4. Aµµhakath±kaº¹o

Tika-atthuddh±ravaººan±

1384. Id±ni nikkhepakaº¹±nantara½ µhapitassa aµµhakath±kaº¹assa vaººan±kkamo anuppatto. Kasm± paneta½ aµµhakath±kaº¹a½ n±ma j±tanti? Tepiµakassa buddhavacanassa attha½ uddharitv± µhapitatt±. T²supi hi piµakesu dhammantara½ ±gata½ aµµhakath±kaº¹eneva paricchinditv± vinicchita½ suvinicchita½ n±ma hoti. Sakale abhidhammapiµake nayamagga½ mah±pakaraºe pañhuddh±ra½ gaºanac±ra½ asallakkhenten±pi aµµhakath±kaº¹atoyeva sam±netu½ vaµµati.
Kuto pabhava½ pana etanti? S±riputtattherappabhava½. S±riputtatthero hi ekassa attano saddhivih±rikassa nikkhepakaº¹e atthuddh±ra½ sallakkhetu½ asakkontassa aµµhakath±kaº¹a½ kathetv± ad±si. Ida½ pana mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ paµikkhipitv± ida½ vutta½– abhidhammo n±ma na s±vakavisayo, na s±vakagocaro; buddhavisayo esa, buddhagocaro. Dhammasen±pati pana saddhivih±rikena pucchito ta½ ±d±ya satthu santika½ gantv± samm±sambuddhassa kathesi. Samm±sambuddho tassa bhikkhuno aµµhakath±kaº¹a½ kathetv± ad±si. Katha½? Bhagav± hi ‘katame dhamm± kusal±’ti pucchi. ‘Kusal± dhamm± n±ma katame’ti sallakkhes²ti attho. Athassa tuºh²bh³tassa ‘nanu ya½ may± katame dhamm± kusal±? Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hot²ti-±din± nayena bh³mibhedato kusala½ dassita½, sabbampi ta½ cat³su bh³m²su kusala½, ime dhamm± kusal±’ti imin± nayena kaººika½ kaººika½ ghaµa½ ghaµa½ gocchaka½ gocchaka½ katv± atthuddh±ravasena kusal±didhamme dassento kathetv± ad±si.
Tattha cat³s³ti k±m±vacarar³p±vacar±r³p±vacara-apariy±pann±su. Kusalanti phass±dibheda½ kusala½. Ime dhamm± kusal±ti ime sabbepi t±su t±su bh³m²su vutt± phass±dayo dhamm± kusal± n±ma.
1385. Akusal±na½ pana bh³mivasena bhed±bh±vato dv±dasa akusalacittupp±d±ti ±ha. Tattha uppajjat²ti upp±do. Cittameva upp±do cittupp±do. Desan±s²sameva ceta½. Yath± pana ‘r±j± ±gato’ti vutte amacc±d²nampi ±gamana½ vuttameva hoti, eva½ ‘cittupp±d±’ti vutte tehi sampayuttadhamm±pi vutt±va hont²ti. Sabbattha cittupp±daggahaºena sasampayuttadhamma½ citta½ gahitanti veditabba½. Ito para½ cat³su bh³m²su vip±koti-±d²na½ sabbesampi tikadukabh±jan²yapad±na½ attho, vedan±ttik±d²su ca sukh±d²na½ navattabbat± heµµh± vuttanayeneva p±¼iyattha½ v²ma½sitv± veditabb±. Visesamattameva pana vakkh±ma.
