³he’ti. Khaºasamav±yahetusaªkh±t±na½ ‘yasmi½ khaºe sati, y±ya s±maggiy± sati, yamhi hetumhi sati’ k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½yeva sati ‘phass±dayop²’ti ayamattho veditabbo. Adhikaraºañhi k±lasaªkh±to sam³hasaªkh±to ca samayo. Tattha vuttadhamm±nanti adhikaraºavasenettha bhumma½. Khaºasamav±yahetusaªkh±tassa ca samayassa bh±vena tesa½ bh±vo lakkh²yat²ti bh±venabh±valakkhaºavasenettha bhumma½.
K±m±vacaranti “katame dhamm± k±m±vacar±? Heµµhato av²ciniraya½ uparito paranimmitavasavatti½ pariyanta½ katv±”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1287) nayena vuttesu k±m±vacaradhammesu pariy±panna½. Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– udd±nato dve k±m±, vatthuk±mo ca kilesak±mo ca. Tattha kilesak±mo atthato chandar±gova vatthuk±mo tebh³makavaµµa½. Kilesak±mo cettha k±met²ti k±mo; itaro pana k±miyat²ti k±mo. Yasmi½ pana padese duvidhopeso k±mo pavattivasena avacarati, so catunna½ ap±y±na½, manuss±na½, channañca devalok±na½ vasena ek±dasavidho padeso. K±mo ettha avacarat²ti k±m±vacaro, sasatth±vacaro viya. Yath± hi yasmi½ padese sasatth± puris± avacaranti, so vijjam±nesupi aññesu dvipadacatuppadesu avacarantesu, tesa½ abhilakkhitatt± ‘sasatth±vacaro’tveva vuccati, eva½ vijjam±nesupi aññesu r³p±vacar±d²su tattha avacarantesu, tesa½ abhilakkhitatt± aya½ padeso ‘k±m±vacaro’tveva vuccati. Sv±ya½ yath± r³pabhavo r³pa½, eva½ uttarapadalopa½ katv± ‘k±mo’tveva vuccati. Evamida½ citta½ imasmi½ ek±dasapadesasaªkh±te k±me avacarat²ti k±m±vacara½.
Kiñc±pi hi eta½ r³p±r³pabhavesupi avacarati, yath± pana saªg±me avacaraºato saªg±m±vacaroti laddhan±mako n±go nagare carantopi ‘saªg±m±vacaro’tveva vuccati, thalajalacar± ca p±º± athale ajale ca µhit±pi ‘thalacar± jalacar±’tveva vuccanti, evamida½ aññattha avacarantampi k±m±vacaramev±ti veditabba½. ¾rammaºakaraºavasena v± ettha k±mo avacarat²tipi k±m±vacara½. K±mañcesa r³p±r³p±vacaresupi avacarati, yath± pana vadat²ti ‘vaccho’, mahiya½ set²ti ‘mahi½so’ti vutte, na satt± yattak± vadanti, mahiya½ v± senti sabbesa½ ta½ n±ma½ hoti, eva½sampadamida½ veditabba½. Apica k±mabhavasaªkh±te k±me paµisandhi½ avac±ret²tipi k±m±vacara½.
Kusalanti kucchit±na½ salan±d²hi atthehi kusala½. Apica ±rogyaµµhena anavajjaµµhena kosallasambh³taµµhena ca kusala½. Yatheva hi ‘kacci nu bhoto kusalan’ti (j±. 1.15.146; 2.20.129) r³pak±ye an±turat±ya agelaññena niby±dhit±ya ±rogyaµµhena kusala½ vutta½, eva½ ar³padhammepi kiles±turat±ya kilesagelaññassa ca kilesaby±dhino abh±vena ±rogyaµµhena kusala½ veditabba½. Kilesavajjassa pana kilesadosassa kilesadarathassa ca abh±v± anavajjaµµhena kusala½. Kosalla½ vuccati paññ±; kosallato sambh³tatt± kosallasambh³taµµhena kusala½.
