K±m±vacarakusalapadabh±jan²ya½

1. Id±ni yath±nikkhitt±ya m±tik±ya saªgahite dhamme pabhedato dassetu½ katame dhamm± kusal±ti ida½ padabh±jan²ya½ ±raddha½. Tattha yadeta½ yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hot²ti paµhama½ k±m±vacarakusala½ dassita½, tassa t±va niddese dhammavavatth±nav±ro saªgahav±ro suññatav±roti tayo mah±v±r± honti. Tesu dhammavavatth±nav±ro uddesaniddesavasena dvidh± µhito. Tesu uddesav±rassa pucch±, samayaniddeso, dhammuddeso, appan±ti catt±ro paricched±. Tesu ‘katame dhamm± kusal±’ti aya½ pucch± n±ma. ‘Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½…pe… tasmi½ samaye’ti aya½ samayaniddeso n±ma. ‘Phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hot²’ti aya½ dhammuddeso n±ma. ‘Ye v± pana tasmi½ samaye aññepi atthi paµiccasamuppann± ar³pino dhamm± ime dhamm± kusal±’ti aya½ appan± n±ma.
Eva½ cat³hi paricchedehi µhitassa uddesav±rassa yv±ya½ paµhamo pucch±paricchedo, tattha ‘katame dhamm± kusal±’ti aya½ kathetukamyat±pucch±. Pañcavidh±hi pucch±– adiµµhajotan±pucch±, diµµhasa½sandan±pucch±, vimaticchedan±pucch±, anumatipucch±, kathetukamyat±pucch±ti. T±sa½ ida½ n±natta½–
Katam± adiµµhajotan±pucch±? Pakatiy± lakkhaºa½ aññ±ta½ hoti, adiµµha½ atulita½ at²rita½ avibh³ta½ avibh±vita½. Tassa ñ±º±ya dassan±ya tulan±ya t²raº±ya vibh³tatth±ya vibh±vanatth±ya pañha½ pucchati. Aya½ adiµµhajotan±pucch± (mah±ni. 150; c³¼ani. puººakam±ºavapucch±niddesa 12).
Katam± diµµhasa½sandan±pucch±? Pakatiy± lakkhaºa½ ñ±ta½ hoti, diµµha½ tulita½ t²rita½ vibh³ta½ vibh±vita½, so aññehi paº¹itehi saddhi½ sa½sandanatth±ya pañha½ pucchati. Aya½ diµµhasa½sandan±pucch± (mah±ni. 150; c³¼ani. puººakam±ºavapucch±niddesa 12).
Katam± vimaticchedan±pucch±? Pakatiy± sa½sayapakkhando hoti, vimatipakkhando dve¼hakaj±to– ‘eva½ nu kho, nanu kho, ki½ nu kho, katha½ nu kho’ti. So vimaticchedanatth±ya pañha½ pucchati. Aya½ vimaticchedan±pucch± (mah±ni. 150; c³¼ani. puººakam±ºavapucch±niddesa 12).
Katam± anumatipucch±? Bhagav± bhikkh³na½ anumatiy± pañha½ pucchati– ‘ta½ ki½ maññatha, bhikkhave, r³pa½ nicca½ v± anicca½ v±’ti? ‘Anicca½, bhante’. ‘Ya½ pan±nicca½ dukkha½ v± ta½ sukha½ v±’ti? ‘Dukkha½, bhante’ ‘Ya½ pan±nicca½ dukkha½ vipariº±madhamma½, kalla½ nu ta½ samanupassitu½ eta½ mama, esohamasmi, eso me att±’ti? ‘Noheta½, bhante’ti (sa½. ni. 3.79; mah±va. 21). Aya½ anumatipucch±.
Katam± kathetukamyat±pucch±? Bhagav± bhikkh³na½ kathetukamyat±ya pañha½ pucchati. “Catt±rome, bhikkhave, satipaµµh±n±. Katame catt±ro”ti (d². ni. 2.373)? Aya½ kathetukamyat±pucch±ti.
Tattha buddh±na½ purim± tisso pucch± natthi. Kasm±? Buddh±nañhi t²su addh±su kiñci saªkhata½, addh±vimutta½ v± asaªkhata½, adiµµha½ anaññ±ta½ ajotita½ atulita½ at²rita½ avibh³ta½ avibh±vita½ n±ma natthi. Tena tesa½ adiµµhajotan±pucch± natthi. Ya½ pana bhagavat± attano ñ±ºena paµividdha½, tassa aññena samaºena v± br±hmaºena v± devena v± m±rena v± brahmun± v± saddhi½ sa½sandanakicca½ natthi. Tenassa diµµhasa½sandan±pucch± natthi. Yasm± panesa akatha½kath² tiººavicikiccho sabbadhammesu vihatasa½sayo, tenassa vimaticchedan±pucch± natthi. Itar± dve pana pucch± bhagavato atthi. T±su aya½ kathetukamyat±pucch±ti veditabb±.