1420. Tattha paritt±rammaºattike t±va sabbo k±m±vacarassa vip±koti ettha dvipañcaviññ±º±ni cakkhupas±d±dayo niss±ya niyameneva iµµh±niµµh±dibhede r³pasaddagandharasaphoµµhabbadhamme ±rabbha pavattant²ti paritt±rammaº±ni. Kusal±kusalavip±k± pana dve manodh±tuyo hadayavatthu½ niss±ya cakkhuviññ±º±d²na½ anantar± niyamato r³p±d²neva ±rabbha pavattant²ti paritt±rammaº±. Kusalavip±k±hetukamanoviññ±ºadh±tu somanassasahagat± pañcadv±re sant²raºavasena chasu dv±resu tad±rammaºavasen±ti niyamato r³p±d²ni cha paritt±rammaº±neva ±rabbha pavattat²ti paritt±rammaº±. Kusal±kusalavip±k±hetukamanoviññ±ºadh±tudvaya½ pañcadv±re sant²raºavasena chasu dv±resu tad±rammaºavasena niyamato r³p±d²ni cha paritt±rammaº±neva ±rabbha pavattati. Paµisandhivasena pavattam±nampi paritta½ kamma½ kammanimitta½ gatinimitta½ v± ±rammaºa½ karoti, pavattiya½ bhavaªgavasena, pariyos±ne cutivasena pavattam±nampi tadeva ±rammaºa½ karot²ti paritt±rammaºa½. Aµµha pana sahetukavip±kacittupp±d± ettha vuttanayeneva tad±rammaºavasena paµisandhibhavaªgacutivasena ca parittadhammeyeva ±rabbha pavattanti. Kiriyamanodh±tu pañcadv±re r³p±d²ni ±rabbha pavattati. Somanassasahagat±hetukakiriyamanoviññ±ºadh±tu chasu dv±resu paccuppanne manodv±re at²t±n±gatepi paritte r³p±didhammeyeva ±rabbha kh²º±sav±na½ pahaµµh±k±ra½ kurum±n± pavattat²ti paritt±rammaº±. Evamime pañcav²sati cittupp±d± ekanteneva paritt±rammaº±ti veditabb±.
1421. Viññ±ºañc±yatananevasaññ±n±saññ±yatanadhamm± attano attano heµµhima½ sam±patti½ ±rabbha pavattanato mahaggat±rammaº±. Eva maggaphaladhamm± nibb±n±rammaºatt± appam±º±rammaº±.
Kusalato catt±ro kiriyato catt±roti aµµha ñ±ºavippayuttacittupp±d± sekkhaputhujjanakh²º±sav±na½ asakkaccad±napaccavekkhaºadhammasavan±d²su k±m±vacaradhamme ±rabbha pavattik±le paritt±rammaº±. Atipaguº±na½ paµhamajjh±n±d²na½ paccavekkhaºak±le mahaggat±rammaº±. Kasiºanimitt±dipaññattipaccavekkhaºak±le navattabb±rammaº±. Akusalato catt±ro diµµhigatasampayuttacittupp±d± pañcapaºº±s±ya k±m±vacaradhamm±na½ ‘satto satto’ti par±masana-ass±dan±bhinandanak±le paritt±rammaº±. Tenev±k±rena sattav²sati mahaggatadhamme ±rabbha pavattik±le mahaggat±rammaº±. Paººattidhamme ±rabbha pavattanak±le siy± navattabb±rammaº±. Diµµhivippayutt±na½ teyeva dhamme ±rabbha kevala½ ass±dan±bhinandanavasena, pavattiya½ paµighasampayutt±na½ domanassavasena, vicikicch±sampayuttacittupp±dassa aniµµhaªgatavasena, uddhaccasahagatassa vikkhepavasena av³pasamavasena ca pavattiya½ parittamahaggatanavattabb±rammaºat± veditabb±. Etesu pana ekadhammopi appam±ºe ±rabbha pavattitu½ na sakkoti, tasm± na appam±º±rammaº±.
Kusalato catt±ro kiriyato catt±roti aµµha ñ±ºasampayuttacittupp±d± sekkhaputhujjanakh²º±sav±na½ sakkaccad±napaccavekkhaºadhammasavan±d²su yath±vuttappak±re dhamme ±rabbha pavattik±le parittamahaggatanavattabb±rammaº± honti. Gotrabhuk±le lokuttaradhamme paccavekkhaºak±le ca nesa½ appam±º±rammaºat± veditabb±.