‘ѱºasampayutta½’ t±va eva½ hotu; ñ±ºavippayutta½ kathanti. Tampi ru¼h²saddena kusalameva. Yath± hi t±lapaººehi akatv± kilañj±d²hi katampi ta½sarikkhatt± ru¼h²saddena t±lavaºµantveva vuccati, eva½ ‘ñ±ºavippayutta’mpi kusalantveva veditabba½. Nippariy±yena pana ‘ñ±ºasampayutta½’ ±rogyaµµhena anavajjaµµhena kosallasambh³taµµhen±ti tividhenapi kusalanti n±ma½ labhati, ñ±ºavippayutta½ duvidheneva. Iti yañca j±takapariy±yena yañca b±hitikasuttapariy±yena yañca abhidhammapariy±yena kusala½ kathita½ sabba½ ta½ t²hipi atthehi imasmi½ citte labbhati.
Tadeta½ lakkhaº±divasena anavajjasukhavip±kalakkhaºa½, akusalaviddha½sanarasa½, vod±napaccupaµµh±na½, yonisomanasik±rapadaµµh±na½. Avajjapaµipakkhatt± v± anavajjalakkhaºameva kusala½, vod±nabh±varasa½, iµµhavip±kapaccupaµµh±na½, yath±vuttapadaµµh±nameva. Lakkhaº±d²su hi tesa½ tesa½ dhamm±na½ sabh±vo v± s±mañña½ v± lakkhaºa½ n±ma. Kicca½ v± sampatti v± raso n±ma. Upaµµh±n±k±ro v± phala½ v± paccupaµµh±na½ n±ma. ¾sannak±raºa½ padaµµh±na½ n±ma. Iti yattha yattha lakkhaº±d²ni vakkh±ma tattha tattha imin±va nayena tesa½ n±natta½ veditabba½.
Cittanti ±rammaºa½ cintet²ti citta½; vij±n±t²ti attho. Yasm± v± ‘cittan’ti sabbacittas±dh±raºo esa saddo, tasm± yadettha lokiyakusal±kusalakiriyacitta½, ta½ javanav²thivasena attano sant±na½ cinot²ti citta½. Vip±ka½ kammakilesehi citanti citta½. Apica sabbampi yath±nur³pato cittat±ya citta½. Cittakaraºat±ya cittanti evampettha attho veditabbo. Tattha yasm± aññadeva sar±ga½ citta½, añña½ sadosa½ añña½ samoha½; añña½ k±m±vacara½, añña½ r³p±vacar±dibheda½; añña½ r³p±rammaºa½, añña½ sadd±di-±rammaºa½; r³p±rammaºesu c±pi añña½ n²l±rammaºa½, añña½ p²t±di-±rammaºa½; sadd±di-±rammaºesupi eseva nayo; sabbesupi cetesu añña½ h²na½ añña½ majjhima½ añña½ paº²ta½; h²n±d²supi añña½ chand±dhipateyya½, añña½ v²riy±dhipateyya½ añña½ citt±dhipateyya½, añña½ v²ma½s±dhipateyya½, tasm± assa imesa½ sampayuttabh³mi-±rammaºah²namajjhimapaº²t±dhipat²na½ vasena cittat± veditabb±. K±mañcettha ekameva eva½ citta½ na hoti, citt±na½ pana antogadhatt± etesu ya½kiñci ekampi cittat±ya cittanti vattu½ vaµµati. Eva½ t±va cittat±ya citta½.