Tattha ‘katame’tipadena niddisitabbadhamme pucchati. ‘Dhamm± kusal±’ti hi vacanamattena ‘ki½ kat± ki½ v± karont²’ti na sakk± ñ±tu½. ‘Katame’ti vutte pana tesa½ puµµhabh±vo paññ±yati. Tena vutta½ ‘katametipadena niddisitabbadhamme pucchat²’ti. ‘Dhamm± kusal±’tipadadvayena pucch±ya puµµhadhamme dasseti. Tesa½ attho heµµh± pak±sitova.
Kasm± panettha m±tik±ya½ viya ‘kusal± dhamm±’ti avatv± ‘dhamm± kusal±’ti pad±nukkamo katoti? Pabhedato dhamm±na½ desana½ d²petv± pabhedavantadassanattha½. Imasmiñhi abhidhamme dhamm±va desetabb±. Te ca kusal±d²hi pabhedehi anekappabhed±. Tasm± dhamm±yeva idha desetabb± N±ya½ voh±radesan±. Te ca anekappabhedato desetabb±, na dhammamattato. Pabhedato hi desan± ghanavinibbhogapaµisambhid±ñ±º±vah± hot²ti ‘kusal± dhamm±’ti eva½ pabhedato dhamm±na½ desana½ d²petv±, id±ni ye tena pabhedena desetabb± dhamm± te dassetu½, aya½ ‘katame dhamm± kusal±’ti pad±nukkamo katoti veditabbo. Pabhedavantesu hi dassitesu pabhedo dassiyam±no yujjati suviññeyyo ca hot²ti.
Id±ni yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ cittanti. Ettha–
Samaye niddisi citta½, cittena samaya½ muni;
niyametv±na d²petu½, dhamme tattha pabhedato.
‘Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ cittan’ti hi niddisanto bhagav± samaye citta½ niddisi. Ki½k±raº±? Tena samayaniyamitena cittena pariyos±ne ‘tasmi½ samaye’ti eva½ samaya½ niyametv±na, atha vijjam±nepi samayan±natte yasmi½ samaye citta½ tasmi½yeva samaye phasso hoti, vedan± hot²ti eva½ tasmi½ cittaniyamite samaye ete santatisam³hakicc±rammaºaghanavasena duranubodhappabhede phassavedan±dayo dhamme bodhetunti attho.
Id±ni ‘yasmi½ samaye’ti-±d²su ayamanupubbapadavaººan±. Yasminti aniyamato bhummaniddeso. Samayeti aniyamaniddiµµhaparid²pana½. Ett±vat± aniyamato samayo niddiµµho hoti. Tattha samayasaddo–
Samav±ye khaºe k±le, sam³he hetu diµµhisu;
paµil±bhe pah±ne ca, paµivedhe ca dissati.
Tath± hissa “appeva n±ma svepi upasaªkameyy±ma k±lañca samayañca up±d±y±”ti (d². ni. 1.447) evam±d²su samav±yo attho. “Ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 8.29) khaºo. “Uºhasamayo pari¼±hasamayo”ti-±d²su (p±ci. 358) k±lo. “Mah±samayo pavanasmin”ti-±d²su sam³ho. “Samayopi kho te, bhadd±li, appaµividdho ahosi bhagav± kho s±vatthiya½ viharati, bhagav±pi ma½ j±nissati ‘bhadd±li n±ma bhikkhu satthus±sane sikkh±ya aparip³rak±r²’ti. Ayampi kho te, bhadd±li, samayo appaµividdho ahos²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.135) hetu. “Tena kho pana samayena ugg±ham±no paribb±jako samaºamuº¹ik±putto samayappav±dake tinduk±c²re ekas±lake mallik±ya ±r±me paµivasat²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.260) diµµhi.
“Diµµhe dhamme ca yo attho, yo cattho sampar±yiko;
atth±bhisamay± dh²ro, paº¹itoti pavuccat²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.129)–
¾d²su paµil±bho. “Samm± m±n±bhisamay± antamak±si dukkhass±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.28) pah±na½. “Dukkhassa p²¼anaµµho saªkhataµµho sant±paµµho vipariº±maµµho abhisamayaµµho”ti-±d²su (paµi. ma. 2.8) paµivedho. Evamanekesu samayesu–
Samav±yo khaºo k±lo, sam³ho hetuyeva ca;
ete pañcapi viññeyy±, samay± idha viññun±.
‘Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusalan’ti imasmiñhi kusal±dhik±re tesu navasu samayesu ete samav±y±dayo pañca samay± paº¹itena veditabb±.
Tesu paccayas±magg², samav±yo khaºo pana;
ekova navamo ñeyyo, cakk±ni caturopi v±.