Ya½ paneta½ r³p±vacaracatutthajjh±na½ ta½ sabbatthap±dakacatuttha½ ±k±sakasiºacatuttha½ ±lokakasiºacatuttha½ brahmavih±racatuttha½ ±n±p±nacatuttha½ iddhividhacatuttha½ dibbasotacatuttha½ cetopariyañ±ºacatuttha½ yath±kammupagañ±ºacatuttha½ dibbacakkhuñ±ºacatuttha½ pubbeniv±sañ±ºacatuttha½ an±gata½sañ±ºacatutthanti kusalatopi kiriyatopi dv±dasavidha½ hoti.
Tattha ‘sabbatthap±dakacatuttha½’ n±ma aµµhasu kasiºesu catutthajjh±na½. Tañhi vipassan±yapi p±daka½ hoti, abhiññ±nampi, nirodhass±pi, vaµµass±pi p±daka½ hotiyev±ti sabbatthap±dakanti vutta½. ‘¾k±sakasiºa-±lokakasiºacatutth±ni’ pana vipassan±yapi abhiññ±nampi vaµµass±pi p±dak±ni honti, nirodhap±dak±neva na honti. ‘Brahmavih±ra-±n±p±nacatutth±ni’ vipassan±ya ceva vaµµassa ca p±dak±ni honti, abhiññ±na½ pana nirodhassa ca p±dak±ni na honti. Tattha dasavidhampi kasiºajjh±na½ kasiºapaººatti½ ±rabbha pavattatt±, brahmavih±racatuttha½ sattapaººatti½ ±rabbha pavattatt±, ±n±p±nacatuttha½ nimitta½ ±rabbha pavattatt± paritt±divasena navattabbadhamm±rammaºato navattabb±rammaºa½ n±ma hoti.
‘Iddhividhacatuttha½’ parittamahaggat±rammaºa½ hoti. Katha½? Tañhi yad± k±ya½ cittasannissita½ katv± adissam±nena k±yena gantuk±mo cittavasena k±ya½ pariº±meti, mahaggatacitte samodahati, sam±ropeti, tad± upayogaladdha½ ±rammaºa½ hot²ti katv± r³pak±y±rammaºato paritt±rammaºa½ hoti. Yad± citta½ k±yasannissita½ katv± dissam±nena k±yena gantuk±mo k±yavasena citta½ pariº±meti, p±dakajjh±nacitta½ r³pak±ye samodahati, sam±ropeti, tad± upayogaladdha½ ±rammaºa½ hot²ti katv± mahaggatacitt±rammaºato mahaggat±rammaºa½ hoti.
‘Dibbasotacatuttha½’ sadda½ ±rabbha pavattatt± ekantaparitt±rammaºameva. ‘Cetopariyañ±ºacatuttha½’ parittamahaggata-appam±º±rammaºa½ hoti. Katha½? Tañhi paresa½ k±m±vacaracittaj±nanak±le paritt±rammaºa½ hoti, r³p±vacar±r³p±vacaracittaj±nanak±le mahaggat±rammaºa½, maggaphalaj±nanak±le appam±º±rammaºa½ hoti. Ettha ca puthujjano sot±pannassa citta½ na j±n±ti, sot±panno v± sakad±g±miss±ti eva½ y±va arahato netabba½. Arah± pana sabbesa½ citta½ j±n±ti. Aññopi ca uparimo heµµhimass±ti aya½ viseso veditabbo. ‘Yath±kammupagañ±ºacatuttha½’ k±m±vacarakammaj±nanak±le paritt±rammaºa½ hoti, r³p±vacar±r³p±vacarakammaj±nanak±le mahaggat±rammaºa½.
‘Dibbacakkhuñ±ºacatuttha½’ r³p±rammaºatt± ekantaparitt±rammaºameva. ‘Pubbeniv±sañ±ºacatuttha½’ parittamahaggata-appam±ºanavattabb±rammaºa½ hoti. Katha½? Tañhi k±m±vacarakkhandh±nussaraºak±le paritt±rammaºa½ hoti. R³p±vacar±r³p±vacarakkhandh±nussaraºak±le mahaggat±rammaºa½. At²te attan± v± parehi v± bh±vitamagga½ sacchikataphalañca anussaraºak±le appam±º±rammaºa½. At²te buddh± magga½ bh±vayi½su, phala½ sacch±ka½su, nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±yi½s³ti chinnavaµumak±nussaraºavasena maggaphalanibb±napaccavekkhaºatopi appam±º±rammaºa½. At²te ‘vipass² n±ma bhagav±’ ahosi Tassa ‘bandhumat² n±ma nagara½ ahosi, bandhum± n±ma r±j± pit±, bandhumat² n±ma m±t±’ti-±din± nayena n±magottapathav²nimitt±di-anussaraºak±le navattabb±rammaºa½ hoti.