Katha½ cittakaraºat±y±ti? Lokasmiñhi cittakammato uttari añña½ citta½ n±ma natthi. Tasmimpi caraºa½ n±ma citta½ aticittameva hoti. Ta½ karont±na½ cittak±r±na½ ‘eva½vidh±ni ettha r³p±ni k±tabb±n²’ti cittasaññ± uppajjati. T±ya cittasaññ±ya lekh±gahanarañjana-ujjotanavattan±dinipph±dik± cittakiriy± uppajjanti, tato caraºasaªkh±te citte aññatara½ vicittar³pa½ nipphajjati. Tato ‘imassa r³passa upari ida½ hotu, heµµh± ida½, ubhayapasse idan’ti cintetv± yath±cintitena kamena sesacittar³panipph±dana½ hoti, eva½ ya½kiñci loke vicitta½ sippaj±ta½ sabba½ ta½ citteneva kariyati, eva½ im±ya karaºavicittat±ya tassa tassa cittassa nipph±daka½ cittampi tatheva citta½ hoti. Yath±cintitassa v± anavasesassa anipphajjanato tatopi cittameva cittatara½. Ten±ha bhagav±–
“Diµµha½ vo, bhikkhave, caraºa½ n±ma cittanti? ‘Eva½, bhante’. Tampi kho, bhikkhave, caraºa½ n±ma citta½ citteneva cintita½. Tenapi kho, bhikkhave, caraºena cittena citta½yeva cittataran”ti (sa½. ni. 3.100).
Tath± yadeta½ devamanussanirayatiracch±nabhed±su gat²su kammaliªgasaññ±voh±r±dibheda½ ajjhattika½ citta½ tampi cittakatameva. K±yakamm±dibhedañhi d±nas²lavihi½s±s±µheyy±dinayappavatta½ kusal±kusalakamma½ cittanipph±dita½ kamman±natta½. Kamman±natteneva ca t±su t±su gat²su hatthap±dakaººa-udarag²v±mukh±disaºµh±nabhinna½ liªgan±natta½. Liªgan±nattato yath±gahitasaºµh±navasena ‘aya½ itth² aya½ puriso’ti uppajjam±n±ya saññ±ya saññ±n±natta½. Saññ±n±nattato saññ±nur³pena ‘itth²’ti v± ‘puriso’ti v± voharant±na½ voh±ran±natta½. Voh±ran±nattavasena pana yasm± ‘itth² bhaviss±mi puriso bhaviss±mi, khattiyo bhaviss±mi br±hmaºo bhaviss±m²’ti eva½ tassa tassa attabh±vassa janaka½ kamma½ kar²yati, tasm± voh±ran±nattato kamman±natta½. Ta½ paneta½ kamman±natta½ yath±patthita½ bhava½ nibbattenta½ yasm± gativasena nibbatteti tasm± kamman±nattato gatin±natta½. Kamman±natteneva ca tesa½ tesa½ satt±na½ tass± tass± gatiy± ap±dakadvip±dak±dit±, tass± tass± upapattiy± uccan²c±dit±, tasmi½ tasmi½ attabh±ve suvaººadubbaºº±dit±, lokadhammesu l±bh±l±bh±dit± ca paññ±yati. Tasm± sabbameta½ devamanussanirayatiracch±nabhed±su gat²su kammaliªgasaññ±voh±r±dibheda½ ajjhattika½ citta½ citteneva katanti veditabba½. Sv±yamattho imassa saªg²ti-an±ru¼hassa suttassa vasena veditabbo. Vuttañheta½–
“Kamman±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±navasena liªgan±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±na½ bhavati, liªgan±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±navasena saññ±n±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±na½ bhavati, saññ±n±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±navasena voh±ran±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±na½ bhavati, voh±ran±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±navasena kamman±nattaputhuttappabhedavavatth±na½ bhavati. Kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ gatiy± n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati– apad± dvipad± catuppad± bahuppad±, r³pino ar³pino, saññino asaññino nevasaññ²n±saññino. Kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ upapattiy± n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati– uccan²cat± h²napaº²tat± sugataduggatat±. Kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ attabh±ve n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati– suvaººadubbaººat± suj±tadujj±tat± susaºµhitadussaºµhitat±. Kamman±n±karaºa½ paµicca satt±na½ lokadhamme n±n±karaºa½ paññ±yati– l±bh±l±bhe yas±yase nind±pasa½s±ya½ sukhadukkhe”ti.