Y± hi es± s±dh±raºaphalanipph±dakattena saºµhit± paccay±na½ s±magg², s± idha samav±yoti ñ±tabb±. “Ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti (a. ni. 8.29) eva½ vutto pana navamova khaºo eko khaºoti veditabbo. Y±ni v± panet±ni “catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, cakk±ni yehi samann±gat±na½ devamanuss±na½ catucakka½ vattat²”ti– ettha ‘patir³padesav±so, sappuris³panissayo, attasamm±paºidhi, pubbe ca katapuññat±’ti (a. ni. 4.31) catt±ri cakk±ni vutt±ni, et±ni v± ekajjha½ katv± ok±saµµhena khaºoti veditabb±ni. T±ni hi kusaluppattiy± ok±sabh³t±ni.
Eva½ samav±yañca khaºañca ñatv± itaresu–
Ta½ ta½ up±d±ya paññatto, k±lo voh±ramattako;
puñjo phass±didhamm±na½, sam³hoti vibh±vito.
‘Cittak±lo r³pak±lo’ti-±din± hi nayena dhamme v±, ‘at²to an±gato’ti-±din± nayena dhammavutti½ v±, ‘b²jak±lo aªkurak±lo’ti ±din± nayena dhammapaµip±µi½ v±, ‘upp±dak±lo jar±k±lo’ti-±din± nayena dhammalakkhaºa½ v±, ‘vediyanak±lo sañj±nanak±lo’ti-±din± nayena dhammakicca½ v±, ‘nh±nak±lo p±nak±lo’ti-±din± nayena sattakicca½ v±, ‘gamanak±lo µh±nak±lo’ti-±din± nayena iriy±patha½ v±, ‘pubbaºho s±yanho div± ratt²’ti-±din± nayena candimas³riy±diparivattana½ v±, ‘a¹¹ham±so m±so’ti-±din± nayena ahoratt±disaªkh±ta½ k±lasañcaya½ v±ti– eva½ ta½ ta½ up±d±ya paññatto k±lo n±ma. So panesa sabh±vato avijjam±natt± paññattimattako ev±ti veditabbo. Yo panesa phassavedan±d²na½ dhamm±na½ puñjo, so idha sam³hoti vibh±vito. Eva½ k±lasam³hepi ñatv± itaro pana–
Het³ti paccayovettha, tassa dv±ravasena v±;
anekabh±vo viññeyyo, paccay±na½ vasena v±.
Ettha hi paccayova hetu n±ma, tassa dv±r±na½ v± paccay±na½ v± vasena anekabh±vo veditabbo. Katha½? Cakkhudv±r±d²su hi uppajjam±n±na½ cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ cakkhur³pa-±lokamanasik±r±dayo paccay±, mah±pakaraºe ca “hetupaccayo ±rammaºapaccayo”ti-±din± nayena catuv²sati paccay± vutt±. Tesu µhapetv± vip±kapaccayañca pacch±j±tapaccayañca, ses± kusaladhamm±na½ paccay± hontiyeva. Te sabbepi idha het³ti adhippet±. Evamassa imin± dv±ravasena v± paccayavasena v± anekabh±vo veditabbo Evamete samav±y±dayo pañca atth± idha samayasaddena pariggahit±ti veditabb±.
‘Kasm± pana etesu ya½kiñci eka½ apariggahetv± sabbesa½ pariggaho kato’ti? ‘Tena tena tassa tassa atthavisesassa d²panato. Etesu hi samav±yasaªkh±to samayo anekahetuto vutti½ d²peti. Tena ekak±raºav±do paµisedhito hoti. Samav±yo ca n±ma s±dh±raºaphalanipph±dane aññamaññ±pekkho hoti. Tasm± ‘eko katt± n±ma natth²’ti imampi attha½ d²peti. Sabh±vena hi k±raºe sati k±raºantar±pekkh± ayutt±ti. Eva½ ekassa kassaci k±raºassa abh±vad²panena “saya½kata½ sukhadukkhan”ti-±di paµisedhita½ hoti.
Tattha siy±– ‘ya½ vutta½ anekahetuto vutti½ d²pet²’ti, ta½ na yutta½. ‘Ki½k±raº±’ ‘As±maggiya½ ahet³na½ s±maggiyampi ahetubh±v±pattito’. ‘Na hi ekasmi½ andhe daµµhu½ asakkonte andhasata½ passat²’ti. ‘No na yutta½; s±dh±raºaphalanipph±dakattena hi µhitabh±vo s±magg²; na anekesa½ samodh±namatta½. Na ca andh±na½ dassana½ n±ma s±dh±raºaphala½’. ‘Kasm±’?‘Andhasate satipi tassa abh±vato. Cakkh±d²na½ pana ta½ s±dh±raºaphala½, tesa½ bh±ve bh±vato. As±maggiya½ ahet³nampi ca s±maggiya½ hetubh±vo siddho. Sv±ya½ as±maggiya½ phal±bh±vena, s±maggiyañcassa bh±vena, veditabbo. Cakkh±d²nañhi vekalle cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ abh±vo, avekalle ca bh±vo, paccakkhasiddho lokass±’ti. Aya½ t±va samav±yasaªkh±tena samayena attho d²pito.