‘An±gata½sañ±ºacatutthe’pi eseva nayo. Tampi aya½ an±gate ‘k±m±vacare nibbattissat²’ti j±nanak±le paritt±rammaºa½ hoti. ‘R³p±vacare v± ar³p±vacare v± nibbattissat²’ti j±nanak±le mahaggat±rammaºa½. ‘Magga½ bh±vessati phala½ sacchikarissati’ ‘nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibb±yissat²’ti j±nanak±le appam±º±rammaºa½. An±gate “metteyyo n±ma bhagav± uppajjissati, subrahm± n±massa br±hmaºo pit± bhavissati, brahmavat² n±ma br±hmaº² m±t± bhavissat²”ti-±din± nayena n±magottaj±nanak±le navattabb±rammaºa½ hoti.
Ar³p±vacaracatuttha½ pana ±sav±na½ khayacatutthañca p±¼iya½ ±gataµµh±neyeva kathess±mi. Kiriy±hetukamanoviññ±ºadh±tu upekkh±sahagat± sabbesampi etesa½ kusal±kusalakiriyacitt±na½ purec±rik±. Tass± tesu vuttanayeneva ±rammaºabhedo veditabbo. Pañcadv±re pana voµµhabbanavasena pavattiya½ ekantaparitt±rammaº±va hoti. R³p±vacaratikacatukkajjh±n±d²ni paritt±dibh±vena navattabbadhamma½ ±rabbha pavattito navattabb±rammaº±ni. Ettha hi r³p±vacar±ni pathav²kasiº±d²su pavattanti, ±k±s±nañc±yatana½ uggh±µim±k±se, ±kiñcaññ±yatana½ viññ±º±pagameti.
1429. Magg±rammaºattike ±dimhi vutt± aµµha ñ±ºasampayuttacittupp±d± sekkh±sekkh±na½ attan± paµividdhamagg±na½ paccavekkhaºak±le magg±rammaº±, maggena pana asahaj±tatt± na maggahetuk±, attan± paµividdhamagga½ garu½ katv± paccavekkhaºak±le ±rammaº±dhipativasena magg±dhipatino, aññadhamm±rammaºak±le na vattabb± magg±rammaº±tipi magg±dhipatinotipi. Catt±ro ariyamagg± maggasaªkh±tassa maggasampayuttassa v± hetuno atthit±ya ekantato maggahetuk±va. V²riya½ pana v²ma½sa½ v± jeµµhaka½ katv± maggabh±van±k±le sahaj±t±dhipatin± siy± magg±dhipatino, chandacitt±na½ aññatarajeµµhakak±le siy± na vattabb± magg±dhipatinoti.
Dv±dasavidhe r³p±vacaracatutthajjh±ne sabbatthap±dakacatutth±d²ni nava jh±n±ni neva magg±rammaº±ni na maggahetuk±ni na magg±dhipat²ni. Cetopariyañ±ºapubbeniv±sañ±ºa-an±gata½sañ±ºacatutth±ni pana ariy±na½ maggacittaj±nanak±le magg±rammaº±ni honti, maggena pana asahaj±tatt± na maggahetuk±ni, magga½ garu½ katv± appavattito na magg±dhipat²ni. Kasm± panet±ni na magga½ garu½ karont²ti? Attano mahaggatat±ya. Yath± hi r±j±na½ sabbo loko garu½ karoti, m±t±pitaro pana na karonti. Na hi te r±j±na½ disv± ±san± vuµµhahanti, na añjalikamm±d²ni karonti, daharak±le voharitanayeneva voharanti. Evamet±nipi attano mahaggatat±ya na magga½ garu½ karonti.